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    Ch. 15 Air Pollution notes

    Ch 15 notes: Air Pollution

    global commons

    Criteria pollutants:

    1. SOx
    2. NOx
    3. CO
    4. O3
    5. PM10, 2.5
    6. Pb

    add: CO2 (2007), VOC, Hg


    SOx from methionine in plants, coal, oil

    see also VOG particles


    NOX: high temp combustion (carnot cycle, efficiency)

    also: microbes in soil


    CO: incomplete combustion, poor ventilation (LDC) impacts hemoglobin (suicide)


    Ozone (O3): close to surface bad, in ozone layer necessary to filter UVb

    secondary pollutant-sunlight, water and VOCs, degrades lungs, plastic, rubber

    photochemical oxidant (needs light for chemical reaction)


    PM10, 2.5: smaller are more dangerous, diesels, biofuels, manure, causes cancer (PM2.5), strict regs in EU


    Pb: gasoline additive (tetraethyl lead, improves octane rating cheaply), replaced by other worse chemicals


    Hg: from coal mining, burning


    VOCs; from gasoline (cars), paints, additives, aromatics


    Primary pollutants: direct from smokestack. exhaust pipe

    CO, CO2, SOx, NOx, VOC


    Secondary pollutants: need a chemical reaction (often sunlight) to form

    See PANs: Peroxyacyl nitrates: formed from VOCs, NOx


    See thermal inversions: london fog, US

    Donora, PA 1948 k.20, sick 7000

    1952 London 4000-12,000 dead, three nights

    Mexico city 1996 300 dead, 400K sick


    acid rain: plants, fish, structures

    SO2 + O2, water = H2SO4 (sulfuric acid)

    NO3 + O2, water = HNO3 (nitric acid)


    W. VA had rain more acidic than stomach acid


    know how a scrubber works (just like the nuclear plant diagram)


    stratospheric ozone: O3 blocks UVb

    How formed (usually lightning)

    How damaged: CFCs

    Polar ozone hole: 1970

    ice crystals, stable Cl2



    IAP-indoor air pollution

    Leading cause of death in LDC (women)

    manure, open pit fires, CO, PM10

    sick building syndrome: formaldehyde, CO2, VOC

    the main culprits:

    VOC, CO, Radon, Lead, formaldehyde, asbestos, PM10


    asbestos-asbestosis, mesothelioma

    Radon222-lung cancer (smoke demo-lungs)

    Next: Froggie book Ch. 15


    AIR QUALITY LABS

    • Air Quality: Air quality can be assessed using various

    methods.

    • Particulates: Sticky paper can be used to collect

    air particulates from various sources, and then the

    paper can be examined under a microscope. It is

    not possible to see the smallest particulates, but

    they do color the white paper.

    • Ozone: In this lab, an ecobadge or a homemade

    potassium iodide gel sampler is hung or worn in

    order to collect data on tropospheric ozone. The

    badge or KI sample changes color in the presence

    of ozone and becomes more intensely colored as

    the amount of ozone increases.

    • Carbon dioxide: In this lab, a commercial sampling

    device is used to determine the amount of

    carbon dioxide in an air sample. Car exhaust,

    burning tobacco, or other pollutants can also be

    sampled.


    Pollution roundup:

    Chapter 8 of Princeton Review for AP:

    Download file "ch08-pollution.pdf"

    Download file "18-pollution.pdf"


    Comments

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GCC AP questions FRQ: 2006.2 2005.3 2005.4 2007.3 ...Falseadmin2013-02-05T02:23:20+00:00adminadmin2012-03-07 05:53:55+00:002012-03-07 05:53:55updated14adminadmin2012-03-07 05:43:38+00:002012-03-07 05:43:38updated13adminadmin2012-03-07 05:41:35+00:002012-03-07 05:41:35updated12adminadmin2012-03-07 05:38:57+00:002012-03-07 05:38:57updated11Added tag - hotadminadmin2012-03-07 05:38:55+00:002012-03-07 05:38:55addTag10adminadmin2012-03-07 05:36:47+00:002012-03-07 05:36:47updated9adminadmin2012-03-07 05:22:26+00:002012-03-07 05:22:26updated8adminadmin2012-03-07 05:20:01+00:002012-03-07 05:20:01updated7adminadmin2012-03-07 05:18:58+00:002012-03-07 05:18:58updated6adminadmin2012-03-07 04:58:55+00:002012-03-07 04:58:55updated5adminadmin2012-03-07 04:57:33+00:002012-03-07 04:57:33updated4adminadmin2012-03-07 04:56:53+00:002012-03-07 04:56:53updated3adminadmin2012-03-07 04:54:20+00:002012-03-07 04:54:20updated2First createdadminadmin2012-03-07 04:53:33+00:002012-03-07 04:53:33created1weblog2012-03-07T05:53:55+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/de030FalseGreen Apple/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/de030/Green_Apple.htmladmin14 updatesGreen Apple Team, Please watch this video about NYC: Trailer: http://www.pbs.org/e2/episodes/101_the_green_apple_trailer.html On the server: http://physics.hpa...Falseadmin2012-03-07T05:53:55+00:00adminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:24+00:002011-09-13 19:08:24updated4Added tag - hotadminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:22+00:002011-09-13 19:08:22addTag3adminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:10+00:002011-09-13 19:08:10updated2First createdadminadmin2011-09-13 19:04:30+00:002011-09-13 19:04:30created1weblog2011-09-13T19:08:24+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/4ecddFalseQuestions for Wednesday, wiki adds/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/4ecdd/Questions_for_Wednesday_wiki_adds.htmladmin4 updatesQuestions for Wednesday, wiki adds Team, I'd like to try something for class tomorrow: each of you to create a question from chapter 3, and email it to me by this evening (Tuesday). 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