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    Historical review 5.1.11

    Keystone species:

    influence greater than relative abundance

    ex: predator keeps herbivore pop down, preserves rare grass


    Biomes:

    terrestrial, freshwater, marine

    latitude, humidity, elevation-terrestrial

    freshwater:

    rivers, wetlands and basins (deeper than what they serve)

    marine:

    neritic -close to shelf

    benthic-deep, sloping away from con shelf

    pelagic-open sea

    abyssal-very deep

    hadal-trenches


    food webs:

    connections of energy from producer to consumer

    trophic pyramid (see plankton to ahi, bioaccumulation biomagnification)

    primary producers: autotrophs-photosynthetic plants, chemotrophic (sulfur)-inorganic sources (also foundation species)

    heterotrophs-get energy from organic sources:

    herbivores, carnivores, scavengers

    lots of energy lost between trophic levels (thermodynamics)


    ecosystems-

    abiotic environment

    producers-autotrophs, e.g. plants

    consumers-heterotrophs, e.g. herbivores, canrivores

    decomposers-detritovores


    photosynthesis-

    CO2, water, light into organic compounds (e.g. sugars)

    photoautotrophs-plants

    carbon fixation (redox rx) reduction is CO2 to CHO

    chlorophyll, carotenes and xanthophylls


    cellular respiration-

    conversion of energy to ATP (phosphate bonds)

    glucose, amino acids and fatty acids with O2 as an oxidizer (accepts electrons) OIL RIG

    aerobic and anaerobic metabolysis (aerobic is 19x more efficient)

    TCA cycle, mitochondria


    biodiversity-

    variation of life forms within a biome or ecosystem

    genetic

    species

    ecosystem

    creates stability and robustness in ecosystems


    biogeochemical cycles (nutrient cycles)

    how an element or molecule travels through biotic (living things) and abiotic (earth, air, water) parts of earth

    reservoirs may differ: N2 in air, P in soil

    closed system: C N O P

    open system: energy, e.g. photosynthesis

    cycles:

    carbon

    nitrogen

    oxygen

    phosphorus

    water

    also mercury and atrazine (herbicide)


    GM crops

    genetic engineering vs. selective breeding or mutation breeding

    concerns: ecological, economic (LDC) and IP rights (see Monsanto)

    uses restriction enzymes to ID and isolate genes

    inserted using gene gun (plasmid) or agrobacterium


    GMO

    insertion or deletion of genes

    recombinant DNA, transgenic organisms

    if no DNA from other species, cisgenic (cis vs trans)

    lentiviruses-can transfer genes to animal cells

    Genentech-Berkeley 1978, created human insulin from E. Coli (vs. cow or pig insulin)


    pesticides-

    biological, chemical, antimicrobial, disinfectant

    pests: pathogens, insects, weeds, mullosks, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes and microbes

    any food competitor or spoiler, also disease vectors

    herbicides-glyphosate (roundup)

    insecticides-HCl, carbamates, pyrethrins, etc.

    green fungicides-paldoxins

    EPA regulates

    banned: carcinogenic, mutagenic or bioaccumulators

    see also NRDC


    pesticide laws-

    Federal insecticide act-1910

    Federal insecticide, fungicide and rodenticide act (FIFRA)-1947 then 1972, 1988

    1947-ag dept

    1972-EPA

    3 categories: antimicrobials, biopesticides, conventional


    forest management-

    silviculture, protection and regulation

    conservation and economic concerns

    watershed management included

    see also FSC 1993, forest stewardship council


    applied ecology-

    conservation biology, ecology, habitat management

    invasive species management

    rangeland management

    restoration ecology


    land management-

    habitat conservation

    sustainable ag

    urban planning


    sustainable ag-

    environmental stewardship

    farm profitability

    farming communities

    e.g. ability to produce food indefinitely, without causing damage to ecosystem health

    see also erosion, irrigation/salinization, crop rotation

    see also landraces, e.g. prairie grasses


    mining laws-

    SMCRA

    surface mining control and reclamation act (1977)

    1. regulates active coal mines

    2. reclamation of abandoned mines

    dept of interior admin

    response to strip mining (1930+)

    SMCRA

    regulation:

    1. standards of performance

    2. permitting

    3. bonding

    4. inspection/enforcement

    5. land restrictions

    compare to 1945 strip mining practices


    Fisheries laws-

    monitor and protect fisheries resources

    overfishing conference 1936

    1957: Beverton and Holt did study on fish dynamics

    goals:

    1. max sustainable biomass yield

    2. max sust. econ yield

    3. secure employment

    4. secure protein supply

    5. income from export

    6. bio and economic yield

    UNCLOS-UN convention on law of the sea

    EEZ-exclusive economic zones

    12 mi = coastal sovereignty

    200 mi = fishing restrictions

    2004-UN made stricter laws on fisheries mgt.

    1995 code of conduct for responsible fisheries

    quotas, taxation, enforcement (USCG)



    tragedy of the commons-

    1968 Science article-Garrett Hardin

    individual benefit, common damage

    strict management of global common goods

    see also overgrazing, pollution, privatization

    "a fundamental extension of morality"


    ozone depletion-

    stratospheric ozone depletion

    4% since 1970

    ozone hole over antarctica

    catalytic destruction of ozone by chlorine and bromine

    halogen compounds CFCs (freons) and bromofluorocarbons (halons)

    ODS ozone depleting substances

    ozone blocks UVB 270-315 nm

    Montreal protocol 1987 banned CFCs

    O + O3 --> 2O2 (transparent)

    Cl + O3 -->ClO + O2

    ClO + O3 -->Cl + 2O2

    effects:

    1. ++ carcinomas

    2. melanomas

    3. cataracts

    4. ++ tropospheric ozone (toxic)

    5. kills cyanobacteria (rice nitrogen fixers)

    Differentiate from Global Climate Change (GCC)


    Water quality:

    WQI is a composite of many qualities (see below)

    BOD is a measure of the oxygen demand to decompose organic materials

    BOD measures the rate of oxygen uptake by micro-organisms in a sample of water at a temperature of 20°C and over an elapsed period of five days in the dark.

    The following is a list of indicators often measured by situational category:

    Drinking water

    ▪ Alkalinity

    ▪ Color of water

    ▪ pH

    ▪ Taste and odor (geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), etc)

    ▪ Dissolved metals and salts (sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, manganese, magnesium)

    ▪ Microorganisms such as fecal coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli), Cryptosporidium, and Giardia lamblia

    ▪ Dissolved metals and metalloids (lead, mercury, arsenic, etc.)

    ▪ Dissolved organics: colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon

    ▪ Radon

    ▪ Heavy metals

    ▪ Pharmaceuticals

    ▪ Hormone analogs

    Environmental

    Chemical assessment

    ▪ Conductivity (also see salinity)

    ▪ Dissolved Oxygen

    ▪ nitrate-N

    ▪ orthophosphates

    ▪ Chemical oxygen demand (COD)

    ▪ Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)

    ▪ Pesticides

    Physical assessment

    ▪ pH

    ▪ Temperature

    ▪ Total suspended solids (TSS)

    ▪ Turbidity


    Electrical power numbers:

    1 Watt

    1000 Watts = 1 kW

    These measure rate of energy use (this is called power)

    energy use: power x time

    kW x hours or kWh

    example: 1 kWh is a 500 Watt device used for 2 hours

    MWh is a megawatt hour

    power plants are often rated in MW rating, or GW rating (gigawatt, or 1000 MW)


    Toxicity:

    LD50 is the measure of toxicity that kills 50% of the population after 2 weeks

    The LD50 is usually expressed as the mass of substance administered per unit mass of test subject, such as grams of substance per kilogram of body mass.

    As a measure of toxicity, LD50 is somewhat unreliable and results may vary greatly between testing facilities due to factors such as the genetic characteristics of the sample population, animal species tested, environmental factors and mode of administration.[3] Another weakness is that it measures acute toxicity only (as opposed to chronic toxicity at lower doses), and does not take into account toxic effects that do not result in death but are nonetheless serious (e.g. brain damage). There can be wide variability between species as well; what is relatively safe for rats may very well be extremely toxic for humans, and vice versa. In other words, a relatively high LD50 does not necessarily mean a substance is harmless, but a very low one is always a cause for concern.


    see also LC50: lethal concentration


    3 laws of thermodynamics:

    1. you cannot win (no process can be more than 100% efficient)

    2. you cannot break even (no process can be even 100% efficient)

    3. you cannot get out of the game (entropy or disorder tends to increase in spontaneous processes)

    See also Gibbs free energy: ∆G = ∆H - T∆S or "goldfish are hell without tartar sauce"


    ENSO: el nine southern oscillation

    coriolis effect: recall hurricane iniki

    aquifer: have an example ready for the depletion/pollution and describe recharge rate

    main soil types, main rock types, geological basics (eras etc.)

    climate shifts: how do these effect migration and location of animals? Why not plants?

    fertility rates, doubling times (rule of 70), demographic transitions, age-structure diagrams

    nutritional requirements

    sustainable ag (see above)

    urban sprawl: define. How has the auto made this possible?

    urban heat island effect: define

    ore concentration curves

    CAFE standards-definition, impact, exceptions


    Populations:

    K and r strategists

    Rule of 70 for population growth doubling times

    21/1000 numbers for population-why?

    immigration vs. emigration-define

    TBR-total birth rate

    soil layers-see redbook on this one


    Urban sprawl:

    define, give alternatives

    Urban planning, growth patterns


    CARRYING CAPACITY-always on the AP exam: stable population, renewable resources, sustainable

    "stable" is really negative feedback, equilibrium

    Strategies:
    K: mammals, take care of young, reach stable population at carrying capacity, few offspring, density dependent, low infant mortality

    r: bacteria, lots of offspring, high infant mortality, limited by density independent factors (fire, flood, etc.)

    see the growth formula: N is population, t is time, r is growth rate, K is carrying capacity:

    ∆N/∆t = rN(1-N/K)

    n.b. as N/k -> 1, ∆N/∆t -> 0

    negative feedback is the key here

    r: less crowded, so N/K is close to 0, so rate is rN

    K: follows carrying capacity, so N/K close to 1, so rate is close to 0

    Malthus: population grows exponentially, food linearly, tf crash

    see fig 7.12

    Impact: IPAT
    Impact = population * affluence * technology (we are high on all three)

    imagine a village...

    Demography: birthrate vs. deathrate

    TFR: total fertility rate: number of offpring in female lifetime
    2.1 is stable (why not 2.0?)


    Natural Selection:
    1. genetic variation (if none, then there is no outstanding survivor possible)
    2. plenty of offspring, leading to…
    3. stress on the system resources (food, water, land etc.)
    4. outstanding survivors reproduce
    5. incremental changes over generations improve adaptation (could be fast, like bacteria or fruit flies)


    Regulation questions:

    1. CERCLA stands for what?
    2. What happened at Love canal?
    3. How was CERCLA expanded in 1986?
    4. How is the SuperFund funded now?
    5. What two kinds of response actions are outlined in the CERCLA?
    6. Who are the "potential responsible parties" under CERCLA?
    7. What is the NCP revision, and how does it impact polluters?
    8. What is the NPL and what is it's role?
    9. What does RCRA stand for?
    10. Why is it an improvement on the 1965 law on solid waste?
    11. Explain "cradle to grave" requirements and give an example.
    12. What is a TSDF, and how does it manage hazardous waste?
    13. What is a "whistleblower" and how are they provided for in the RCRA?
    14. What are the corporate arguments against the clean air act?
    15. Describe the 1955, 1963, 1967, 1970, 1977 and 1990 acts and cite a common theme and opponent.
    16. What was new in the 1990 law that may affect third world nations?
    17. Last week the EPA made news regarding CO2 emissions and the clean air act. What happened?
    18. What is the CWA, and how is it enforced?
    19. What are navigable waters, and how are they defined?
    20. How does the CWA treat point sources? Give at least two examples.
    21. How is this different for non-point sources?
    22. What is different with the WQA of 1987?
    23. Explain the NEPA act of 1970, and its impact.
    24. What happened off the coast of Santa Barbara in 1969 (also the year of Woodstock, and several assassinations), and how is it relevant today, March 2, 2010?
    25. What is an EIS, and are they required today?
    26. How does an EIS differ from an EA?


    Explain the KT boundary (CT)

    Who survived? Why?


    Major human impact:
    1. habitat loss
    2. exploitation
    3. exotic species introduction
    4. predator/pest control
    5. climate change


    Sanitary Landfill: why so important


    More notes on Population:

    population: same species, same location

    Factors: birthrate (natality), death rate (mortality), sex ratio, age distribution, growth rate (r), density, spatial distribution

    birthrate is per 1000 people, so 20/2000 is 10/k per year

    mortality is same

    survivorship curves (see fig 7.2) sheep-long life, birds-predators, non specific, plants-lots of offspring don't survive

    population growth rate = Brate - Drate

    See Fig 7.1, see also 6.6 in c/c page 123

    Sex ratio: women always on the right

    age distribution curves: pyramid is + growth, parallel is stable growth, inverted pyramid is - growth

    repro years = 15-40 for female humans

    see figure 7.3

    spatial distribution: flowers

    emigration: out, immigration:in

    biotic potential: inherent repro capacity: geese=10/year, elephants=0.5/year

    population curves: see figure 7.5
    lag section: lots of food, takes time to reproduce
    exponential section: grows according to At = A0 e kt
    deceleration: food supply outstripped by population
    stable: balance
    overshoot: too many for food supply

    see figure 6.3 and 6.4 in c/c chapter 6, page 119
    see also figure 6.8 in c/c on overshoot

    limiting factors: environmental resistance
    extrinsic: predators, food source
    intrinsic: self controlled, mice fertility drops in overpopulation (negative feedback)

    see figure 6.10 in c/c, extinction rate

    density dependent: predators, food
    density independent: frost, flood, fire

    limiting factors: energy, waste, raw materials

    CARRYING CAPACITY-always on the AP exam: stable population, renewable resources, sustainable

    "stable" is really negative feedback, equilibrium


    More on ecosystems:

    Chapter 6 notes: Ecosystems and communities
    Succession-communites proceed through series of recognizable, predicatable changes in structure over time
    long lasting and stable
    factors: climate, food, invasion etc.
    climax comm. stable, long lasting result of succession
    determined by climate, water, substrate and org. type

    primary succession-no existing organisms
    secondary succession-destruction of existing ecosystem

    Primary succession-terrestrial-
    factors: substrate (e.g. soil), climate, repro structures, rate of growth, organic matter, water
    pioneer comm.- first to colonize bare rock (e.g. lichen)
    later comm.-soil available, holds water (life)
    1 pioneer stage
    lichen: mutualistic: algae/bacteria(photosynthesis) + fungi to hold on
    2 secondary stage: soil: retains water, structural support
    (succession: plants shade lichens)
    3 climax community-stable, diverse, interconnected, interdependent, many niches, recycle biomass (constant)

    process of succession is called a sere, stages are seral stages
    see fig 6.3-imagine driving from puako to waimea

    Primary succession-aquatic
    oceanic-stable
    limnotic/riparian-transitional, fills with sediment
    stages:
    1. aquatic vegetation-e.g. aquarium, leads to wet soil and terrestrial networks (roots, wet meadow)
    2. transitional: biomass of trees creates top layers of soil, transition to terrestrial climax comm.

    imagine trip from middle of lake to shore-see all transitions
    bogs=transitional stage from shore to dry land (Ireland, Scotland)

    Secondary Succession-terrestrial
    recall: existing comm. is replaced
    e.g. pond fills to become a meadow, then climax forest
    can reverse: beaver dams: land to aquatic
    see also human dams, exponential decay curve

    Biomes-------
    determined by climate, altitude, water (precipitation), temperature
    similar niches and habitats in each biome


    Comments

    /groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/index.rss?tag=hotlist/groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/?tag=hotWhat’s HotHotListHot!?tag=hot6/groups/apenvironmentalscience/sidebar/HotListadminadmin2013-02-05 02:24:03+00:002013-02-05 02:24:03updated4Added tag - hotadminadmin2013-02-05 02:24:02+00:002013-02-05 02:24:02addTag3adminadmin2013-02-05 02:05:35+00:002013-02-05 02:05:35updated2First createdadminadmin2013-02-05 02:03:35+00:002013-02-05 02:03:35created1wiki2013-02-05T02:24:03+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/394a8FalseEnergy notes/groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/394a8/Energy_notes.htmladmin4 updatesEnergy notes Week of 2.4.13: energy wrap-up e2 video: coal vs. nuclear in class AP exams: FRQ 2002.1 2004.2 2006.1 2007.2 2008.1 ...Falseadmin2013-02-05T02:24:03+00:00adminadmin2013-02-05 02:23:20+00:002013-02-05 02:23:20updated6Added tag - hotadminadmin2013-02-05 02:23:18+00:002013-02-05 02:23:18addTag5adminadmin2013-02-05 02:23:12+00:002013-02-05 02:23:12updated4adminadmin2013-02-05 02:21:48+00:002013-02-05 02:21:48updated3adminadmin2013-02-05 02:20:26+00:002013-02-05 02:20:26updated2First createdadminadmin2013-02-05 02:06:00+00:002013-02-05 02:06:00created1wiki2013-02-05T02:23:20+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/c360bFalseFeb-May plan/groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/c360b/FebMay_plan.htmladmin6 updatesFeb-May plan 1. conclusion of energy chapters (see previous wiki) 2. GCC AP questions FRQ: 2006.2 2005.3 2005.4 2007.3 ...Falseadmin2013-02-05T02:23:20+00:00adminadmin2012-03-07 05:53:55+00:002012-03-07 05:53:55updated14adminadmin2012-03-07 05:43:38+00:002012-03-07 05:43:38updated13adminadmin2012-03-07 05:41:35+00:002012-03-07 05:41:35updated12adminadmin2012-03-07 05:38:57+00:002012-03-07 05:38:57updated11Added tag - hotadminadmin2012-03-07 05:38:55+00:002012-03-07 05:38:55addTag10adminadmin2012-03-07 05:36:47+00:002012-03-07 05:36:47updated9adminadmin2012-03-07 05:22:26+00:002012-03-07 05:22:26updated8adminadmin2012-03-07 05:20:01+00:002012-03-07 05:20:01updated7adminadmin2012-03-07 05:18:58+00:002012-03-07 05:18:58updated6adminadmin2012-03-07 04:58:55+00:002012-03-07 04:58:55updated5adminadmin2012-03-07 04:57:33+00:002012-03-07 04:57:33updated4adminadmin2012-03-07 04:56:53+00:002012-03-07 04:56:53updated3adminadmin2012-03-07 04:54:20+00:002012-03-07 04:54:20updated2First createdadminadmin2012-03-07 04:53:33+00:002012-03-07 04:53:33created1weblog2012-03-07T05:53:55+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/de030FalseGreen Apple/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/de030/Green_Apple.htmladmin14 updatesGreen Apple Team, Please watch this video about NYC: Trailer: http://www.pbs.org/e2/episodes/101_the_green_apple_trailer.html On the server: http://physics.hpa...Falseadmin2012-03-07T05:53:55+00:00adminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:24+00:002011-09-13 19:08:24updated4Added tag - hotadminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:22+00:002011-09-13 19:08:22addTag3adminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:10+00:002011-09-13 19:08:10updated2First createdadminadmin2011-09-13 19:04:30+00:002011-09-13 19:04:30created1weblog2011-09-13T19:08:24+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/4ecddFalseQuestions for Wednesday, wiki adds/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/4ecdd/Questions_for_Wednesday_wiki_adds.htmladmin4 updatesQuestions for Wednesday, wiki adds Team, I'd like to try something for class tomorrow: each of you to create a question from chapter 3, and email it to me by this evening (Tuesday). Pl...Falseadmin2011-09-13T19:08:24+00:00adminadmin2011-09-08 21:36:21+00:002011-09-08 21:36:21updated29adminadmin2011-08-24 23:20:40+00:002011-08-24 23:20:40updated28adminadmin2011-08-24 22:42:36+00:002011-08-24 22:42:36updated27adminadmin2011-08-22 02:41:09+00:002011-08-22 02:41:09updated26adminadmin2011-08-22 02:40:02+00:002011-08-22 02:40:02updated25adminadmin2011-08-21 20:39:11+00:002011-08-21 20:39:11updated24adminadmin2011-08-21 20:30:42+00:002011-08-21 20:30:42updated23adminadmin2011-08-21 20:30:13+00:002011-08-21 20:30:13updated22adminadmin2011-08-21 20:25:48+00:002011-08-21 20:25:48updated21adminadmin2011-08-21 20:25:18+00:002011-08-21 20:25:18updated20adminadmin2011-08-21 00:22:12+00:002011-08-21 00:22:12updated19adminadmin2011-08-21 00:18:56+00:002011-08-21 00:18:56updated18adminadmin2011-08-21 00:15:43+00:002011-08-21 00:15:43updated17adminadmin2011-08-21 00:12:37+00:002011-08-21 00:12:37updated16adminadmin2011-08-21 00:12:02+00:002011-08-21 00:12:02updated15adminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:41+00:002011-08-20 23:59:41updated14Added tag - hotadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:38+00:002011-08-20 23:59:38addTag13Added tag - conservationadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:32+00:002011-08-20 23:59:32addTag12Added tag - critical thinkingadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:19+00:002011-08-20 23:59:19addTag11Added tag - ch1adminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:08+00:002011-08-20 23:59:08addTag10Added tag - sustainabilityadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:05+00:002011-08-20 23:59:05addTag9adminadmin2011-08-20 20:47:39+00:002011-08-20 20:47:39updated8adminadmin2011-08-20 20:46:15+00:002011-08-20 20:46:15updated7adminadmin2011-08-20 20:43:07+00:002011-08-20 20:43:07updated6adminadmin2011-08-20 19:14:13+00:002011-08-20 19:14:13updated5adminadmin2011-08-20 19:11:26+00:002011-08-20 19:11:26updated4adminadmin2011-08-20 18:59:57+00:002011-08-20 18:59:57updated3adminadmin2011-08-20 18:56:59+00:002011-08-20 18:56:59updated2First createdadminadmin2010-11-07 01:41:28+00:002010-11-07 01:41:28created1wiki2011-09-08T21:36:21+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/welcomeFalseCh01 Overview/groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/welcome/Ch01_Overview.htmladmin29 updatesCh01 Overview Welcome to our APES wiki. You should be able to do the following after logging in with your account: To create a new page, click the ...Falseadmin2011-09-08T21:36:21+00:00hot/groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/index.rss?sort=modifiedDate&kind=all&sortDirection=reverse&excludePages=wiki/welcomelist/groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/?sort=modifiedDate&kind=all&sortDirection=reverse&excludePages=wiki/welcomeRecent ChangesRecentChangesListUpdates?sort=modifiedDate&kind=all&sortDirection=reverse&excludePages=wiki/welcome0/groups/apenvironmentalscience/sidebar/RecentChangesListmodifiedDateallRecent ChangesRecentChangesListUpdateswiki/welcomeNo recent changes.reverse5searchlist/groups/apenvironmentalscience/calendar/Upcoming EventsUpcomingEventsListEvents1Getting events…