Withgott 6 chapter 13: Urban environment
Frog book: Chapter 10: land use, urbanization, sustainable cities
5 steps to a 5 review:
Three main points: Living together, thinking of forever...
1. Tragedy of the Commons
2. Conservation movement
3. Urban Sprawl
email: GPS ranching-why is this closer to pre-contact buffalo herds?
Tragedy of the commons (old idea, new article) 1968 Garret Harding KNOW THIS...
An old 1833 concept from farming villages, article updated in 1968 this to include rivers, streams, ocean, air...
Econ students may know this one:
Externalized costs, externality: shedding financial responsibility for your impact the the whole
Conservation movement: Important peeps
Ralph Waldo Emerson-"Nature" "behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present" 1837
Henry David Thoreau-Walden "truth in nature and wilderness over the deceits of urban civilization". 1845
Ansel Adams: Photographer championed the National Parks: 1920-1980
"More than any other artist of the century, he would help transform the meaning of "wilderness" in America and change what people thought and felt about their own land"
"it's a place that you step into, and you don't know what's going to happen, a place that can surprise you, it's a place where you are small, where being small is not a bad thing, where being small is actually a wonderful thing"
-Carl Pope, Sierra Club
"...the world is beautiful, that humanity is part of this larger world, that the concerns of the moment are part but not separate from a larger system of forces that that connect us to all of creation"
Jonathan Spaulding, Biographer
Question: How did his photographs change the awareness of the public? People usually care about what they know...
MSY: maximum sustainable yield: max renewable output without compromising future
See: native peoples: "seventh son of seventh son"
Also: "Sustainability = thinking about forever"
Public lands: often victim of economic predation (e.g. Burma illegal logging)
Other side: NRDC and others, purchase lands to protect them from predatory practices (e.g. Amazon basin)
In the US: National Parks are one example of a national recognition of several things:
1. Spiritual/psychological benefit to nature
2. Preservation of resources for future generations
4. Habitat preservation for species (can be land, ocean, islands, etc.)
See also Amboseli in Kenya, Serengeti in Tanzania (Tanganyika+Zanzibar), Kruger park in S. Africa (Afrikaans)
In the US, we classify public lands as
Rangelands-open range, enables some ranching with leases
National forests-old growth and new growth, limited forestry
National parks-national treasures, limits on visitors, infrastructure (e.g. Denali)
National wildlife refuges-usually associated with an endangered species or transit/migration path (e.g. wolves)
Wilderness areas-no development, often noise abatement as well (think of helicopters in Waipio or Haleakala)
We have several of these here in Hawaii:
Kilauea Volcano (Madame Pele)
Haleakala ("House of the sun")
Honokohau ("City of Refuge")
Pu'u Kohola (Whale Heiau)
Papa hanau moku a kea-Northwest Hawai'ian Islands NWHI
Two ethics are in competition:
Resource conservation ethic-maximum use based on greatest good for everyone, usually preservation
Multiple use lands-designated lands for grazing, timber, minerals
Let's check out these guys again:
English folks might recall Emerson, Thoreau and Whitman
Conservation movement: Important peeps
Ralph Waldo Emerson-"Nature" "behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present"
Henry David Thoreau-Walden "Truth in nature and wilderness over the deceits of urban civilization"
Teddy Roosevelt- ca. 1900, National Parks
First two minutes, start again at 7:00-10:00
Note influence of railroads in parks as well as all lands in the west (Leland Stanford, for example)
"Americans think 100 years is a long time, and Europeans think 100 miles is a long distance..."
Aldo Leopold-environmental ethics, wildlife management, conservation, Sand County Almanac (Wisconsin)
John Muir-started the Sierra Club: "wilderness mirrors divinity, nourishes humanity and vivifies the spirit"
Rachel Carson-silent spring DDT (persistent pesticide, weakens bird egg shells), 1963:
Land Management in the US:
BLM: Bureau of land management
Grazing, ranching, monitors rangeland health, erosion
USFS: Us Forest Service
Manges timber harvesting, where, how, what trees
Old growth vs. new growth, replanting, clear cut?
FSC: Forest stewardship council:
FSC certification: no clear cut, no damage to land, replanting, selective cutting, underbrush considerations
HUGE debate over underbrush, USFS believes in regular forest fires to deplete the amount of underbrush (as in nature)
See also California and Australia wildfires: drought, no regular fires, buildup of underbrush
See Yellowstone fire of 1988-result of overgrowth of underbrush
Forests: clear cut vs. selective cut
FSC wood-how different?
Fire management: Yellowstone fire 1988
USFS prefers many small fires, removing flammable underbrush
NPS: National park service
Manages parks for recreation, multiple use ethic, preservation of timber, minerals and "natural curiosities"
Also significant native peoples monuments (see above)
FWS: Fish and wildlife service
Manages fishing and hunting on all public lands
BLM: Bureau of Land Management
USFS: US Forest Service
NPS: National Park Service
FWS: Fish and Wildlife Service
NEPA: National Environmental Policy Act 1969 (why then?) mandates an EIS for all development
EIS (environmental impact statements) are new standard for any project
ESA endangered species act-often brought in where development could impact ES
UGB (Urban Growth Boundary)-see Portland
Prevents Urban Sprawl (richer folks move to the suburbs, commute, need parking, city dies from the inside, food deserts, etc.)
Portland Example of urban planning:
Tom McCall Governor of Oregon, 1967-1975
Charlie Hales Mayor of Portland 2013-2017
E2 video: Portland: Sense of Place....listen for Brad Pitt: