Poisoned Waters-Frontline Video
Video is here:
High quality version is here:
You may find it helpful to download this into your own computer: hold the option key while clicking on the link.
Water Pollution-air pollution-climate change
continuity, local until ocean,
EPA CWA 1970
Perdue/hog Ag farms
endocrine disrupters-drinking water
runoff-water transit time King County
Tyson’s corner/Fairfax-transit time, sediment runoff
why is it useful to get the historical view of the craggy old fishermen?
how are the fish an indicator species?
how large is the Chesapeake watershed?
why is this bay uniquely vulnerable?
what causes dead zones in the film?
what is the global trend in dead zones? where?
what three basic functions of the bay will likely be lost to your generation?
what was different 40 years ago?
what was the cause and effect process of Earth Day and the EPA?
Did Nixon back the clean water act? Explain.
What were the key tenets of the CWA?
What were the initial actions of the EPA?
RFK jr. says he could not swim in the Hudson, Charles or Potomac. Where are these?
Why did you have to take a shower if you fell into these rivers?
What was the Potomac point source pollution source described in the film?
What is BNR and how does it work?
What is not removed from human wastewater with BNR that concerns us?
How did Reagan’s policies impact the EPA and pollution regulation?
What is “voluntary compliance” and did it work? explain.
what is the biggest danger with concentrated animal farms (poultry, pigs, cows)?
Look up why we have different names for the same animals: cow/beef,chicken/poultry, pig/pork
Why is it advantageous for Perdue to subcontract chicken operations?
what is vertical integration?
what was the national response to cheap chicken?
if you were to put chicken manure on your garden, you could burn your plants. why?
On the way downhill to the coast, there is an egg factory that went out of business, who now sells “manure compost”. Where did this come from, and how is it a good deal for them?
Why does not Perdue own the chicken waste, if they own the chickens? How does the Perdue guy dodge the problem?
what is the difference between city waste and ag waste?
What does the chicken guy say about deer?
What did the chicken lobby in Maryland (eastern shore) do about pollution regulation? why?
How is this similar to the Iowa corn ethanol lobby?
RFK Jr. describes two things: externalized costs and subsidies. What does he mean by these?
why are not endocrine disrupters part of the clean water act?
what is intersex in the male bass? what causes this?
how does the concept of river continuity impact endocrine disrupters?
do they need to be very concentrated to be effective?
a person flushes birth control pills (hormones) down the drain. How can this impact someone living many miles downstream?
why are these hormones not filtered by water treatment plants?
What is “synergism”? Why is it critical here?
How cold is the water in Puget Sound? Why is this relevant?
why do the apex predators have the highest concentration of PCB?
what is a sentinel species? why is this relevant?
which population of humans is now showing similar health effects?
what is Superfund, who funds it?
what is the biggest liability problem with the Boeing situation?
what is the concept of “deep pockets”?
why would native Americans be the indicator species in the duomish river?
is south park (not the tv show) upper income or lower, immigrant or not? Why is this important?
You will be expected to know all about Love Canal. How is this similar?
what do you think is coming out of the pipe underwater?
why are “impervious surfaces” so bad for the Puget Sound?
why do folks get upset about oil spills and not the stuff you see in the video?
what is the difference in transit time for rain water hitting concrete vs. soil?
Ron Sims has enemies in King county. Who?
How is the Growth Management Act/Critical Areas Ordinance (CAO) similar to the Urban Growth Boundaries (UGB) concept in Portland Oregon (recall the Portland e2 video)
Look up the CAO now. How is it going?
Who is King County named for? Why is this ironic?
Look up Tyson’s corner. What did it look like in 1945?
Would Tyson’s corner have been successful without cars?
How is Tyson’s corner like Los Angeles?
How is Arlington different from Tyson’s corner?
In a sense, US cities are learning to become more like older European cities. Why are they different?
what is the “canary in the coal mine” and where did this term come from?
According to the narrator and Governor of Washington, what is a necessary part of the solution?
What is your part in this future?
Mod 8 notes-disturbances
disturbance because they are events caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents that results in changes in population size or community composition in ecosystems.
population or composition change———
Resistant: NPP same
Resilience: rate of recovery from disturbance
Watershed: all land with common drainage
Some disturbances impact diversity
Deforestation and carbon
Clear cutting and erosion
Temperature and productivity (see also bacteria)
Mod 6-energy movement
many ecosystems->biosphere (life)
photosynthesis: CO2 + H2O + energy -> sugar + O2
Sugar + O2 -> H2O +CO2 +energy/heat
Electron phosphorylation chain, AMP->ADP->ATP
Stored in phosphate bonds (mono, di, tri)
See also anaerobic respiration: less efficient, smelly bacteria, wounds
Lowest level in trophic pyramid: autotrophs (primary producers)=plants
Next level: herbivores (primary consumers) =deer
Secondary consumer: wolf, eats deer
Tertiary: man, bear, aliens from another planet
See also detritivores (decomposers) and scavengers (dead stuff)
Trophic effficiency: 10% so 100 J of energy goes in, 10 goes to next level
Energy used to breathe, walk around, reproduce, watch animal planet…
Food chain: increasing levels of consumers
Food web: the whole interconnected mess
GPP=total solar energy into the system
NPP=GPP-energy used for respiration
Biomass=total mass of living stuff
Mod 7-Matter movement
Big word: Bio Geo Chemical System (BGCS?)
All matter moving around in a system (except zombies)
Water cycle (as opposed to motor cycle)—————
Most important of them all
Evaporation: heat energy, liquid to gas phase
(n.b. sublimation is solid to gas, or ax murderer becoming a butcher)
Plants do something called transpiration, which is water vapor from their leaves
EtO is evapotranspiration, = both combined
You need to know this if you want to grow stuff: sunlight, wind increase EtO
Runoff is just what it sounds like…
Carbon cycle (not carbon bi-cycle)—————————
Gas phase: CO2 (exhale)
Liquid phase: H2CO3 (carbonic acid)
Solid phase: CaCO3 (marble)
Combustion is any combination of O2 and C (any rate)
e.g. gasoline: Octane (8 carbons) + O2 ->CO2, H2O and energy
technically respiration is combustion, only slower…
Macronutrients (for BIG plants)—————
NPK (fertilizer ones) Ca, Mg (dolomite), S (smelly rotten eggs, coal, oil)
Nitrogen cycle (makes grass green, good for plants)——————
MOST confusing of them all
Makes little sense in any language
N2 is atmospheric Nitrogen
Lightning can heat it to mix with O2 or H2 to make NO3 (nitrate) or NH3 (ammonia). This is abiotic nitrogen fixation, very rare, but you smell it after lighting storms…
This is one theory of how life started on earth-lightning making NH3 compounds and then (*zap*) life…
All Nitrogen compounds are called amines, but they all have other names (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, ammonium, confusium, etc.)
Biotic involves bacteria usually, often in the roots of legumes or other plants (beans, etc.)
NH3+ can move to NH4+ where water is around (needs the extra H)
Nitrifying bacteria do this: NH4+ ->NO2- ->NO3- ——>living stuff
Pay no attention to the charges, they make little sense unless you are a chemist…
De-nitrifying bacteria do the reverse: NO3—>NO2—>NO->N2 (gas)
Phosphorous cycle (no gas phase, just rocks and bones, rocks and bones)——
Ok, there is another form, but it is liquid.
H3PO4 is in coca cola (phosphoric acid)
Phosphate is all over the planet in rocks. It dissolves. Things eat it to make bones and teeth. When they die (or birds poop it out) you have phosphate.
Good fertilizer, needed for roots and fruits.
Hawaiians knew all about this, which is why where we sit was once a very productive farmland.
IN ANIMALS: AMP->ADP->ATP phosphate bonds store energy
Gross thing: farmers dug up the bones of dead people after the battle of Waterloo to fertilize their crops. Shrek did the same thing…
Algal bloom-this is important:
Too much P in a stream, pond or waterway causes a bloom of algae.
Then they all die.
Then they sink to the bottom of the pond or whatever.
Then they decay, using up all of the oxygen in the water.
Biggest one is off the coast of New Orleans (why?)
Another one: Chesapeake Bay (south of DC)
Sulfur (also used to make gunpowder)————
STINKY-rotten eggs smell is protein in the eggs breaking down
Why? Methionine, that’s why (look it up, I’m not kidding)
Basic building block in many amino acids (like methionine)
Dead stuff becomes oil and coal, when we burn that up, the S comes out making SO2, which combines with water in the air to make…
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
Worst acid rain was in Germany (pH 2) and in West Virginia (stronger than stomach acid).
There used to be a forest in the Schwartzwald (black forest) that died completely from this.
mod5 (see also frog 17.1)
energy->Joules (work~amount of water)
power->Watts (how fast the work is done~flow)
EMR: shorter wavelengths more energy e.g. UV, X-rays
PE: chemical bonds, height, spring
KE: motion, freewheel, flowing air/water
temp: KE=1/2mv^2 (macro level)
KE=3/2kT, so T prop to v^2 of molecules
thermodynamics: 3 laws (physics version)
efficiency; never 100%, 30-60% common
Human 35% eff, diesel engine 60%
energy quality-entropy, disorder, e.g. closet ∆S>0, takes energy input to reduce S (entropy)
open/closed systems: energy, mass
steady state: balance
positive/negative feedback: stable, instable c.g. of ships
solar panels: 100 kW = 100kJ per second
wind turbine 2.4 kW = 2.4 kJ per second
stairs: how fast could you run up? Mass?
hot water heater: 4.5 kW for 1 hour = 4.5 kWh
4°C water density greatest: ponds don’t freeze solid in winter
stars and galaxies
sustainability at hpa
island impacts-climate change
What does the politician consider "the environment"?
Here's what the book says: O ur environment is the sum ofaU the conditions surrounding us that influence life
Environmental science is like the triathlon of science: it ties all of the subjects together.
Abiotic=non living (e.g. geology)
Ecosystem=interactive location, context driven (look at the little fishies)
Monday, we'll spend some time enabling you to reach our resource server at physics.hpa.edu, followed by a navigation exercise that should be fun.
Tuesday we'll begin chapter one in the Friedland second edition text, as well as the iBook by Withgott. Both of these are listed on the Haiku pages under "Resources".
If you'd like to get a head start on the text and don't have it yet, I have a pdf of the first chapter here:
Let me know if you need help getting access to this.
Finally, our last Wednesday/Thursday class will continue with Ch 1, hopefully covering modules 1 and 2.
Let me know if you have any questions, and how I can help.
APES no frog book ch 16-waste
p. 563 open loop/closed loop recycling
fly ash-heavy metals
RCRA resource conservation recovery act-solid waste laws, cradle to grave responsiblity
HSWA later (1984
CERCLA (superfund) comprehensive environmental response compensation and liability act
NPL-national priorities list
brownfields: contaminated sites
p. 581 William McDonough cradle to cradle (not grave)
“upcycle” instead of recycle
deeper shades of green e2
ken yeang-singapore library
1 What river is China planning to divert that will cause conflict with India?
2 Why did Brashears go back to that specific site to take the photo, and what did he see? What possible explanations are there for this? Take both sides of the climate crisis argument in your answer.
3 What was so surprising in the 1958 movie? Was this common knowledge? How can you tell?
4 How did the cheapness of energy influence public opinion?
5 Is the climate crisis an energy issue, a tree issue, an albedo issue, or a permafrost issue?
6 What happened at Kyoto? What was the most embarrassing part? Why did the US behave so?
7 Why would China's growth outweigh any changes the US might make to change carbon emissions?
8 What is Geely? Where? What model is their biggest seller? Is this scary? Why? What did their director say?
9 How many coal plants does China create every week?
10 Dr. Ling Wen says 30% growth over 5 years. What is the doubling rate for this? (recall the rule of 70). Why is his line "if we can" so scary? What are his responsibilities, in what order?
11 In what year will India's population exceed that of China? Why?
12 What is the third largest contributor to greenhouse gases? Where?
13 What reduction in CO2 did the Indian guy say they could do by 2050? What is the growth rate? What did Sunita Narain say about this? Why is this not sustainable?
14 What did Pachauri say? What are his reasons?
15 What did the US negotiators say? Why is this unfair? What did China say?
16 Google Senator Inhofe, and find out why he is a global warming skeptic. Where does his money come from?
16 This video was filmed in 2008. What was the position of each candidate?
17 What did Jeffrey Sachs say?
18 How many tons of coal are mined in the powder river basin each day?
19 The director of the West Virginia power plant (Charlie Powell) says: "we produce 1300 kilowatts of power every hour". It is clear he does not know as much about electricity as you do. What is wrong with his statement?
20 How many pounds of Coal power your TV for one hour? What percentage of power in the US comes from Coal?
21 Analyze the term "clean coal" from both sides of the argument. What are the motives of each side and why?
22 Senators Byrd and McConnell represent which states? What is their bias?
23 What is IGCC? Where is it located? Has it been tested? Where would they inject the ground? Why is this dangerous? Are we "carbon capture ready"? Where would this be tested first, and why is it problematic? If pipelines were used, why would these be dangerous?
24 How many tons of CO2 does the US emit every day?
25 The US is called the "Saudi Arabia of Coal". Why?
26 What is the second largest emitter of greenhouse gases? Now list the top three in order.
27 What are CAFE standards, and what does it stand for? What happened in the last few years to the CAFE standards? When were they created, and track the mpg numbers since then. How did auto manufacturers get around the CAFE standards since the Ford Explorer came out?
27 What is John Dingell's motive? Why? Where is he from? Why did he block seat belts? Is his responsibility only to his 800,000 citizens or to the country, or the planet as a whole?
28 What MPG is the terminator seeking for California? By when? Jerry Brown is next in the video. What is his job now?
29 In the 1970's all cars in the US came in two flavors: "49 state" or "CA". Why?
30 What pressure was put on the EPA in December 2007? Who was in office then?
31 What is the clean air act?
32 Who was the EPA administrator during the Bush administration? What did he do? What do you think about his actions?
33 What was the target of the CA emissions standards?
34 What is Hibernia owned by Exxon? How much oil did it pump since coming into operation? At 80 million bbl/day, how many days of global oil supply did it provide?
35 How did the Exxon lady defend their lack of investment in renewable resources?
36 Dan Kammen says what? Where does he work?
37 How much did Exxon make in the year of the movie? How much did they invest in renewable energy? Explain.
38 It has been said that if you drive a Prius hybrid with fuel from the tar sand of Canada, it's the equivalent of driving a Hummer. Why?
39 During the 2008 video, they state that oil is at $90/bbl. What is it today?
40 The car companies were working on a diesel-electric hybrid: what happened and why?
41 What did Toyota build, and why? How long is their advantage now?
42 Do you believe the lady from GM? Explain.
43 What happened to the Chevy Volt in the Photo Shoot?
44 Is corn ethanol really a green solution? Who is pushing corn ethanol and why?
45 Why does Dan Kammen say corn is not a good biofuel?
46 Explain the three sources of bio-ethanol: corn, cellulosic and sugar cane. Brazil produces which of these?
47 How does Amy's statement about small interests resonate with Senator Dingell's actions earlier in the film?
48 Compare renewable energy in Germany to the US.
49 How does the smart grid fit into the renewable energy solution?
50 T. Boone Pickens sold his oil investments and moved into wind farms in Texas. Check into this on wikipedia to see how he's doing now (2012).
51 About 150,000 megawatts of power is what Pickens plans on installing, which would be worth how much per year? 24 hours per day, 365 days per year, sell the power for $0.10 per kWh. 131.4 billion dollars per year? If his ROI is 7 years, and the turbines last 17 years, how much money will his company make overall?
52 Why is nuclear energy getting a fresh look?
53 Who became president?
54 What is the difference between Navy nuclear power plants and commercial industrial power plants?
55 How is nuclear waste storage involved in this problem?
56 Explain cap and trade, and the plus and minus for this proposal.
apes 2.22.16 climate change
Begin 2.22.16, end with exam 3.4.16
Frog book ch 16 overview (notes below)
Ch. 19 in reduced-frog book (Friedland-notes below)
Frog book ch. 16:
Greenhouse effect (demo)
water vapor, CO2, methane (CH4), N2O
See AGGI graph
Gases are transparent to visible light, but not infrared (IR) light
Demo: IR camera, glass
latitude, sunspots, wind patterns (review)
thermo (heat) haline (salt) circulation
also known as NADW (north atlantic deep water)
El Nino, la nina, make sure you understand normal and El Nino
Normal = happy Peruvian fisher peeps
El Nino = heat in mid pacific, reverse current, sad fisher peeps
climate impacts: latitude, moisture content, volcanoes, vegetation (see also deforestation, desertification, melting ice caps)
sea level change (just from heating water, expansion, not yet from polar ice caps melting)
Permafrost melting (positive feedback, thermal runaway)
Proxy indicator: ice cores, sediments, tree rings
Causes: fossil fuels (carbon dioxide), land changes,
Impacts: habitat changes, diseases (e.g. malaria), coral bleaching (see carbonic acid, pH changes), delta salinization (Pearl river delta), watershed damage, water supply (Himalayas)
response: what you can do-think globally, act locally
efficiency, conservation, food miles, building energy, transportation changes (EV, hybrid)
reforestation, cap and trade, carbon tax (likely in your lifetime), carbon offsets
carbon sequestration-nice idea, not practical yet (dangers)
Maldives- Ibrahim Didi
Kyoto-2005-US did not sign (why?)
Paris agreement (12.2015) universal, legally binding
Ch 15 notes: Air Pollution
add: CO2 (2007), VOC, Hg
SOx from methionine in plants, coal, oil
see also VOG particles
NOX: high temp combustion (carnot cycle, efficiency)
also: microbes in soil
CO: incomplete combustion, poor ventilation (LDC) impacts hemoglobin (suicide)
Ozone (O3): close to surface bad, in ozone layer necessary to filter UVb
secondary pollutant-sunlight, water and VOCs, degrades lungs, plastic, rubber
photochemical oxidant (needs light for chemical reaction)
PM10, 2.5: smaller are more dangerous, diesels, biofuels, manure, causes cancer (PM2.5), strict regs in EU
Pb: gasoline additive (tetraethyl lead, improves octane rating cheaply), replaced by other worse chemicals
Hg: from coal mining, burning
VOCs; from gasoline (cars), paints, additives, aromatics
Primary pollutants: direct from smokestack. exhaust pipe
CO, CO2, SOx, NOx, VOC
Secondary pollutants: need a chemical reaction (often sunlight) to form
See PANs: Peroxyacyl nitrates: formed from VOCs, NOx
See thermal inversions: london fog, US
Donora, PA 1948 k.20, sick 7000
1952 London 4000-12,000 dead, three nights
Mexico city 1996 300 dead, 400K sick
acid rain: plants, fish, structures
SO2 + O2, water = H2SO4 (sulfuric acid)
NO3 + O2, water = HNO3 (nitric acid)
W. VA had rain more acidic than stomach acid
know how a scrubber works (just like the nuclear plant diagram)
stratospheric ozone: O3 blocks UVb
How formed (usually lightning)
How damaged: CFCs
Polar ozone hole: 1970
ice crystals, stable Cl2
IAP-indoor air pollution
Leading cause of death in LDC (women)
manure, open pit fires, CO, PM10
sick building syndrome: formaldehyde, CO2, VOC
the main culprits:
VOC, CO, Radon, Lead, formaldehyde, asbestos, PM10
Radon222-lung cancer (smoke demo-lungs)
Next: Froggie book Ch. 15
AIR QUALITY LABS
• Air Quality: Air quality can be assessed using various
• Particulates: Sticky paper can be used to collect
air particulates from various sources, and then the
paper can be examined under a microscope. It is
not possible to see the smallest particulates, but
they do color the white paper.
• Ozone: In this lab, an ecobadge or a homemade
potassium iodide gel sampler is hung or worn in
order to collect data on tropospheric ozone. The
badge or KI sample changes color in the presence
of ozone and becomes more intensely colored as
the amount of ozone increases.
• Carbon dioxide: In this lab, a commercial sampling
device is used to determine the amount of
carbon dioxide in an air sample. Car exhaust,
burning tobacco, or other pollutants can also be
Chapter 8 of Princeton Review for AP:
Topics for our discussion:
WQI: water quality index
point sources/ non-point sources
dioxin bioaccumulation vs. mercury accumulation
watersheds/wetlands as buffer/filter
runoff-transit time-King County WA
sources and sinks-global water picture
From our video:
sewage treatment: primary, secondary, tertiary
Private profit, public risk: Externalized costs
ppm, ppb, ppt
PCB vs. Mercury
clay vs. sand: Boeing
n.b. for class:
iPad apps: 5 steps to a ...
pH importance in pollution, soils, mineral absorption
if glaciers melt, can we use that fresh water?
how are glaciers water storage tanks?
400 gal for 1 kg of grain, 10x for beef
bottled water = 2x to produce
2 gals water to refine 1 gal gasoline
energy and water=recall the four:
energy, water, food, culture
1 gallon = about 4 liters
dams: sedimentation, toxic metals
algal blooms and turbidity: how related?
20 days to 4 years degradation in groundwater-pesticides
sewage treatment: pro, sec, tertiary (honolulu and honouliuli)