Climate change map
Nebraska->Alberta by 2050
Your footprint: https://www.footprintcalculator.org
Notes on the texts:
Note that the FR text is more detailed. The first two chapters of both this and the frog book (iBook) deal with defining environmental science, the scientific process and how APES covers many different topics.
- what was your footprint in planets?
- why do you think this was so?
- where should you move if you want to have the climate of Nebraska in 50 years? why?
- explain fracking
Module 1 -------------
Fracking-know what it is? Why is it controversial? How has it changed how we generate electricity in our country? At what cost? Why is this politically important? Why are the solvents they use secret? What is the impact of these solvents on water?
Bio=life, so biotic means living, abiotic means not living (druids had a neat view on this)
How systems are defined enables us to create models of cause and effect (favorite topic of physicists and historians as well)
Mod 1 answers:
Module 2 ---------------
Environmental indicators: what we know and can observe that indicate the condition of a system
Ecosystem services: can be economic, direct or cascading (off shore oil for example, impacting fishing in the gulf of Mexico)
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Long list. Let's go for something more digestible:
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Note that biodiversity is a key indicator (why?)
These are the 5 challenges that you will deal with in this century. Knowing about them will enable you to impact change.
It's all about you.
Genetic diversity: variation in a population (could be age distribution in our class)
Species: different in obvious ways (definitions vary on this)
Species diversity: variation of species in a habitat (age distribution in the school or elab)
Speciation: an adaptation based on stress
Evolution needs three things:
- some form of genetic variation
- some stress that favors this variation
- survivors have to reproduce and carry on the variation
Think of giraffes as an example:
- longer necks in some animals
- drought that kills all short neck creatures (just like in land before time)
- long neck animals survive to reproduce and carry on the variation
There is a theory that the background rate of mutation/speciation was much higher long ago because our atmosphere was thinner, and enabled more cosmic rays to penetrate, causing much higher rates of mutation/speciation.
In England, butterflies have adapted since 1850 to look more like soot from coal fires.
In NYC, a species of "subway mosquitoes" have been found that feed on humans in a dark, cool place
Extinction is the opposite of speciation, where species die off.
There is such a thing as a "background rate of extinction", which we have surpassed by many times
Diversity is good: think of monoculture food crops: one pest kills everything.
Food production: see Malthus and Norman Borlaug, e.g. Mexico famine
Anthopogenic (anthro=man, genic=cause) Climate change:
Greenhouse gases (see car windshield as an example)
Not too many people know we need some CO2 to keep water above freezing-think of this as we search for exoplanets...
8.21.19 quiz -----
- Explain the Norman Borlaug story
- Why was China’s one child policy eventually a problem for China?
- Why is natural gas a better fit for future renewable energy?
- What three things are essential for evolution to occur?
Resource depletion is hard to grasp, but resource constraints are easier:
If we had a major tsunami here that closed airports (all near the shore) and ports, how long would we have:
water? (pumped by electricity)
Recall our first concept:
- With energy you can move/purify water
- With water you can grow food
- With food you can maintain a culture
APES Openhagen country questions:
- compare two countries by their red and green lines
- describe one economic change you saw on the charts
- describe one physical change
- explain how this demonstrates cause and effect analysis
List four examples of cause and effect on global footprint that you discovered.
Sustainability: Thinking of forever
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Notice that these are not your usual "energy, food and water" items people think about.
Sustainability is living within your means.
Ecological footprint: created by Jurgen Randers and Mathis Wackernagel (both here for the opening of this famed structure)
- built up land
What impacts your global footprint?
Mod 2 answers....
Module 3 -------
Next: The notorious scientific method
Look up "cold fusion"
Look up "Monty Python witch scene"
Why are lab notebooks done in pen?
What were the last words of Alfred Nobel's brother?
Why is there no Nobel prize for Mathematics?
Replication is key: if you have magic beans, and nobody can replicate your results, you are in trouble.
See also Korean claims of cloning humans (not sheep, we already did that-her name was Dolly)
Key idea: even wrong experiments are valuable: Edison: "I learned 800 ways not to make a light bulb"
Read about Chlorpyrifos, then look up Round up (glyphosate) in the recent news. Which of these do we use at HPA? Explain.
Control group is the population you don't mess with, to determine change.
Natural experiment is something you observe cause and effect from, but not by what you setup (look up Mount Pinatubo and cooling of the planet)
Frog book (iBook) chapter one:
Ozone hole example: compare and contrast with anthropogenic climate change-why different?
Renewable vs. non-renewable resources (one politician recently tried to get nuclear energy classified as a renewable resource-it takes billions of years)
Renewable can be a forest, if used at a sustainable rate, otherwise not
Malthus again, Norman Borlaug again, and a new name: Paul Erlich (1968) "The Population Bomb"
In short: famine and conflict will arise from population growth.
In reality, it is much more complex, involving politics (e.g. Syria), economics (e.g. refugees from sub-Saharan Africa) and water rights (e.g. Palestine).
Jurgen Randers told me during the Elab opening that he thought in the next 50 years, China would invade Mongolia to the north, stating as a cause "religious instability" but the real cause would be access to water there.
If the Himalayan snowpack ceases to be a seasonal flow for the rivers of Asia, most of Western China would be in a drought, unable to produce food.
Ecological Footprint again:
Tragedy of the Commons:
Garrett Hardin, UCSB (look this up)
We will duplicate this with a fishing example: