Waste: anything from human activity that is not saved
MSW vs. ISW
Consumption is proportional to waste in our society
Affluence leads to waste (plenty of trees, let's waste firewood)
Interesting map, note geographical and social patterns:
Check this out:
Orcas Island WA, costs $6 per BAG of trash. Lots of recycling there (also locked dumpsters).
Recycling is complex, especially here on Hawaii island: where does your recycling go? Where did it go 5 years ago? What changed?
HPA has two dumpsters behind maintenance: a recycling one and a trash one. Only one is weighed. Which one do you think? Why?
Greenhouse gas emissions that are reduced by recycling:
RCRA and sanitary landfills: Make sure you understand both of these, as they are always on the AP exam...
RCRA is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, part of the EPA regulating landfills:
Conservation=stuff we use
Recovery=recycling or safe disposal
Act=something congress decided
Sanitary landfills: isolated from the groundwater, far from rivers, wetlands or earthquakes
Make certain you understand "leachate" and why these produce methane...
Incineration is another option, but produces extremely toxic ash that must be treated carefully:
H-Power is trash to power, where the landfills on Oahu were full in the 1980's. One in Laie actually was created inside a volcanic crater that barfed up all the waste one year during a flood.
Life cycle analysis (see also William McDonough in 'cradle to cradle'):
Hazmat: 4 classes
E-waste is a growing issue, but there are solutions:
Daisy, the Apple robot that recycles iPhones.
Question: why would the white laptops in our classroom cost more to recycle than the aluminum ones? Which is cheaper? Which is cheaper after counting the value of the parts inside each?
Lead from e-waste:
Liquid waste disposal:
This is often done off-shore, away from prying eyes.
Deep well injection is a temporary solution, this toxic material is not going away.
Radioactive waste is even more critical, as it melts through containers, and is radioactive for many centuries.
Response=responds to accidents
Liability=finds those resposible
Act=something congress decides
Also known as "superfund" is funded through a tax on hazmat industrial producers ("the polluter pays" principle)
"Brownfields" are areas toxic for public use. We had one behind the elab ("mount Edgar") which we cleaned up to build the elab, gaining LEED credits for something we created ourselves...
Two critical cases:
Love canal, NY: Hooker chemical, toxic land, kids got sick, cancer, miscarriages, homeowners had to relocate:
Times Beach, Missouri: Dioxin pollution, sprayed on the roads to reduce dust (dioxin is a contact carcinogen)
Town was near a river, when it flooded, the dioxin went everywhere, entire town had to be abandoned.