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    Withgott ch. 14: Health

    Withgott (author of our Froggie iBook)
    Sixth edition of his text, chapter 14 notes:
    Download file "withgott 14 health-toxicology.pdf"

    apes withgott 6e.14


    BPA-bisphenol-A

    Water bottles, food, baby bottles

    See photo 14.1

    4 Hazards:

    physical e.g. UV radiation

    chemical e.g. drugs, pesticides, venoms

    biological e.g. infectious diseases (vectors)

    cultural e.g. smoking, COPD, seat belts, hang gliding, swimming with sharks


    non-infectious diseases: genetics + environmental factors, e.g. cancer, heart disease, obesity


    infectious diseases (ID): ebola, influenza, AIDS

    spread much faster bc air travel, trains, trucks (see AIDS in Africa)


    toxicology-chemical hazards

    radon

    asbestos

    lead

    PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) fire retardants (e.g. TRIS)

    PBDEs are also hormone disrupters

    risk vs. reward (see malaria and DDT)

    VOC in drinking water

    Heptachlor in green chop hawaii

    EDB in water on Oahu (ant poison)

    DDT-foggers in 1960’s….


    Toxins

    Carcinogens-cause cancer

    Mutagens-mutate you or your kids (reproductive DNA)

    Teratogens-cause birth defects

    neurotoxins-mercury and other heavy metals (Minamata Bay)

    allergens-airborne or food borne

    pathway inhibitors-endocrine disruptors, BPA, Phthalates


    exposure: acute or chronic

    polar concentration-air currents


    see 14.13


    toxic concentration: DDT

    see 14.14


    Bioaccumulation-A single creature

    Biomagnification-MANY trophic levels, MANY creatures


    Dose response analysis

    See 14.17

    Threshold dose (non linear)


    Pesticide poisoning: Yaqui indians


    Synergistic effects

    Endocrine disruptors


    risk probability

    perception vs. reality

    risk assessment


    innocent until proven guilty vs. precautionary principle


    TOSCA 1976

    REACH 2007


    POPs persistent organic pollutants

    Aldrin, Chlordane, DDT, Dieldrin, Dioxin, Endrin








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