- Your pond has only one color goldfish, what is the Biodiversity index?
- Another pond has equal numbers of 4 color fish, what do you estimate the index for this to be?
- Use your calculator to determine the H value for this pond:
100 fish total
30 “one fish”
30 “two fish”
20 “red fish”
20 “blue fish”
The formula is below:
H = -((x/n*ln(x/n)) + (x/n*ln(x/n)) + (x/n*ln(x/n)) + (x/n*ln(x/n)))
Mod 15: Evolution (see also chapter 5 in the Froggie book)
Three conditions must be met:
1. genetic variation (mutation)
2. some stress that favors this variation (adaptation)
3. survivors procreate, pass on the variation (reproduction)
Genotype: set of genes (dominant and recessive)
Phenotype: traits expressed in a living creature
Genetic drift-pretty much what it sounds like
Bottleneck effect-VERY important: when a species is almost extinct, there is little variation in the gene pool of the survivors, even if their population rebounds (e.g. whales)
Founder effect: random selection of survivors, creating a new gene pool (birds, gilligan)
mod 16: speciation
Geographic isolation (e.g. Galapagos) also found where we disturb natural habitats with roads
Causes Allo (other) Patric (father) speciation
Eventually reproductive isolation will result: different breeds will not be able to procreate
There is another more rare form of speciation: Sympatric ("same father"), from polyploidy, ("many chromosomes")
GMO: see roundup ready corn and wheat, freeze proof tomatoes and others.
Not to be confused with Dwarf Wheat and Norman Borlaug (see population chapters for more on this).
Dwarf wheat was a simple hybrid, not a GMO.
Look up "gene guns" and CRISPR
mod 17: niches and species distribution
Check this out:
You'll see another like this in population distributions...
Range of tolerance-where it can survive
Fundamental niche-happy place
Realized niche-de facto place
Distribution-areas where they live (we'll see more of this in the chapter on population distributions: random, scattered, patterned)