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    Mod 6 and 7 movement of energy and matter

    Mod 6-energy movement

    many ecosystems->biosphere (life)

    photosynthesis: CO2 + H2O + energy -> sugar + O2

    Respiration: reverse

    Sugar + O2 -> H2O +CO2 +energy/heat

    Electron phosphorylation chain, AMP->ADP->ATP

    Stored in phosphate bonds (mono, di, tri)

    See also anaerobic respiration: less efficient, smelly bacteria, wounds


    Lowest level in trophic pyramid: autotrophs (primary producers)=plants

    sun->energy (sugar)

    Next level: herbivores (primary consumers) =deer

    Secondary consumer: wolf, eats deer

    Tertiary: man, bear, aliens from another planet


    See also detritivores (decomposers) and scavengers (dead stuff)


    Trophic effficiency: 10% so 100 J of energy goes in, 10 goes to next level

    Energy used to breathe, walk around, reproduce, watch animal planet…


    Food chain: increasing levels of consumers

    Food web: the whole interconnected mess


    GPP=total solar energy into the system

    NPP=GPP-energy used for respiration


    Biomass=total mass of living stuff


    Mod 7-Matter movement

    Big word: Bio Geo Chemical System (BGCS?)

    All matter moving around in a system (except zombies)

    Water cycle (as opposed to motor cycle)—————

    Most important of them all

    Evaporation: heat energy, liquid to gas phase

    (n.b. sublimation is solid to gas, or ax murderer becoming a butcher)

    Plants do something called transpiration, which is water vapor from their leaves

    EtO is evapotranspiration, = both combined

    You need to know this if you want to grow stuff: sunlight, wind increase EtO

    Runoff is just what it sounds like…


    Carbon cycle (not carbon bi-cycle)—————————

    Gas phase: CO2 (exhale)

    Liquid phase: H2CO3 (carbonic acid)

    Solid phase: CaCO3 (marble)


    Combustion is any combination of O2 and C (any rate)

    e.g. gasoline: Octane (8 carbons) + O2 ->CO2, H2O and energy

    technically respiration is combustion, only slower…


    Macronutrients (for BIG plants)—————

    NPK (fertilizer ones) Ca, Mg (dolomite), S (smelly rotten eggs, coal, oil)


    Nitrogen cycle (makes grass green, good for plants)——————

    MOST confusing of them all

    Makes little sense in any language

    N2 is atmospheric Nitrogen

    Lightning can heat it to mix with O2 or H2 to make NO3 (nitrate) or NH3 (ammonia). This is abiotic nitrogen fixation, very rare, but you smell it after lighting storms…

    This is one theory of how life started on earth-lightning making NH3 compounds and then (*zap*) life…

    All Nitrogen compounds are called amines, but they all have other names (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, ammonium, confusium, etc.)

    Biotic involves bacteria usually, often in the roots of legumes or other plants (beans, etc.)

    NH3+ can move to NH4+ where water is around (needs the extra H)

    Nitrifying bacteria do this: NH4+ ->NO2- ->NO3- ——>living stuff

    Pay no attention to the charges, they make little sense unless you are a chemist…

    De-nitrifying bacteria do the reverse: NO3—>NO2—>NO->N2 (gas)

    Cool


    Phosphorous cycle (no gas phase, just rocks and bones, rocks and bones)——

    Ok, there is another form, but it is liquid.

    H3PO4 is in coca cola (phosphoric acid)

    Phosphate is all over the planet in rocks. It dissolves. Things eat it to make bones and teeth. When they die (or birds poop it out) you have phosphate.

    Good fertilizer, needed for roots and fruits.

    Hawaiians knew all about this, which is why where we sit was once a very productive farmland.

    IN ANIMALS: AMP->ADP->ATP phosphate bonds store energy

    Gross thing: farmers dug up the bones of dead people after the battle of Waterloo to fertilize their crops. Shrek did the same thing…

    Algal bloom-this is important:

    Too much P in a stream, pond or waterway causes a bloom of algae.

    Yay algae.

    Then they all die.

    Boo algae.

    Then they sink to the bottom of the pond or whatever.

    Then they decay, using up all of the oxygen in the water.

    Kills everything.

    Biggest one is off the coast of New Orleans (why?)

    Another one: Chesapeake Bay (south of DC)


    Sulfur (also used to make gunpowder)————

    STINKY-rotten eggs smell is protein in the eggs breaking down

    Why? Methionine, that’s why (look it up, I’m not kidding)

    Basic building block in many amino acids (like methionine)

    Dead stuff becomes oil and coal, when we burn that up, the S comes out making SO2, which combines with water in the air to make…

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)

    Acid rain.

    Worst acid rain was in Germany (pH 2) and in West Virginia (stronger than stomach acid).

    There used to be a forest in the Schwartzwald (black forest) that died completely from this.

    Nasty!


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    /groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/index.rss?tag=hotlist/groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/?tag=hotWhat’s HotHotListHot!?tag=hot6/groups/apenvironmentalscience/sidebar/HotListadminadmin2013-02-05 02:24:03+00:002013-02-05 02:24:03updated4Added tag - hotadminadmin2013-02-05 02:24:02+00:002013-02-05 02:24:02addTag3adminadmin2013-02-05 02:05:35+00:002013-02-05 02:05:35updated2First createdadminadmin2013-02-05 02:03:35+00:002013-02-05 02:03:35created1wiki2013-02-05T02:24:03+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/394a8FalseEnergy notes/groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/394a8/Energy_notes.htmladmin4 updatesEnergy notes Week of 2.4.13: energy wrap-up e2 video: coal vs. nuclear in class AP exams: FRQ 2002.1 2004.2 2006.1 2007.2 2008.1 ...Falseadmin2013-02-05T02:24:03+00:00adminadmin2013-02-05 02:23:20+00:002013-02-05 02:23:20updated6Added tag - hotadminadmin2013-02-05 02:23:18+00:002013-02-05 02:23:18addTag5adminadmin2013-02-05 02:23:12+00:002013-02-05 02:23:12updated4adminadmin2013-02-05 02:21:48+00:002013-02-05 02:21:48updated3adminadmin2013-02-05 02:20:26+00:002013-02-05 02:20:26updated2First createdadminadmin2013-02-05 02:06:00+00:002013-02-05 02:06:00created1wiki2013-02-05T02:23:20+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/c360bFalseFeb-May plan/groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/c360b/FebMay_plan.htmladmin6 updatesFeb-May plan 1. conclusion of energy chapters (see previous wiki) 2. GCC AP questions FRQ: 2006.2 2005.3 2005.4 2007.3 ...Falseadmin2013-02-05T02:23:20+00:00adminadmin2012-03-07 05:53:55+00:002012-03-07 05:53:55updated14adminadmin2012-03-07 05:43:38+00:002012-03-07 05:43:38updated13adminadmin2012-03-07 05:41:35+00:002012-03-07 05:41:35updated12adminadmin2012-03-07 05:38:57+00:002012-03-07 05:38:57updated11Added tag - hotadminadmin2012-03-07 05:38:55+00:002012-03-07 05:38:55addTag10adminadmin2012-03-07 05:36:47+00:002012-03-07 05:36:47updated9adminadmin2012-03-07 05:22:26+00:002012-03-07 05:22:26updated8adminadmin2012-03-07 05:20:01+00:002012-03-07 05:20:01updated7adminadmin2012-03-07 05:18:58+00:002012-03-07 05:18:58updated6adminadmin2012-03-07 04:58:55+00:002012-03-07 04:58:55updated5adminadmin2012-03-07 04:57:33+00:002012-03-07 04:57:33updated4adminadmin2012-03-07 04:56:53+00:002012-03-07 04:56:53updated3adminadmin2012-03-07 04:54:20+00:002012-03-07 04:54:20updated2First createdadminadmin2012-03-07 04:53:33+00:002012-03-07 04:53:33created1weblog2012-03-07T05:53:55+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/de030FalseGreen Apple/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/de030/Green_Apple.htmladmin14 updatesGreen Apple Team, Please watch this video about NYC: Trailer: http://www.pbs.org/e2/episodes/101_the_green_apple_trailer.html On the server: http://physics.hpa...Falseadmin2012-03-07T05:53:55+00:00adminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:24+00:002011-09-13 19:08:24updated4Added tag - hotadminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:22+00:002011-09-13 19:08:22addTag3adminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:10+00:002011-09-13 19:08:10updated2First createdadminadmin2011-09-13 19:04:30+00:002011-09-13 19:04:30created1weblog2011-09-13T19:08:24+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/4ecddFalseQuestions for Wednesday, wiki adds/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/4ecdd/Questions_for_Wednesday_wiki_adds.htmladmin4 updatesQuestions for Wednesday, wiki adds Team, I'd like to try something for class tomorrow: each of you to create a question from chapter 3, and email it to me by this evening (Tuesday). Pl...Falseadmin2011-09-13T19:08:24+00:00adminadmin2011-09-08 21:36:21+00:002011-09-08 21:36:21updated29adminadmin2011-08-24 23:20:40+00:002011-08-24 23:20:40updated28adminadmin2011-08-24 22:42:36+00:002011-08-24 22:42:36updated27adminadmin2011-08-22 02:41:09+00:002011-08-22 02:41:09updated26adminadmin2011-08-22 02:40:02+00:002011-08-22 02:40:02updated25adminadmin2011-08-21 20:39:11+00:002011-08-21 20:39:11updated24adminadmin2011-08-21 20:30:42+00:002011-08-21 20:30:42updated23adminadmin2011-08-21 20:30:13+00:002011-08-21 20:30:13updated22adminadmin2011-08-21 20:25:48+00:002011-08-21 20:25:48updated21adminadmin2011-08-21 20:25:18+00:002011-08-21 20:25:18updated20adminadmin2011-08-21 00:22:12+00:002011-08-21 00:22:12updated19adminadmin2011-08-21 00:18:56+00:002011-08-21 00:18:56updated18adminadmin2011-08-21 00:15:43+00:002011-08-21 00:15:43updated17adminadmin2011-08-21 00:12:37+00:002011-08-21 00:12:37updated16adminadmin2011-08-21 00:12:02+00:002011-08-21 00:12:02updated15adminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:41+00:002011-08-20 23:59:41updated14Added tag - hotadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:38+00:002011-08-20 23:59:38addTag13Added tag - conservationadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:32+00:002011-08-20 23:59:32addTag12Added tag - critical thinkingadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:19+00:002011-08-20 23:59:19addTag11Added tag - ch1adminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:08+00:002011-08-20 23:59:08addTag10Added tag - sustainabilityadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:05+00:002011-08-20 23:59:05addTag9adminadmin2011-08-20 20:47:39+00:002011-08-20 20:47:39updated8adminadmin2011-08-20 20:46:15+00:002011-08-20 20:46:15updated7adminadmin2011-08-20 20:43:07+00:002011-08-20 20:43:07updated6adminadmin2011-08-20 19:14:13+00:002011-08-20 19:14:13updated5adminadmin2011-08-20 19:11:26+00:002011-08-20 19:11:26updated4adminadmin2011-08-20 18:59:57+00:002011-08-20 18:59:57updated3adminadmin2011-08-20 18:56:59+00:002011-08-20 18:56:59updated2First createdadminadmin2010-11-07 01:41:28+00:002010-11-07 01:41:28created1wiki2011-09-08T21:36:21+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/welcomeFalseCh01 Overview/groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/welcome/Ch01_Overview.htmladmin29 updatesCh01 Overview Welcome to our APES wiki. You should be able to do the following after logging in with your account: To create a new page, click the ...Falseadmin2011-09-08T21:36:21+00:00hot/groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/index.rss?sort=modifiedDate&kind=all&sortDirection=reverse&excludePages=wiki/welcomelist/groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/?sort=modifiedDate&kind=all&sortDirection=reverse&excludePages=wiki/welcomeRecent ChangesRecentChangesListUpdates?sort=modifiedDate&kind=all&sortDirection=reverse&excludePages=wiki/welcome0/groups/apenvironmentalscience/sidebar/RecentChangesListmodifiedDateallRecent ChangesRecentChangesListUpdateswiki/welcomeNo recent changes.reverse5searchlist/groups/apenvironmentalscience/calendar/Upcoming EventsUpcomingEventsListEvents1Getting events…