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    August 25-29

    Useful Commands:

    These commands allow you to create directories and handle files.

    cat Display File Contents
    cd Changes Directory to dirname
    chgrp change file group
    chmod Changing Permissions
    cp Copy source file into destination
    file Determine file type
    find Find files
    grep Search files for regular expressions.
    head Display first few lines of a file
    ln Create softlink on oldname
    ls Display information about file type.
    mkdir Create a new directory dirname
    more Display data in paginated form.
    mv Move (Rename) a oldname to newname.
    pwd Print current working directory.
    rm Remove (Delete) filename
    rmdir Delete an existing directory provided it is empty.
    tail Prints last few lines in a file.
    touch Update access and modification time of a file.

    The contents of files can be compared and altered with the following commands.

    awk Pattern scanning and processing language
    cmp Compare the contents of two files
    comm Compare sorted data
    cut Cut out selected fields of each line of a file
    diff Differential file comparator
    expand Expand tabs to spaces
    join Join files on some common field
    perl Data manipulation language
    sed Stream text editor
    sort Sort file data
    split Split file into smaller files
    tr Translate characters
    uniq Report repeated lines in a file
    wc Count words, lines, and characters
    vi Opens vi text editor
    vim Opens vim text editor
    fmt Simple text formatter
    spell Check text for spelling error
    ispell Check text for spelling error
    ispell Check text for spelling error
    emacs GNU project Emacs
    ex, edit Line editor
    emacs GNU project Emacs
    emacs GNU project Emacs

    Files may be compressed to save space. Compressed files can be created and examined:

    compress Compress files
    gunzip Uncompress gzipped files
    gzip GNU alternative compression method
    uncompress Uncompress files
    unzip List, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive
    zcat Cat a compressed file
    zcmp Compare compressed files
    zdiff Compare compressed files
    zmore File perusal filter for crt viewing of compressed text

    Various Unix manuals and documentation are available on-line. The following Shell commands give information:

    apropos Locate commands by keyword lookup
    info Displays command information pages online
    man Displays manual pages online
    whatis Search the whatis database for complete words.
    yelp GNOME help viewer

    These following commands are used to send and receive files from a local UNIX hosts to the remote host around the world.

    ftp File transfer program
    rcp Remote file copy
    rlogin Remote login to a UNIX host
    rsh Remote shell
    tftp Trivial file transfer program
    telnet Make terminal connection to another host
    ssh Secure shell terminal or command connection
    scp Secure shell remote file copy
    sftp secure shell file transfer program

    Some of these commands may be restricted at your computer for security reasons.

    The UNIX systems support on-screen messages to other users and world-wide electronic mail:

    evolution GUI mail handling tool on Linux
    mail Simple send or read mail program
    mesg Permit or deny messages
    parcel Send files to another user
    pine Vdu-based mail utility
    talk Talk to another user
    write Write message to another user

    The following programming tools and languages are available based on what you have installed on your Unix.

    dbx Sun debugger
    gdb GNU debugger
    make Maintain program groups and compile programs.
    nm Print program's name list
    size Print program's sizes
    strip Remove symbol table and relocation bits
    cb C program beautifier
    cc ANSI C compiler for Suns SPARC systems
    ctrace C program debugger
    gcc GNU ANSI C Compiler
    indent Indent and format C program source
    bc Interactive arithmetic language processor
    gcl GNU Common Lisp
    perl General purpose language
    php Web page embedded language
    py Python language interpreter
    asp Web page embedded language
    CC C++ compiler for Suns SPARC systems
    g++ GNU C++ Compiler
    javac JAVA compiler
    appletvieweir JAVA applet viewer
    netbeans Java integrated development environment on Linux
    sqlplus Run the Oracle SQL interpreter
    sqlldr Run the Oracle SQL data loader
    mysql Run the mysql SQL interpreter

    These commands list or alter information about the system:

    chfn Change your finger information
    chgrp Change the group ownership of a file
    chown Change owner
    date Print the date
    determin Automatically find terminal type
    du Print amount of disk usage
    echo Echo arguments to the standard options
    exit Quit the system
    finger Print information about logged-in users
    groupadd Create a user group
    groups Show group memberships
    homequota Show quota and file usage
    iostat Report I/O statistics
    kill Send a signal to a process
    last Show last logins of users
    logout log off UNIX
    lun List user names or login ID
    netstat Show network status
    passwd Change user password
    passwd Change your login password
    printenv Display value of a shell variable
    ps Display the status of current processes
    ps Print process status statistics
    quota -v Display disk usage and limits
    reset Reset terminal mode
    script Keep script of terminal session
    script Save the output of a command or process
    setenv Set environment variables
    stty Set terminal options
    time Time a command
    top Display all system processes
    tset Set terminal mode
    tty Print current terminal name
    umask Show the permissions that are given to view files by default
    uname Display name of the current system
    uptime Get the system up time
    useradd Create a user account
    users Print names of logged in users
    vmstat Report virtual memory statistics
    w Show what logged in users are doing
    who List logged in users