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    Modules 26-28: Water

    11.4.19 quiz

    1. Explain why clay soils hold water more effectively than sandy soils
    2. Which of the three key nutrients is critical for roots and fruits?
    3. Explain the 5 soil layers
    4. What is the perfect soil type, and why?

    Recall:
    Energy->Water->Food->Culture

    Water: key points

    Section one: What is it, where is it: freshwater, saltwater, how it moves, aquifers and reservoirs, impact of climate change, water wars

    Section two: Pollution:

    Often human driven (anthropogenic): Nutrient, thermal, BOD, sediment

    Almost always human driven: Pathogens, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals, radioactive chemicals

    Section three: Water Quality index:

    DO, BOD, pH, temp, turbidity, conductivity, nitrates (NO3), phosphates (PO4)


    Section one: What is it, where is it?

    Where is the water?
    How does it get there?

    Click for full-size image
    Click for full-size image


    Aquifers:


    Click for full-size image

    Huge aquifer-note recharge time is in centuries, pesticides in NE

    Click for full-size image
    Water diversion (e.g. rivers)

    Two critical issues for China:
    Pearl river delta and salt intrusion (sea level rise)
    Vanishing Himalayan Glaciers (no farming in western China):
    Glaciers
    Glaciers are the water towers for Asia...
    Rivers impacted:
    Ganges, Yangtze, Yellow, Mekong, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Indu, Salween,




    Aral Sea (asia minor)

    Click for full-size image
    Water disputes:

    Click for full-size image

    Section two: Pollution
    Big ideas:
    1. Rivers are continuous, so easier to find sources along the route (continuity analysis: all sources add to total)
    2. Groundwater is harder to determine point sources, as flow is over larger area (not confined by river banks) and there is no continuity analysis possible (we don't know sources and sinks)
    3. Oceans are the hardest to trace, and impact everyone eventually, just like the atmosphere, only without the rain, and it is wetter. And full of fish.
    Water Pollution categories:







    Pollutant list:

    Click for full-size image



    Nitrate levels (note farming regions):

    Why is there a hypoxic zone there?

    Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD):
    Better diagram:

    Click for full-size image


    Note that temperature changes DO (dissolved oxygen) content, so does physical agitation (aeration).
    Section three: Water Quality Index:

    http://www.water-research.net/index.php/water-treatment/water-monitoring/monitoring-the-quality-of-surfacewaters

    http://www.water-research.net/watrqualindex/index.htm

    http://www.pathfinderscience.net/stream/cproto4.cfm
    Calculation worksheet:
    http://www.pathfinderscience.net/stream/forms/WQI_worksheet.pdf


    See also point source and non-point source pollution (from Poisoned Waters video, remember the Deer?)

    Important: cooler water holds dissolved oxygen better (fishermen know this, so do the fish).

    Water Quality Lab:

    Lab samples

    1. Post waterfall
    2. Post power plant
    3. Everglades close to ocean
    4. Post sewage plant
    5. Best fishing spot
    6. Mine tailings runoff
    7. Snow melt river
    8. Mississippi river
    9. Chesapeake river
    10. Flood after monsoon rains
    11. Golf course runoff
    12. Eutrophied lake

    Metrics:
    • DO
    • BOD
    • pH
    • temperature
    • turbidity
    • conductivity
    • nitrates
    • phosphates
    Simulated locations:
    Samples:
    Sample A
    • DO:1.5
    • BOD:low
    • pH:7
    • temperature:30°C
    • turbidity:high
    • conductivity:low
    • nitrates:high
    • phosphates:high

    Sample B
    • DO:6
    • BOD:low
    • pH:7
    • temperature:10°C
    • turbidity-low
    • conductivity-low
    • nitrates-low
    • phosphates-low

    Sample C
    • DO: 4
    • BOD:low
    • pH:8
    • temperature:25°C
    • turbidity: high
    • conductivity: high
    • nitrates: high
    • phosphates: high

    Sample D-
    • DO: 2
    • BOD: high
    • pH:5
    • temperature: 28°C
    • turbidity:high
    • conductivity: low
    • nitrates: low
    • phosphates: high

    Sample E
    • DO: 2
    • BOD:low
    • pH:2
    • temperature:20°C
    • turbidity:high
    • conductivity: high
    • nitrates: low
    • phosphates: low

    Sample F
    • DO: 1
    • BOD: high
    • pH: 4
    • temperature: 30°C
    • turbidity: high
    • conductivity: high
    • nitrates: high
    • phosphates: high

    Comments

    /groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/index.rss?tag=hotlist/groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/?tag=hotWhat’s HotHotListHot!?tag=hot6/groups/apenvironmentalscience/sidebar/HotListadminadmin2013-02-05 02:24:03+00:002013-02-05 02:24:03updated4Added tag - hotadminadmin2013-02-05 02:24:02+00:002013-02-05 02:24:02addTag3adminadmin2013-02-05 02:05:35+00:002013-02-05 02:05:35updated2First createdadminadmin2013-02-05 02:03:35+00:002013-02-05 02:03:35created1wiki2013-02-05T02:24:03+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/394a8FalseEnergy notes/groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/394a8/Energy_notes.htmladmin4 updatesEnergy notes Week of 2.4.13: energy wrap-up e2 video: coal vs. nuclear in class AP exams: FRQ 2002.1 2004.2 2006.1 2007.2 2008.1 ...Falseadmin2013-02-05T02:24:03+00:00adminadmin2013-02-05 02:23:20+00:002013-02-05 02:23:20updated6Added tag - hotadminadmin2013-02-05 02:23:18+00:002013-02-05 02:23:18addTag5adminadmin2013-02-05 02:23:12+00:002013-02-05 02:23:12updated4adminadmin2013-02-05 02:21:48+00:002013-02-05 02:21:48updated3adminadmin2013-02-05 02:20:26+00:002013-02-05 02:20:26updated2First createdadminadmin2013-02-05 02:06:00+00:002013-02-05 02:06:00created1wiki2013-02-05T02:23:20+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/c360bFalseFeb-May plan/groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/c360b/FebMay_plan.htmladmin6 updatesFeb-May plan 1. conclusion of energy chapters (see previous wiki) 2. GCC AP questions FRQ: 2006.2 2005.3 2005.4 2007.3 ...Falseadmin2013-02-05T02:23:20+00:00adminadmin2012-03-07 05:53:55+00:002012-03-07 05:53:55updated14adminadmin2012-03-07 05:43:38+00:002012-03-07 05:43:38updated13adminadmin2012-03-07 05:41:35+00:002012-03-07 05:41:35updated12adminadmin2012-03-07 05:38:57+00:002012-03-07 05:38:57updated11Added tag - hotadminadmin2012-03-07 05:38:55+00:002012-03-07 05:38:55addTag10adminadmin2012-03-07 05:36:47+00:002012-03-07 05:36:47updated9adminadmin2012-03-07 05:22:26+00:002012-03-07 05:22:26updated8adminadmin2012-03-07 05:20:01+00:002012-03-07 05:20:01updated7adminadmin2012-03-07 05:18:58+00:002012-03-07 05:18:58updated6adminadmin2012-03-07 04:58:55+00:002012-03-07 04:58:55updated5adminadmin2012-03-07 04:57:33+00:002012-03-07 04:57:33updated4adminadmin2012-03-07 04:56:53+00:002012-03-07 04:56:53updated3adminadmin2012-03-07 04:54:20+00:002012-03-07 04:54:20updated2First createdadminadmin2012-03-07 04:53:33+00:002012-03-07 04:53:33created1weblog2012-03-07T05:53:55+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/de030FalseGreen Apple/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/de030/Green_Apple.htmladmin14 updatesGreen Apple Team, Please watch this video about NYC: Trailer: http://www.pbs.org/e2/episodes/101_the_green_apple_trailer.html On the server: http://physics.hpa...Falseadmin2012-03-07T05:53:55+00:00adminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:24+00:002011-09-13 19:08:24updated4Added tag - hotadminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:22+00:002011-09-13 19:08:22addTag3adminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:10+00:002011-09-13 19:08:10updated2First createdadminadmin2011-09-13 19:04:30+00:002011-09-13 19:04:30created1weblog2011-09-13T19:08:24+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/4ecddFalseQuestions for Wednesday, wiki adds/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/4ecdd/Questions_for_Wednesday_wiki_adds.htmladmin4 updatesQuestions for Wednesday, wiki adds Team, I'd like to try something for class tomorrow: each of you to create a question from chapter 3, and email it to me by this evening (Tuesday). 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