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    ch 8 mod 24 Earth systems

    Big picture: 15 by ago...
    Big bang, then stars which live for about 10 BY, then...
    Nova, supernova, neutron stars


    4.5 by ago-solar system (including bits from supernovae)
    When first stars die as supernovae (about 10 BY into their life), the heat and pressure created all elements beyond Iron on the periodic table
    so...
    Anything on our planet that is lower than Iron on the periodic table, came from the explosion of an older star, including stuff inside YOU.
    Earth forms from molten elements as our solar system is formed, (called an accretion disc) including Uranium
    (reason for heat still in the core-see the minister estimate of Sunday afternoon creation date)

    Geo time: ("deep time")


    You can look up the K-T extinction online, it happened 65MY ago. Look up the dude that discovered it...


    See videos: How the earth was made...
    http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/how%20the%20earth%20was%20made/

    Layers: (onion boy)
    Core-Mantle-Crust-think of an apple



    Core is actually two bits: solid inner iron and nickel, liquid outside that bit. It spins, giving us a weak magnetic field
    How do we know this? Nuclear bomb testing and our global seismic sensor network
    Hint: the inner part spins around in the opposite direction every 60-80 MY, so the earth's magnetic field actually FLIPS (this is important for later-or sooner)

    Plate Tectonics-look up this guy: Wegener. Meteorologist (weather guy), so the geo folks laughed at him...
    The players:
    Magma-(Dr. Evil voice here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVo1S52xdpI)
    Asthenosphere-"sticky rock" (from Greek ἀσθενής asthenḗs 'weak' + "sphere")
    Lithosphere-floating rock (litho = stone) (Ancient Greek: λίθος [lithos] for "rocky", and σφαίρα [sphaira] for "sphere")
    Continents-even more floaty, made of lighter rock (granite) that formed from interaction of magma with oceans

    Plates are large, float on the Asthenosphere
    Continents are like rafts on the Asthenosphere, more buoyant than the plates
    The plates can slide under each other (subduction zones), crash into each other (Himalayas), next to each other (transform faults), and are formed at spreading zones (divergent boundaries)

    Check out this diagram: note the red (spreading) and the blue (subducting), esp. look at Chile---->

    What mountains are in Chile?
    Volcanoes are the key:
    Two kinds of volcanoes: Andesitic (pointy), Basaltic (runny, look out your window)
    Andesite-from pressure and heat as plates subduct (sticky, high silica content, e.g. Andes mountains)
    Basalt-from ocean crust, lots of water, makes for weak, runny magma, formed as magma pushes through watery ocean plates
    Subduction zones:



    Note the sticky stuff boiling up in red-this is why the Andesitic volcanoes are sticky, and always found near subduction zones (Andes, Cascades, Japan, Italy, etc.)
    Note also the trench where the subduction zone goes down: this is the origin of the Chilean/Peruvian trench we covered in the El Nino notes, as well as the deepest part of the ocean: the Marianas Trench, which is 7 MILES deep. Whoa!

    Historic data shows subduction zone quakes that would create a tsunami 1000' high or more on the pacific northwest coast, flooding everything west of I-5.

    Look at all of the earthquakes (red dots) as the plate subducts

    Two things to take-away about subduction zones:
    1. subduction zones create ANDESITIC (pointy) volcanoes, which are high in silica, and sticky like thick pancake batter.
    2. subduction zones create lots of deep focus earthquakes.


    Spreading zones:
    --See the submarine notes
    What the heck is this?
    Note the symmetry along the ridge crest. This was mapped in WWII in an attempt to detect metallic submarines using magnetic sensors on ships. Later on airplanes like this:



    You will see these practicing at the Kona airport, look out for them. They are spying on submarines. Not ours.





    Remember the earth magnetic field changing?


    Hot spots:
    Usually in the middle of an oceanic plate, but can also be mid continent (e.g. Yellowstone supervolcano caldera)
    Hot spots-basalt-low silica content, melts easier (e.g. look out the window)
    Look at the Hawaii island chain on google earth (underwater version)
    While you are at it, look for the Nuuanu landslide that created a 4000' tsunami
    You can also look at the Mauna Loa simulated tsunami on youtube...

    Earthquakes:

    then there's the famous "notmy" fault...

    Epicenter is the place ON THE SURFACE above the hypocenter (true origin) or earthquake FOCUS. Deeper hypocentric quakes often feel "longer", while shallow hypocentric quakes feel "sharp".



    How do we find these?
    Seismographs:
    P waves travel by compression (comPression). These are longitudinal waves, like sound. They can travel through liquid or solid.
    S waves travel by shear (Shear). These are transverse waves, like a slinky. They can only travel through solids.

    This is how we know what the inside of the earth looks like:
    This data was found by spying on atomic bomb tests in the 1950's, not because we wanted to know about the guts of our planet...

    Ok, back to earthquakes.
    Suppose you have a house on posts (called "post and pier" construction). An earthquake happens some distance away. First your house moves back and forth (P wave, much faster at 8 km/sec). After a time, your house bounces up and down from the S waves (slower at 3 km/second).
    If you are far away, these are separated by different arrival times.
    If you are near the epicenter, they hit at the same time...up, over, down=your house is demolished

    We use this difference to calculate distance from the epicenter (and hypocenter if you are interested) using delay times on the seismograph


    Look at the HPA seismograph here:
    http://www.fdsn.org/networks/detail/PT/
    and our Hawaii quakes here:
    https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo/hvo_earthquakes.html
    Click on some earthquakes and note the depth and the seismic image.

    Next: Rocks Module 25
    Igneous (fire)
    Sedimentary (layers)
    Metamorphic (Kafka rocks, just kidding: changed by heat and pressure)


    Igneous= directly from magma, can be either basalt (low melting point, like our island or oceanic plates) or granite (lighter, what continents are made of)
    Granite breaks down into light colored sand, makes for fertile soil. Basalt (like us) can make sand too, but less fertile (e.g. black sand beach).

    Sedimentary= just like it sounds, from mud, sand or dust, usually in layers.

    Metamorphic= changed by heat and/or pressure (slate, marble or coal)

    Soil-formed by weathering (chemical or physical) of parent rock
    Erosion can be by water or air (wind)

    Soil Horizons:


















    Comments

    /groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/index.rss?tag=hotlist/groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/?tag=hotWhat’s HotHotListHot!?tag=hot6/groups/apenvironmentalscience/sidebar/HotListadminadmin2013-02-05 02:24:03+00:002013-02-05 02:24:03updated4Added tag - hotadminadmin2013-02-05 02:24:02+00:002013-02-05 02:24:02addTag3adminadmin2013-02-05 02:05:35+00:002013-02-05 02:05:35updated2First createdadminadmin2013-02-05 02:03:35+00:002013-02-05 02:03:35created1wiki2013-02-05T02:24:03+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/394a8FalseEnergy notes/groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/394a8/Energy_notes.htmladmin4 updatesEnergy notes Week of 2.4.13: energy wrap-up e2 video: coal vs. nuclear in class AP exams: FRQ 2002.1 2004.2 2006.1 2007.2 2008.1 ...Falseadmin2013-02-05T02:24:03+00:00adminadmin2013-02-05 02:23:20+00:002013-02-05 02:23:20updated6Added tag - hotadminadmin2013-02-05 02:23:18+00:002013-02-05 02:23:18addTag5adminadmin2013-02-05 02:23:12+00:002013-02-05 02:23:12updated4adminadmin2013-02-05 02:21:48+00:002013-02-05 02:21:48updated3adminadmin2013-02-05 02:20:26+00:002013-02-05 02:20:26updated2First createdadminadmin2013-02-05 02:06:00+00:002013-02-05 02:06:00created1wiki2013-02-05T02:23:20+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/c360bFalseFeb-May plan/groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/c360b/FebMay_plan.htmladmin6 updatesFeb-May plan 1. conclusion of energy chapters (see previous wiki) 2. GCC AP questions FRQ: 2006.2 2005.3 2005.4 2007.3 ...Falseadmin2013-02-05T02:23:20+00:00adminadmin2012-03-07 05:53:55+00:002012-03-07 05:53:55updated14adminadmin2012-03-07 05:43:38+00:002012-03-07 05:43:38updated13adminadmin2012-03-07 05:41:35+00:002012-03-07 05:41:35updated12adminadmin2012-03-07 05:38:57+00:002012-03-07 05:38:57updated11Added tag - hotadminadmin2012-03-07 05:38:55+00:002012-03-07 05:38:55addTag10adminadmin2012-03-07 05:36:47+00:002012-03-07 05:36:47updated9adminadmin2012-03-07 05:22:26+00:002012-03-07 05:22:26updated8adminadmin2012-03-07 05:20:01+00:002012-03-07 05:20:01updated7adminadmin2012-03-07 05:18:58+00:002012-03-07 05:18:58updated6adminadmin2012-03-07 04:58:55+00:002012-03-07 04:58:55updated5adminadmin2012-03-07 04:57:33+00:002012-03-07 04:57:33updated4adminadmin2012-03-07 04:56:53+00:002012-03-07 04:56:53updated3adminadmin2012-03-07 04:54:20+00:002012-03-07 04:54:20updated2First createdadminadmin2012-03-07 04:53:33+00:002012-03-07 04:53:33created1weblog2012-03-07T05:53:55+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/de030FalseGreen Apple/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/de030/Green_Apple.htmladmin14 updatesGreen Apple Team, Please watch this video about NYC: Trailer: http://www.pbs.org/e2/episodes/101_the_green_apple_trailer.html On the server: http://physics.hpa...Falseadmin2012-03-07T05:53:55+00:00adminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:24+00:002011-09-13 19:08:24updated4Added tag - hotadminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:22+00:002011-09-13 19:08:22addTag3adminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:10+00:002011-09-13 19:08:10updated2First createdadminadmin2011-09-13 19:04:30+00:002011-09-13 19:04:30created1weblog2011-09-13T19:08:24+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/4ecddFalseQuestions for Wednesday, wiki adds/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/4ecdd/Questions_for_Wednesday_wiki_adds.htmladmin4 updatesQuestions for Wednesday, wiki adds Team, I'd like to try something for class tomorrow: each of you to create a question from chapter 3, and email it to me by this evening (Tuesday). Pl...Falseadmin2011-09-13T19:08:24+00:00adminadmin2011-09-08 21:36:21+00:002011-09-08 21:36:21updated29adminadmin2011-08-24 23:20:40+00:002011-08-24 23:20:40updated28adminadmin2011-08-24 22:42:36+00:002011-08-24 22:42:36updated27adminadmin2011-08-22 02:41:09+00:002011-08-22 02:41:09updated26adminadmin2011-08-22 02:40:02+00:002011-08-22 02:40:02updated25adminadmin2011-08-21 20:39:11+00:002011-08-21 20:39:11updated24adminadmin2011-08-21 20:30:42+00:002011-08-21 20:30:42updated23adminadmin2011-08-21 20:30:13+00:002011-08-21 20:30:13updated22adminadmin2011-08-21 20:25:48+00:002011-08-21 20:25:48updated21adminadmin2011-08-21 20:25:18+00:002011-08-21 20:25:18updated20adminadmin2011-08-21 00:22:12+00:002011-08-21 00:22:12updated19adminadmin2011-08-21 00:18:56+00:002011-08-21 00:18:56updated18adminadmin2011-08-21 00:15:43+00:002011-08-21 00:15:43updated17adminadmin2011-08-21 00:12:37+00:002011-08-21 00:12:37updated16adminadmin2011-08-21 00:12:02+00:002011-08-21 00:12:02updated15adminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:41+00:002011-08-20 23:59:41updated14Added tag - hotadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:38+00:002011-08-20 23:59:38addTag13Added tag - conservationadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:32+00:002011-08-20 23:59:32addTag12Added tag - critical thinkingadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:19+00:002011-08-20 23:59:19addTag11Added tag - ch1adminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:08+00:002011-08-20 23:59:08addTag10Added tag - sustainabilityadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:05+00:002011-08-20 23:59:05addTag9adminadmin2011-08-20 20:47:39+00:002011-08-20 20:47:39updated8adminadmin2011-08-20 20:46:15+00:002011-08-20 20:46:15updated7adminadmin2011-08-20 20:43:07+00:002011-08-20 20:43:07updated6adminadmin2011-08-20 19:14:13+00:002011-08-20 19:14:13updated5adminadmin2011-08-20 19:11:26+00:002011-08-20 19:11:26updated4adminadmin2011-08-20 18:59:57+00:002011-08-20 18:59:57updated3adminadmin2011-08-20 18:56:59+00:002011-08-20 18:56:59updated2First createdadminadmin2010-11-07 01:41:28+00:002010-11-07 01:41:28created1wiki2011-09-08T21:36:21+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/welcomeFalseCh01 Overview/groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/welcome/Ch01_Overview.htmladmin29 updatesCh01 Overview Welcome to our APES wiki. 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