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    AP exam review notes

    APES notes

    Keystone: influence greater than relative abundance

    ex: predator keeps herbivore pop down, preserves rare grass


    Biomes:

    terrestrial, freshwater, marine

    latitude, humidity, elevation-terrestrial

    freshwater: rivers, wetlands and basins (deeper than what they serve)

    marine:

    neritic -close to shelf

    benthic-deep, sloping away from con shelf

    pelagic-open sea

    abyssal-very deep

    hadal-trenches


    food webs:

    connections of energy from producer to consumer

    trophic pyramid (see plankton to ahi, bioaccumulation)

    primary producers: autotrophs-photosynthetic plants, chemotrophic (sulfur)-inorganic sources (also foundation species)

    heterotrophs-get energy from organic sources:

    herbivores, carnivores, scavengers

    lots of energy lost between trophic levels (thermodynamics) rule of 10%


    ecosystems-

    abiotic environment

    producers-autotrophs, e.g. plants

    consumers-heterotrophs, e.g. herbivores, canrivores

    decomposers-detritovores


    photosynthesis-

    CO2, water, light into organic compounds (e.g. sugars)

    photoautotrophs-plants

    carbon fixation (redox rx) reduction is CO2 to CHO

    chlorophyll, carotenes and xanthophylls


    cellular respiration-

    conversion of energy to ATP (phosphate bonds)

    glucose, amino acids and fatty acids with O2 as an oxidizer (accepts electrons) OIL RIG

    aerobic and anaerobic metabolysis (aerobic is 19x more efficient)

    TCA cycle, mitochondria


    biodiversity-

    variation of life forms within a biome or ecosystem

    genetic

    species

    ecosystem

    creates stability and robustness in ecosystems


    biogeochemical cycles (nutrient cycles)

    how an element or molecule travels through biotic (living things) and abiotic (earth, air, water) parts of earth

    reservoirs may differ: N2 in air, P in soil

    closed system: C N O P

    open system: energy, e.g. photosynthesis

    cycles:

    carbon

    nitrogen

    oxygen

    phosphorus

    water

    also mercury and atrazine (herbicide)


    GM crops

    genetic engineering vs. selective breeding or mutation breeding

    concerns: ecological, economic (LDC) and IP rights (see Monsanto)

    uses restriction enzymes to ID and isolate genes

    inserted using gene gun (plasmid) or agrobacterium


    GMO

    insertion or deletion of genes

    recombinant DNA, transgenic organisms

    if no DNA from other species, cisgenic (cis vs trans)

    lentiviruses-can transfer genes to animal cells

    Genentech-Berkeley 1978, created human insulin from E. Coli (vs. cow or pig insulin)


    pesticides-

    biological, chemical, antimicrobial, disinfectant

    pests: pathogens, insects, weeds, mullosks, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes and microbes

    any food competitor or spoiler, also disease vectors

    herbicides-glyphosate (roundup)

    insecticides-HCl, carbamates, pyrethrins, etc.

    green fungicides-paldoxins

    EPA regulates

    banned: carcinogenic, mutagenic or bioaccumulators

    see also NRDC


    pesticide laws-

    Federal insecticide act-1910

    Federal insecticide, fungicide and rodenticide act (FIFRA)-1947 then 1972, 1988

    1947-ag dept

    1972-EPA

    3 categories: antimicrobials, biopesticides, conventional


    forest management-

    silviculture, protection and regulation (Pennsylvania = Penn’s woods)

    conservation and economic concerns

    watershed management included

    see also FSC 1993, forest stewardship council (certifies wood harvests)


    applied ecology-

    conservation biology, ecology, habitat management

    invasive species management

    rangeland management

    restoration ecology


    land management-

    habitat conservation

    sustainable ag

    urban planning


    sustainable ag-

    environmental stewardship

    farm profitability

    farming communities

    e.g. ability to produce food indefinitely, without causing damage to ecosystem health

    see also erosion, irrigation/salinization, crop rotation

    see also landraces, e.g. prairie grasses


    mining laws-

    SMCRA surface mining control and reclamation act (1977)

    1. regulates active coal mines

    2. reclamation of abandoned mines

    dept of interior admin

    response to strip mining (1930+)

    SMCRA

    regulation:

    1. standards of performance

    2. permitting

    3. bonding

    4. inspection/enforcement

    5. land restrictions

    compare to 1945 strip mining practices


    Fisheries laws-

    monitor and protect fisheries resources

    overfishing conference 1936

    1957: Beverton and Holt did study on fish dynamics

    goals:

    1. max sustainable biomass yield

    2. max sust. econ yield

    3. secure employment

    4. secure protein supply

    5. income from export

    6. bio and economic yield

    UNCLOS-UN convention on law of the sea

    EEZ-exclusive economic zones

    12 mi = coastal sovereignty

    200 mi = fishing restrictions

    2004-UN made stricter laws on fisheries mgt.

    1995 code of conduct for responsible fisheries

    quotas, taxation, enforcement (USCG)



    tragedy of the commons-

    1968 Science article-Garrett Hardin

    individual benefit, common damage

    strict management of global common goods

    see also overgrazing, pollution, privatization

    "a fundamental extension of morality"


    Rachel Carson: Silent Spring 1962

    DDT weakening shells of birds

    “biocides” bioaccumulation (single animal)



    ozone depletion-

    stratospheric ozone depletion

    4% since 1970

    ozone hole over antarctica

    catalytic destruction of ozone by chlorine and bromine

    halogen compounds CFCs (freons) and bromofluorocarbons (halons)

    ODS ozone depleting substances

    ozone blocks UVB 270-315 nm

    Montreal protocol 1987 banned CFCs

    O + O3 --> 2O2 (transparent)

    Cl + O3 -->ClO + O2

    ClO + O3 -->Cl + 2O2

    effects:

    1. ++ carcinomas

    2. melanomas

    3. cataracts

    4. ++ tropospheric ozone (toxic)

    5. kills cyanobacteria (rice nitrogen fixers)


    ————Laws————————————————————


    1963 CAA Clean air act


    1970: NEPA National environmental policy act

    EIS environmental impact statement

    EPA environmental protection agency


    1972 CWA clean water act


    1973 ESA endangered species act


    1973 CITES convention on international trade in endangered species


    1974 SDWA safe drinking water act


    1976 RCRA resource conservation and recovery act (cradle to grave act)


    1980 CERCLA comprehensive environmental response compensation and reliability act (superfund)


    1987 Montreal protocol: ozone depletion, CFCs banned


    1997 Kyoto protocol: climate change, GHG


    Case studies

    species———
    loss of amphibians

    zebra mussels

    passenger pigeon extinction

    DDT

    kudzu invasion

    grey wolves in yellowstone

    california condor

    water——

    lake erie dead

    st. james bay, canada

    gulf of mexico dead zone

    aral sea

    three gorges dam

    california aqueduct

    human——

    china one child policy

    easter island

    events——

    bhopal

    chernobyl

    cuyahoga river

    deepwater horizon

    fukushima

    exxon valdez

    hurricane katrina

    kissimmee river

    london fog

    love canal

    santa barbara oil spill

    three mile island

    Comments

    /groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/index.rss?tag=hotlist/groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/?tag=hotWhat’s HotHotListHot!?tag=hot6/groups/apenvironmentalscience/sidebar/HotListadminadmin2013-02-05 02:24:03+00:002013-02-05 02:24:03updated4Added tag - hotadminadmin2013-02-05 02:24:02+00:002013-02-05 02:24:02addTag3adminadmin2013-02-05 02:05:35+00:002013-02-05 02:05:35updated2First createdadminadmin2013-02-05 02:03:35+00:002013-02-05 02:03:35created1wiki2013-02-05T02:24:03+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/394a8FalseEnergy notes/groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/394a8/Energy_notes.htmladmin4 updatesEnergy notes Week of 2.4.13: energy wrap-up e2 video: coal vs. nuclear in class AP exams: FRQ 2002.1 2004.2 2006.1 2007.2 2008.1 ...Falseadmin2013-02-05T02:24:03+00:00adminadmin2013-02-05 02:23:20+00:002013-02-05 02:23:20updated6Added tag - hotadminadmin2013-02-05 02:23:18+00:002013-02-05 02:23:18addTag5adminadmin2013-02-05 02:23:12+00:002013-02-05 02:23:12updated4adminadmin2013-02-05 02:21:48+00:002013-02-05 02:21:48updated3adminadmin2013-02-05 02:20:26+00:002013-02-05 02:20:26updated2First createdadminadmin2013-02-05 02:06:00+00:002013-02-05 02:06:00created1wiki2013-02-05T02:23:20+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/c360bFalseFeb-May plan/groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/c360b/FebMay_plan.htmladmin6 updatesFeb-May plan 1. conclusion of energy chapters (see previous wiki) 2. GCC AP questions FRQ: 2006.2 2005.3 2005.4 2007.3 ...Falseadmin2013-02-05T02:23:20+00:00adminadmin2012-03-07 05:53:55+00:002012-03-07 05:53:55updated14adminadmin2012-03-07 05:43:38+00:002012-03-07 05:43:38updated13adminadmin2012-03-07 05:41:35+00:002012-03-07 05:41:35updated12adminadmin2012-03-07 05:38:57+00:002012-03-07 05:38:57updated11Added tag - hotadminadmin2012-03-07 05:38:55+00:002012-03-07 05:38:55addTag10adminadmin2012-03-07 05:36:47+00:002012-03-07 05:36:47updated9adminadmin2012-03-07 05:22:26+00:002012-03-07 05:22:26updated8adminadmin2012-03-07 05:20:01+00:002012-03-07 05:20:01updated7adminadmin2012-03-07 05:18:58+00:002012-03-07 05:18:58updated6adminadmin2012-03-07 04:58:55+00:002012-03-07 04:58:55updated5adminadmin2012-03-07 04:57:33+00:002012-03-07 04:57:33updated4adminadmin2012-03-07 04:56:53+00:002012-03-07 04:56:53updated3adminadmin2012-03-07 04:54:20+00:002012-03-07 04:54:20updated2First createdadminadmin2012-03-07 04:53:33+00:002012-03-07 04:53:33created1weblog2012-03-07T05:53:55+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/de030FalseGreen Apple/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/de030/Green_Apple.htmladmin14 updatesGreen Apple Team, Please watch this video about NYC: Trailer: http://www.pbs.org/e2/episodes/101_the_green_apple_trailer.html On the server: http://physics.hpa...Falseadmin2012-03-07T05:53:55+00:00adminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:24+00:002011-09-13 19:08:24updated4Added tag - hotadminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:22+00:002011-09-13 19:08:22addTag3adminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:10+00:002011-09-13 19:08:10updated2First createdadminadmin2011-09-13 19:04:30+00:002011-09-13 19:04:30created1weblog2011-09-13T19:08:24+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/4ecddFalseQuestions for Wednesday, wiki adds/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/4ecdd/Questions_for_Wednesday_wiki_adds.htmladmin4 updatesQuestions for Wednesday, wiki adds Team, I'd like to try something for class tomorrow: each of you to create a question from chapter 3, and email it to me by this evening (Tuesday). Pl...Falseadmin2011-09-13T19:08:24+00:00adminadmin2011-09-08 21:36:21+00:002011-09-08 21:36:21updated29adminadmin2011-08-24 23:20:40+00:002011-08-24 23:20:40updated28adminadmin2011-08-24 22:42:36+00:002011-08-24 22:42:36updated27adminadmin2011-08-22 02:41:09+00:002011-08-22 02:41:09updated26adminadmin2011-08-22 02:40:02+00:002011-08-22 02:40:02updated25adminadmin2011-08-21 20:39:11+00:002011-08-21 20:39:11updated24adminadmin2011-08-21 20:30:42+00:002011-08-21 20:30:42updated23adminadmin2011-08-21 20:30:13+00:002011-08-21 20:30:13updated22adminadmin2011-08-21 20:25:48+00:002011-08-21 20:25:48updated21adminadmin2011-08-21 20:25:18+00:002011-08-21 20:25:18updated20adminadmin2011-08-21 00:22:12+00:002011-08-21 00:22:12updated19adminadmin2011-08-21 00:18:56+00:002011-08-21 00:18:56updated18adminadmin2011-08-21 00:15:43+00:002011-08-21 00:15:43updated17adminadmin2011-08-21 00:12:37+00:002011-08-21 00:12:37updated16adminadmin2011-08-21 00:12:02+00:002011-08-21 00:12:02updated15adminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:41+00:002011-08-20 23:59:41updated14Added tag - hotadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:38+00:002011-08-20 23:59:38addTag13Added tag - conservationadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:32+00:002011-08-20 23:59:32addTag12Added tag - critical thinkingadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:19+00:002011-08-20 23:59:19addTag11Added tag - ch1adminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:08+00:002011-08-20 23:59:08addTag10Added tag - sustainabilityadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:05+00:002011-08-20 23:59:05addTag9adminadmin2011-08-20 20:47:39+00:002011-08-20 20:47:39updated8adminadmin2011-08-20 20:46:15+00:002011-08-20 20:46:15updated7adminadmin2011-08-20 20:43:07+00:002011-08-20 20:43:07updated6adminadmin2011-08-20 19:14:13+00:002011-08-20 19:14:13updated5adminadmin2011-08-20 19:11:26+00:002011-08-20 19:11:26updated4adminadmin2011-08-20 18:59:57+00:002011-08-20 18:59:57updated3adminadmin2011-08-20 18:56:59+00:002011-08-20 18:56:59updated2First createdadminadmin2010-11-07 01:41:28+00:002010-11-07 01:41:28created1wiki2011-09-08T21:36:21+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/welcomeFalseCh01 Overview/groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/welcome/Ch01_Overview.htmladmin29 updatesCh01 Overview Welcome to our APES wiki. You should be able to do the following after logging in with your account: To create a new page, click the ...Falseadmin2011-09-08T21:36:21+00:00hot/groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/index.rss?sort=modifiedDate&kind=all&sortDirection=reverse&excludePages=wiki/welcomelist/groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/?sort=modifiedDate&kind=all&sortDirection=reverse&excludePages=wiki/welcomeRecent ChangesRecentChangesListUpdates?sort=modifiedDate&kind=all&sortDirection=reverse&excludePages=wiki/welcome0/groups/apenvironmentalscience/sidebar/RecentChangesListmodifiedDateallRecent ChangesRecentChangesListUpdateswiki/welcomeNo recent changes.reverse5searchlist/groups/apenvironmentalscience/calendar/Upcoming EventsUpcomingEventsListEvents1Getting events…