apes withgott 6e.14
See also chapter 17 in the F/R text:
mod 56 Human Disease
mod 57 Toxicology and chemical risk
mod 58 Risk Analysis
Back to Withgott.....
Water bottles, food, baby bottles, tupperware
Endocrine disruptors: what are they, how do they work?
BPA is an estrogen analog: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bisphenol_A
Physical e.g. UV radiation (DNA damage)
Chemical e.g. drugs, pesticides, venoms, synthetic and natural
Biological e.g. infectious diseases (vectors)
Cultural e.g. smoking, COPD, seat belts, hang gliding, swimming with sharks
Non-infectious diseases: genetics + environmental factors, e.g. cancer, heart disease, obesity
Infectious diseases (ID): ebola, influenza, AIDS, SARS, Covid-19
Spread much faster bc air travel, trains, trucks (see AIDS in Africa, bubonic plague, SARS)
Kinshasa "AIDS highway" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinshasa_Highway
Radon: 226 mass, stays in lower lobes of the lungs, found in basements where Uranium ores are present (Colorado, Alaska)
Asbestos: fibrous non-burning insulating material, mined for ages as an insulator, tabletop, flooring, insulation. Fibers in the air cause asbestosis in the lungs, and various forms of lung cancer (carcinoma)
lead: used in many manufacturing processes, batteries, plumbing/solder, gasoline (yes, gasoline as tetra ethyl lead), causes brain retardation (see romans and lead), replaced in gasoline by MTBE, which causes cancer.
PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) fire retardants (e.g. TRIS), PBDEs are also hormone disrupters
Risk vs. reward (see malaria and DDT)
VOC in drinking water
Heptachlor in green chop hawaii
EDB in water on Oahu (ant poison)
DDT-foggers in 1960’s….
Carcinogens-cause cancer, long term or short term
Mutagens-mutate you or your kids (reproductive DNA)
Neurotoxins-mercury and other heavy metals (Minamata Bay), many derived from insecticides
Allergens-airborne or food borne
Pathway inhibitors-endocrine disruptors, BPA, Phthalates (plastics)
Exposure: acute or chronic
Polar concentration-air currents
toxic concentration: DDT
Bioaccumulation-A single creature
Biomagnification-MANY trophic levels, MANY creatures
Dose response analysis: determining the dose to have some sort of immediate impact, usually on test animals, but can also be part of a "natural experiment" where something happens to a human or other population, not planned, but well documented.
LD50 and ED50 (not the same)
LD50 is the dose that kills 50% of the population, so LD50 means "lethal dose to 50%"
ED50 is the effective dose (ED) in a test, which can be good or bad: good might be aspirin, but usually it means amount to cause some non-lethal effect, like mice losing their hair.
Threshold dose (non linear)
Pesticide poisoning: Yaqui indians, PCB endocrine disruptors
perception vs. reality
innocent until proven guilty vs. precautionary principle
POPs persistent organic pollutants
Aldrin, Chlordane, DDT, Dieldrin, Dioxin, Endrin