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    Modules 15-17 Evolution

    Quiz: 10.14.19:

    10.14.19:

    1. Your pond has only one color goldfish, what is the Biodiversity index?
    2. Another pond has equal numbers of 4 color fish, what do you estimate the index for this to be?
    3. Use your calculator to determine the H value for this pond:

    100 fish total

    30 “one fish”

    30 “two fish”

    20 “red fish”

    20 “blue fish”


    The formula is below:

    H = -((x/n*ln(x/n)) + (x/n*ln(x/n)) + (x/n*ln(x/n)) + (x/n*ln(x/n)))


    Mod 15: Evolution (see also chapter 5 in the Froggie book)
    Three conditions must be met:
    1. genetic variation (mutation)
    2. some stress that favors this variation (adaptation)
    3. survivors procreate, pass on the variation (reproduction)

    Genotype: set of genes (dominant and recessive)
    Phenotype: traits expressed in a living creature

    Genetic drift-pretty much what it sounds like
    Bottleneck effect-VERY important: when a species is almost extinct, there is little variation in the gene pool of the survivors, even if their population rebounds (e.g. whales)

    Founder effect: random selection of survivors, creating a new gene pool (birds, gilligan)

    mod 16: speciation
    Geographic isolation (e.g. Galapagos) also found where we disturb natural habitats with roads
    Causes Allo (other) Patric (father) speciation
    Eventually reproductive isolation will result: different breeds will not be able to procreate

    There is another more rare form of speciation: Sympatric ("same father"), from polyploidy, ("many chromosomes")

    GMO: see roundup ready corn and wheat, freeze proof tomatoes and others.
    Not to be confused with Dwarf Wheat and Norman Borlaug (see population chapters for more on this).
    Dwarf wheat was a simple hybrid, not a GMO.
    Look up "gene guns" and CRISPR

    mod 17: niches and species distribution
    Check this out:

    You'll see another like this in population distributions...
    Range of tolerance-where it can survive
    Fundamental niche-happy place
    Realized niche-de facto place
    Distribution-areas where they live (we'll see more of this in the chapter on population distributions: random, scattered, patterned)

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GCC AP questions FRQ: 2006.2 2005.3 2005.4 2007.3 ...Falseadmin2013-02-05T02:23:20+00:00adminadmin2012-03-07 05:53:55+00:002012-03-07 05:53:55updated14adminadmin2012-03-07 05:43:38+00:002012-03-07 05:43:38updated13adminadmin2012-03-07 05:41:35+00:002012-03-07 05:41:35updated12adminadmin2012-03-07 05:38:57+00:002012-03-07 05:38:57updated11Added tag - hotadminadmin2012-03-07 05:38:55+00:002012-03-07 05:38:55addTag10adminadmin2012-03-07 05:36:47+00:002012-03-07 05:36:47updated9adminadmin2012-03-07 05:22:26+00:002012-03-07 05:22:26updated8adminadmin2012-03-07 05:20:01+00:002012-03-07 05:20:01updated7adminadmin2012-03-07 05:18:58+00:002012-03-07 05:18:58updated6adminadmin2012-03-07 04:58:55+00:002012-03-07 04:58:55updated5adminadmin2012-03-07 04:57:33+00:002012-03-07 04:57:33updated4adminadmin2012-03-07 04:56:53+00:002012-03-07 04:56:53updated3adminadmin2012-03-07 04:54:20+00:002012-03-07 04:54:20updated2First createdadminadmin2012-03-07 04:53:33+00:002012-03-07 04:53:33created1weblog2012-03-07T05:53:55+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/de030FalseGreen Apple/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/de030/Green_Apple.htmladmin14 updatesGreen Apple Team, Please watch this video about NYC: Trailer: http://www.pbs.org/e2/episodes/101_the_green_apple_trailer.html On the server: http://physics.hpa...Falseadmin2012-03-07T05:53:55+00:00adminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:24+00:002011-09-13 19:08:24updated4Added tag - hotadminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:22+00:002011-09-13 19:08:22addTag3adminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:10+00:002011-09-13 19:08:10updated2First createdadminadmin2011-09-13 19:04:30+00:002011-09-13 19:04:30created1weblog2011-09-13T19:08:24+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/4ecddFalseQuestions for Wednesday, wiki adds/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/4ecdd/Questions_for_Wednesday_wiki_adds.htmladmin4 updatesQuestions for Wednesday, wiki adds Team, I'd like to try something for class tomorrow: each of you to create a question from chapter 3, and email it to me by this evening (Tuesday). 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