September 20, 2017 Daily Blog

Today in ISR I flew the drone with Ilan and helped take pictures for Zoe. I also worked on a few more sets of tables for my particle catalog today:

Lamda Baryons-

Name

Composition

Statistics

Spin

Mass (MeV/c2)

Charge

Charmed Lambda

duc

Fermionic

2286.46

+1

Bottom Lambda

udb

Fermionic

5620.2

0

Top Lambda

udt

Fermionic

NA

+1

Lambda ✣

uds

Fermionic

1115.683

0


Name

Strangeness

Charm

Beauty

Truth

Charmed Lambda

0

1

0

0

Bottom Lambda

0

0

-1

0

Top Lambda

0

0

0

1

Lambda ✣

-1

0

0

0


Nucleons-

Name

Composition

Statistics

Spin

Mass (MeV/c2)

Charge

Proton

uud

Fermionic

+1/2

938.272

+1

Neutron

ddu

Fermionic

+1/2

939.565

0


Name

Strangeness

Charn

Beauty

Truth

Proton

0

0

0

0

Neutron

0

0

0

0



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September 19, 2017 Daily Blog


So today I learned how to fly the drone and I continued to study Quarkonium. I found a great article on it, but as I kept reading I found that there are still many quantum mechanic terms that I do not fully understand. In particular what really was messing me up was "The quarkonium states with masses below the threshold for decays to open- flavour hadrons (i.e. containing non-zero flavour quantum numbers) to be kinematically allowed (m D D ̄ 3.74 GeV for charmonium and m B B ̄ 10.56 GeV for bottomonium) are typically narrow states which decay via the electromagnetic and strong interactions to lower mass quarkonium states, light hadrons or charged leptons. Quarkonium states above the relevant open-flavour threshold generally have much larger total decay widths that are dominated by strong decays to open-flavour hadrons." I understand the concept of flavour, but I do not know what open-flavour is. I also tried to do some more research today and I still don't fully know what narrow states are. I think that tomorrow I am going to email Dr. Lincoln and Dr. Yoho with my questions.

I would also like to learn how to read these sorts of graphs:




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September 18, 2017 Daily Blog

Today in ISR I spent my time studying quarkonium.

Name

Composition

Statistics

Spin

Mass (MeV/c2)

Charge

J/Psi Meson

cc (charmonium)

Bosonic

+1

3096.9

0

Upsilon Meson

bb (bottomonium)

Bosonic

+1

9460

0


Quarkonium is "the name given to a subatomic system composed of a heavy quark and its anti-quark partner bound by the strong interactions. There are two main types of quarkonium; charmonium (charm-anticharm) and bottomonium (bottom-antibottom). The amount of time it takes for these quarkoniums to form is between 10^-25 s and 10^-13 s.***

Some different properties of quarkonium are listed below:
  • Total Spin (S)
  • Orbital Angular Momentum (L)
  • Total Angular Momentum: J=L+S
  • Parity: (-1)^(L+1)
  • Charge Conjunction Parity: (-1)^(L+S)
Tomorrow I want to continue reading on quarkonium spectroscopy and I want to research what charge conjunction parity is. I also read that quarkonium was discovered in "a narrow state decaying to e+e- and mu+mu-" and I don't fully understand what this means. I want to hopefully do some more research on this tomorrow.

***I need to fact check this as I came up with this hypothesis based on other known facts. Toponium does not exist cause top quark decay (which is 5*10^-25 s) is too fast for quarkonium to form, but since charmonium can exist, it means that quarkonium must form before charm quarks decay (which is 10^-13 s).

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September 11-13 Weekly Blog

This week in ISR we only met twice. In those two times I worked mostly on my website, in particular, the particle catalog. Next week I hope to finish the particle log and put it on my website. I am also still waiting to hear back from KECK on the internship.

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September 13, 2017 Daily Blog

Today in ISR I worked on a couple different things. First of all, I submitted my application for the International MoonBase Summit in October. The IMS is a five-day summit in which students from around the world will start creating the plans for designing a MoonBase. We will actually start to make deadlines and will work with the goal of getting things accomplished. The application was rather straight forward and asked only one question; what would the benefits of the MoonBase be? Some of the benefits that I choose to mention was that telescopes on the moon wouldn't have to deal with atmospheric intervention and therefore could get clearer pictures and better data, as well as be much cheaper to build. Another benefit is that due to the moons lack of atmosphere and substantially less gravity, it would be easier and cheaper to launch satellites and rockets from the moon. This could also lead to an easier system for satellite repair as it is much easier for a satellite to land on the moon than to land back on Earth. With satellite repair, both researchers, in both the areas of space exploration and different Earth exploration and companies, such as Google and Apple, could keep their satellites running smoothly and updated with all the newest technology without having to send up a completely new satellite. This would make satellites much cheaper to manage and would also lessen the Kessler Effect.

I did some more particle physics work today as well and organized my information Xi Baryons into tables.

Name

Composition

Statistics

Spin

Mass (MeV/c2)

Charge

Charmed Xi

usc

Fermionic

2467.9

+1

Charmed Xi

dsc

Fermionic

2471

0

Charmed Xi Resonance

usc

Fermionic

2575.7

+1

Charmed Xi Resonance

dsc

Fermionic

2578

0

Double Charmed Xi

ucc

Fermionic

NA

+1

Double Charmed Xi

dcc

Fermionic

3518.9

+1

Bottom Xi

usb

Fermionic

5792

0

Cascade B

dsb

Fermionic

5792.9

-1

Double Bottom Xi

ubb

Fermionic

NA

0

Double Bottom Xi

dbb

Fermionic

NA

-1

Charmed Bottom Xi

ubc

Fermionic

NA

+1

Charmed Bottom Xi

dbc

Fermionic

NA

0

Xi(7)

uss

Fermionic

1314.83

0

Xi(8)

dss

Fermionic

1321.31

-1

Xi Renaissance ✣

uss

Fermionic

+3/2

1531.8

0

Xi Renaissance ✣

dss

Fermionic

+3/2

1535

-1


Name

Strangeness

Charm

Beauty

Truth

Charmed Xi

-1

+1

0

0

Charmed Xi

-1

+1

0

0

Charmed Xi Resonance

-1

+1

0

0

Charmed Xi Resonance

-1

+1

0

0

Double Charmed Xi

0

+2

0

0

Double Charmed Xi

0

+2

0

0

Bottom Xi

-1

0

-1

0

Cascade B

-1

0

-1

0

Double Bottom Xi

0

0

-2

0

Double Bottom Xi

0

0

-2

0

Charmed Bottom Xi

0

+1

-1

0

Charmed Bottom Xi

0

+1

-1

0

Xi(7)

-2

0

0

0

Xi(8)

-2

0

0

0

Xi Renaissance ✣

-2

0

0

0

Xi Renaissance ✣

-2

0

0

0


Last. but not least, I also talked to Snhea about the NASA Habitat. She started to show me the different aspects behind it and right now there is not much to work on but once its current inhabitants leave, she will start working with the system again. Even though there isn't much to work on right now, I definitely want to learn more about this project in the future as this is definitely something I will want to work on.

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September 11, 2017 Daily Blog

Today in ISR I worked a lot on my catalog of particles. Over the past couple days, I have been gathering a lot of information and so far I have completed the Omega and Sigma Baryon catalogs.


Name

Composition

Statistics

Spin

Mass (MeV/c2)

Charge

Charmed Omega

ssc

Fermionic

2697.5

+1

Bottom Omega

ssb

Fermionic

6054.4

-1

Double Charmed Omega

ccs

Fermionic

NA

+1

Charmed Bottom Omega

cbs

Fermionic

NA

0

Double Bottom Omega

bbs

Fermionic

NA

-1

Triple Charmed Omega

ccc

Fermionic

+3/2

NA

+2

Double Charmed Bottom

Omega

ccb

Fermionic

+1/2

NA

+1

Charmed Double Bottom Omega

cbb

Fermionic

NA

0

Triple Bottom Omega

bbb

Fermionic

+3/2

NA

-1

Omega ✣

sss

Fermionic

+3/2

1672.452

-1



Name

Strangeness

Charm

Beauty

Truth

Charmed Omega

-2

1

0

0

Bottom Omega

-2

0

-1

0

Double Charmed Omega

-1

2

0

0

Charmed Bottom Omega

-1

-1

-1

0

Double Bottom Omega

-1

0

-2

0

Triple Charmed Omega

0

3

0

0

Double Charmed Bottom Omega

0

2

-1

0

Charmed Double Bottom Omega

0

1

-2

0

Triple Bottom Omega

0

0

-3

0

Omega ✣

-3

0

0

0




Name

Composition

Statistics

Spin

Mass (MeV/c2)

Charge

Charmed Sigma

uuc

Fermionic

2454.02

+2

Charmed Sigma (Σ+c(2455))

udc

Fermionic

2452.9

+1

Charmed Sigma (Σ0c(2455))

ddc

Fermionic

2,453.76

0

Bottom Sigma

uub

Fermionic

5,807.8

+1

Bottom Sigma

udb

Fermionic

NA

0

Bottom Sigma

ddb

Fermionic

5,815.2

-1

Top Sigma (Σ++t)

uut

Fermionic

NA

+2

Top Sigma (Σ+t)

udt

Fermionic

NA

+1

Top Sigma (Σ0t)

ddt

Fermionic

NA

0

Sigma(3)

uus

Fermionic

1189.37

+1

Sigma(4)

uds

Fermionic

1192.642

0

Sigma(5)

dds

Fermionic

1197.449

0




Name

Strangeness

Charm

Beauty

Truth

Charmed Sigma

0

+1

0

0

Charmed Sigma (Σ+c(2455))

0

+1

0

0

Charmed Sigma (Σ0c(2455))

0

+1

0

0

Bottom Sigma

0

0

-1

0

Bottom Sigma

0

0

-1

0

Bottom Sigma

0

0

-1

0

Top Sigma (Σ++t)

0

0

-1

+1

Top Sigma (Σ+t)

0

0

0

+1

Top Sigma (Σ0t)

0

0

0

+1

Sigma(3)

-1

0

0

0

Sigma(4)

-1

0

0

0

Sigma(5)

-1

0

0

0



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September 5-8 Weekly Blog

This week in ISR I worked a lot with particle physics. I worked on my website more and decided on what sections I wanted to have and I started gathering together information on the standard model and creating a list of all the particles and their basic characteristics such as spin and mass. Next week I hope to continue working on this and to have a complete list of the particles and I also hope to have made substantial progress on the standard model page.

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September 8, 2017 Daily Blog

Today in ISR I worked on my Particle World website. I started designing the standard model page and I have also started compiling data for the particle log list. It still has a lot farther to go but I am making some progress. By the end of this weekend, I would like to have all the pages identified.

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September 7, 2017 Daily Blog

Today in ISR I worked on reading chapter five of Feynmans lectures. This chapter is an extra long one and its main focus is talking about our understanding of time, and how we created units such as seconds and days. Tomorrow I hope to finish this chapter and to maybe continue working on my website more. I am still waiting to hear back from KECK and Canada France and expect to hear back anytime.

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September 5, 2016 Daily Blog

Today in ISR I worked a lot on studying quantum mechanics:
  • I emailed Dr. Don Lincoln some of my questions on glueballs
  • I reviewed quantum numbers
  • I read chapter 4 of Feynman's lectures on physics (this chapter mostly included information about the physics of simple machines and the Law of Conservation of Energy so I did not take detailed notes)
I also started reading Surely You're Joking Mr. Feynman and Now: The Physics of Time, both of which I will include reading summaries for in future daily blogs.

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August 28-31 Weekly Blog

This week in ISR I still spent a lot of time working on studying quantum mechanics and deepening my understanding. My goal would be to start to work on understanding not only some particle physics but starting to understanding the mathematics and quantum mechanics behind it. In summary this week I learned about Feynman diagrams, quantum numbers (nlms), and atomic energy levels.

My goals for next week:
  • Go back to trying to read a chapter a day of Feynman lectures (I didn't really do that this week but I am still just getting used to adjusting to boarding school. I think I got a little bit more organized this week so I can continue doing this)
  • Start studying for the general radio exam (I am not sure whether I will take the technician test or the general test but I imagine I will take the general)
  • Get back in touch with some of my contacts at CERN and Fermilab
  • Keep studying quantum mechanics
  • Hopefully I will hear back from KEK this week about the internship in which case I will focus more on that.

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August 31, 2017 Daily Blog

Today in ISR I started doing some research on particle physics. The three topics I was focused on were Feynman diagrams, atomic and nuclear energy levels, and glueballs.

Feynman diagrams are used to represent the mathematics explaining the behaviors of subatomic particles. The key with reading these diagrams is that normal particles are represented as moving forward in time while antimatter particles are represented as moving backwards in time. For example, the diagram to the left shows the collision of an electron and a positron which leads to the creation of a photon, a quark, an antiquark, and a gluon. One thing I do not understand is why it creates a photon that only lasts for a short period of time before becoming the quarks. Next ISR I hope to talk to Dr. Bill more about how to fully understand these diagrams
.
Glueballs are hypothetical particles made with no quarks. Instead, they are made just out of gluons, which are the elementary carrier particle for the strong nuclear force. I have been doing some research on them and I have come across some questions that I plan to research:
  • Gluons have no rest mass, like photons, so doesn’t this mean that they are technically not matter? Or is this defined by whether or not an object has relativistic mass?
  • Gluons do however make up a large portion of the mass of other particles. Since gluons have a large amount of binding energy using Einstein’s equation E=mc^2, this does technically equate to mass. However, do glueballs also have this large amount of binding energy?
  • Scientists have done theoretical mathematical modeling of glueballs and found, contrary to their other predictions , decay into two quarks, most commonly strange quarks. However, how can a particle with no rest mass decay into quarks, which have rest mass?

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August 29, 2017 Daily Blog

Today in ISR I worked with Dr. Bill and Laney on working with computer systems. I learned how to:
  • Zap PRAM (restart-command option - p r - turns on three times)
  • Give first aid (disk utility - first aid)
  • How to Clean a Computer Using Disk Warrior (restart - t - plug into other computer and run disk warrior (you can skip the disk comparison))
We also learned more about the progress with the laser cutters today. It turns out that the fans required for the laser cutter needs to be twice as powerful as the one we have now, so we have ordered new ones. We also need to set up a way to pump pressurized air into the cutter to cool of the material once it has been cut. Once the material arrives we are going to rearrange the FAB Lab by putting the laser cutters on their stands up against the window, mounting a tv on the wall behind them, and moving the desk so that it is parallel with the cutters to set up the 3D printer and a workshop.

Last, but not least, I also read the third chapter of Feynman's lectures on physics. From now on I am going to start taking notes and I will include them in these daily blogs.

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August 28, 2017 Daily Blog

Today marks the start of my second week in ISR. I am still waiting to here back from KECK about an internship opportunity so I am currently focusing on my Particle World website. Today I started compiling information on each of the particles in the standard model and worked on starting to organize it on a page. I am currently using Wix to design my website, but I am completely open to looking at other website platforms, and I will probably look at some other platforms tomorrow. I also decided today that I want to take the radio technician exam, as having a radio license could be very helpful in areas I want to pursue. I will ask for more information to study for the test tomorrow.

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August 20-21 Weekly Blog

This was my first week in ISR and it was pretty exciting. Mostly what I did this week was learn more about the energy lab, the program, and everyone else projects. I also looked into doing a internship with the KECK telescope and I am expecting to here back from them in a few weeks. I have also been working on setting up the FAB Lab and I have started working with the others to set up the laser cutter. Now that I am a little bit more settled in here are my goals for next week:
  • Read one chapter of Feynmans lectures on physics per day.
  • Finish setting up the FAB Lab
  • Start working on my particle world website

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August 24, 2017 Daily Blog

Today in ISR I started to focus more on studying quantum physics. I am going to start reading "Surely You're Joking Mr. Feyman!" and I also started reading his lectures in physics and today I read chapter one of lecture book 1. As for my KECK Internship I am currently waiting to hear back from them and expect to get more information in a couple of weeks.

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August 22, 2017 Daily Blog

I am still working on developing exactly what projects I am going to be working on in ISR. Today I made a list of things I would be interested in studying through a KEK telescope internship. Things I would be interested in studying include:
  • Dark Matter (mapping and composition)
  • Dark Energy
  • Black Holes (Hawking Radiation, Black Hole Death, and White Holes)
  • Gamma Bursts
  • Gravitational Waves
  • Supernovas
  • Cosmic Background Radiation
  • Cosmic Flows
  • Gravity (and the possibility that gravitons could be leaking from the universe)
  • Anything involving quantum physics
I also spent some time today looking into Haley's old underwater VR project which I am considering picking up.

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August 21, 2017 Daily Blog

Today was my first real day of ISR so I am still getting used to how things work. I spent sometime today talking about different projects I would like to work on. Some projects I am looking at are working with the Nasa Habitat and maybe continuing the underwater virtual reality project. Also today I worked a little bit with planning out the design of the Fab Lab and where we are going to place the new laser cutters. Tomorrow I would like to look into the other astrophysics projects and also look into the underwater VR and the KEK internship.

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Project Proposal

PARTICLE WORLD


ABSTRACT:

The purpose of my project, Particle World, is to create a series of educational videos and a website to explain particle physics to the general population in a way that is easy to understand and comprehend. Throughout the course of the year I plan to study not only particle physics, but programing, website design and creation, and video production as well to achieve this goal.


INTRODUCTION and GOALS:

A couple years ago, I decided to write a review article titled “An Introduction to the World of Subatomic Particles”. Of course, to do so I had to do an incredible amount of research as I didn’t know much on the field of particle physics at the time. However, as time went on, I discovered that it is really hard to find information on particle physics that is easy to understand for people, such as myself, who don’t have degrees in mathematics or quantum mechanics. After completing my paper, I was inspired to create an educational platform on particle physics that everyone, no matter what their level of education, could understand. This educational platform, called Particle World, will be a set of many videos and a website that will accomplish my goal. To do this I hope to become proficient in HTML (which is the most common coding for websites), learn what makes websites interesting and easy to use, and to learn how to create better animations for my videos. I have already created a youtube channel, and two videos, but I would like to use this time to not only create a website and more videos, but to also increase the qualities of my videos through animations and programing. The link to my youtube channel is:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tENE6I6nqUc


IMPLEMENTATION and CHALLENGES:

Project Planning - My plan for this project is to split my time into two parts; website design and video production. For website design, I will spend my time studying basic website design and coding. Once I have developed basic knowledge on how to create my website I will start the actual design process. I hope to have the website up and running by the end of the year. For the video production side of my project, I hope to produce one video a month. I will spend the first two weeks doing research on my video topic and creating my storyboard and script. I will then spend the rest of the months filming, animating, and producing the video. Some video ideas I have already began brainstorming are tetraquarks, neutrinos (The “Ghost” Particles), and Supersymmetry.

Research and Resources - So far I have done a lot of research on particle physics and quantum mechanics. I have also done some research and projects involving video editing. The area I know least about is website design and programing. I want to build my knowledge in all areas through discussion with scientists and through more of my own research, and I want to continue taking lessons and HTML to grow my knowledge on website design.

Challenges - The biggest challenge I believe I will face is figuring out ways to explain complex quantum mechanical theories and principles, such as spin or Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), in layman terms. However, as a famous particle physicist said, “If you can’t explain the concept to your grandmother, then you clearly don’t know it as well as you though.” I believe that this will definitely be a challenge, but it is one I can overcome and be stronger because of it.


IMPACT and LEGACY:

Impact - This project will greatly benefit me in many ways through expanding my knowledge on particle physics, which is what I want to study in college, and through increasing my skill set in video production, animation, and programing, which is the language of the future. I also hope to learn how to best explain difficult concepts and to grow as a teacher.

Legacy - This project will never be 100% complete as the world of subatomic particles is mostly unknown and new discoveries and theories are being found and created everyday. Therefore, I want to continue working on this project through the rest of my high school career. Also, hopefully Particle World will inspire others to study particle physics, who can continue on with the project.



APPENDIX A: RESEARCH

  • Dr. Don Lincoln

Dr. Don Lincoln is a particle physicist working at both Fermilab and CERN, who has been a great help so far in answering some of my many questions and explaining concepts that I do not quite understand. He also makes educational videos for Fermilab and has been very helpful and encouraging in helping guide me in creating my videos. In the future, I would like to continue to ask him some of my many questions and get his feedback on my videos as I release them.

  • Dr. Amanda Yoho

Dr. Amanda Yoho has a PhD in both particle physics and cosmology and has helped answer some of my questions in particle physics and also helps me connect particle physics and cosmology together. In the future, I would also like to continue working with her on the many connections and borders between particle physics and cosmology.

  • Cornell University Library - arXiv.org

This is a collection of both recent and old research articles, with a large collection of articles on the areas of Quantum Physics and Astrophysics. In the past, I have not been able to really use this source, but as both my knowledge of mathematics and my knowledge of quantum mechanics have grown in leaps and bounds over the past few years, I hope to be able to use this source much more as it will greatly increase my understanding of advanced topics in the quantum world.

Hyperphysics is the website I used to learn most of the principles and properties I know in quantum mechanics. In the future, I hope to continue to use this website to greatly increase my understanding of some of the many idiosyncrasies of quantum mechanics.

I have started using codeacademy to learn basic HTML coding, which is commonly used to code websites. I hope to codecademy to continue learning HTML that can help me create my website.



APPENDIX B: RESOURCES

  • For Video Production

    • Critical

      • Final Cut Pro X (Already have this program on my computer, but if I use another computer, I will need this program)

      • Video Camera (I can use my phone but it might be nice if there is a better quality camera available)

      • A Program through which I can Create Animations

      • An Online Whiteboard Program

      • Screen Recorder

    • Necessary

      • An External Drive (I will be working with many large video files that will take up too much space on my computer to store there. This drive should be fairly large, and can either store the video footage for all videos as backup or can store just the video footage for the video I am working on at the time)

      • Headphones

      • Microphone (For better audio quality)

      • A Quiet Room to Record in

    • Optional

      • Other Places to Record (can just be different spots around campus or on the island)

      • Different Particle Physics T-Shirts


  • For Website Creation

    • Critical

      • A Domain for my Website

      • A Platform where I can learn Programing

      • A Platform where I can learn Website Design

      • Computer to program on (this can be my own computer with whatever programs are necessary)

    • Optional

      • Social Media Accounts (such as facebook, google+, instagram, etc.)


  • For Research

    • Critical

      • Dr. Don Lincoln (Already in contact with)

      • Computer to do Research on (this can be my own computer)

    • Optional

      • Dr. R (Can help me understand the mathematical side of quantum mechanics and understand the research articles)

      • Other Scientists (all of which I am in contact with already)

        • Dr. Amanda Yoho (Particle Physics, Cosmology)

        • Dr. Evalyn Gates (Particle Physics)

        • Margot Taylor (Astrophysics)


**** Optional in all areas is other students to work with who are interested in video production, animation, website design, and/or particle physics. I am good doing the project on my own, but I am completely open to working with other students if anyone would like to join.

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