Blog

Biomes

Team,
Nice work on the massive but interesting/depressing Poisoned Waters video. Lots there to dissect over the next few months. We have another like that for later called "Heat" about climate change, but we need to move on to biomes, which is what chapter 4 in our text is all about. The frog book will be our first pass at this, with excellent diagrams of biomes from a standpoint of temperature and rainfall: the two most important distinctions between biomes.
Keep in mind biomes are to living things as your friends are to you: it's not what they will do, it's what they WON'T do that you can count on.
For example:
A tropical rain forest will reliably provide an environment of lots of water, and warm temperature for all bios in this "ome". It would kill this life (bios) if it were to undergo desert or tundra conditions.
So...
Let's take time this week to go over Frog book chapter 6: Biomes and Aquatic systems.
Please make sure to complete each of the lesson exercises and email me your (correct) answers after each class. Your homework will involve some reading of the material in the text from module 9, which should help bring these topics together. There's a lot to discuss about these topics, so relax, we'll be going over them in more detail the following week.
Week 6 assignments:
In class: complete frog book chapter 6: Biomes and Aquatic systems
homework: module 9 and 10 in the normal text.
As always, please let me know how I can help.
aloha
b

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Poisoned Waters

Poisoned Waters-Frontline Video

Video is here:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/poisoned_waters/POISONED_WATERS.mp4

High quality version is here:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/poisoned_waters/poisoned_waters.m4v

You may find it helpful to download this into your own computer: hold the option key while clicking on the link.

Context:

Water Pollution-air pollution-climate change

water pollution:

continuity, local until ocean,


Sections:

Chesapeake watershed

EPA CWA 1970

Perdue/hog Ag farms

endocrine disrupters-drinking water

bioaccumulation-PCB

Puget Sound-Boeing

runoff-water transit time King County

Tyson’s corner/Fairfax-transit time, sediment runoff

Loudon county-traffic

Arlington-urban planning


Chesapeake Bay

why is it useful to get the historical view of the craggy old fishermen?

how are the fish an indicator species?

how large is the Chesapeake watershed?

why is this bay uniquely vulnerable?

what causes dead zones in the film?

what is the global trend in dead zones? where?

what three basic functions of the bay will likely be lost to your generation?

what was different 40 years ago?

what was the cause and effect process of Earth Day and the EPA?

Did Nixon back the clean water act? Explain.

What were the key tenets of the CWA?

What were the initial actions of the EPA?

RFK jr. says he could not swim in the Hudson, Charles or Potomac. Where are these?

Why did you have to take a shower if you fell into these rivers?

What was the Potomac point source pollution source described in the film?

What is BNR and how does it work?

What is not removed from human wastewater with BNR that concerns us?

How did Reagan’s policies impact the EPA and pollution regulation?

What is “voluntary compliance” and did it work? explain.


Factory farms

what is the biggest danger with concentrated animal farms (poultry, pigs, cows)?

Look up why we have different names for the same animals: cow/beef,chicken/poultry, pig/pork

Why is it advantageous for Perdue to subcontract chicken operations?

what is vertical integration?

what was the national response to cheap chicken?

if you were to put chicken manure on your garden, you could burn your plants. why?

On the way downhill to the coast, there is an egg factory that went out of business, who now sells “manure compost”. Where did this come from, and how is it a good deal for them?

Why does not Perdue own the chicken waste, if they own the chickens? How does the Perdue guy dodge the problem?

what is the difference between city waste and ag waste?

What does the chicken guy say about deer?

What did the chicken lobby in Maryland (eastern shore) do about pollution regulation? why?

How is this similar to the Iowa corn ethanol lobby?

RFK Jr. describes two things: externalized costs and subsidies. What does he mean by these?


Endocrine disrupters

why are not endocrine disrupters part of the clean water act?

what is intersex in the male bass? what causes this?

how does the concept of river continuity impact endocrine disrupters?

do they need to be very concentrated to be effective?

a person flushes birth control pills (hormones) down the drain. How can this impact someone living many miles downstream?

why are these hormones not filtered by water treatment plants?

What is “synergism”? Why is it critical here?


Puget Sound

How cold is the water in Puget Sound? Why is this relevant?

why do the apex predators have the highest concentration of PCB?

what is a sentinel species? why is this relevant?

which population of humans is now showing similar health effects?

what is Superfund, who funds it?

what is the biggest liability problem with the Boeing situation?

what is the concept of “deep pockets”?

why would native Americans be the indicator species in the duomish river?

is south park (not the tv show) upper income or lower, immigrant or not? Why is this important?

You will be expected to know all about Love Canal. How is this similar?

what do you think is coming out of the pipe underwater?

why are “impervious surfaces” so bad for the Puget Sound?

why do folks get upset about oil spills and not the stuff you see in the video?

what is the difference in transit time for rain water hitting concrete vs. soil?

Ron Sims has enemies in King county. Who?

How is the Growth Management Act/Critical Areas Ordinance (CAO) similar to the Urban Growth Boundaries (UGB) concept in Portland Oregon (recall the Portland e2 video)

Look up the CAO now. How is it going?

Who is King County named for? Why is this ironic?


Fairfax

Look up Tyson’s corner. What did it look like in 1945?

Would Tyson’s corner have been successful without cars?

How is Tyson’s corner like Los Angeles?

How is Arlington different from Tyson’s corner?

In a sense, US cities are learning to become more like older European cities. Why are they different?

what is the “canary in the coal mine” and where did this term come from?

According to the narrator and Governor of Washington, what is a necessary part of the solution?

What is your part in this future?


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Module 8 Resilience

Mod 8 notes-disturbances

disturbance because they are events caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents that results in changes in population size or community composition in ecosystems.


population or composition change———

Resistant: NPP same

Resilience: rate of recovery from disturbance

Watershed: all land with common drainage


Some disturbances impact diversity

Deforestation and carbon

Clear cutting and erosion

Temperature and productivity (see also bacteria)


http://adage.com/article/media/generic-millennials-ad-made-made-stock-footage/310297/


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Mod 6 and 7 movement of energy and matter

Mod 6-energy movement

many ecosystems->biosphere (life)

photosynthesis: CO2 + H2O + energy -> sugar + O2

Respiration: reverse

Sugar + O2 -> H2O +CO2 +energy/heat

Electron phosphorylation chain, AMP->ADP->ATP

Stored in phosphate bonds (mono, di, tri)

See also anaerobic respiration: less efficient, smelly bacteria, wounds


Lowest level in trophic pyramid: autotrophs (primary producers)=plants

sun->energy (sugar)

Next level: herbivores (primary consumers) =deer

Secondary consumer: wolf, eats deer

Tertiary: man, bear, aliens from another planet


See also detritivores (decomposers) and scavengers (dead stuff)


Trophic effficiency: 10% so 100 J of energy goes in, 10 goes to next level

Energy used to breathe, walk around, reproduce, watch animal planet…


Food chain: increasing levels of consumers

Food web: the whole interconnected mess


GPP=total solar energy into the system

NPP=GPP-energy used for respiration


Biomass=total mass of living stuff


Mod 7-Matter movement

Big word: Bio Geo Chemical System (BGCS?)

All matter moving around in a system (except zombies)

Water cycle (as opposed to motor cycle)—————

Most important of them all

Evaporation: heat energy, liquid to gas phase

(n.b. sublimation is solid to gas, or ax murderer becoming a butcher)

Plants do something called transpiration, which is water vapor from their leaves

EtO is evapotranspiration, = both combined

You need to know this if you want to grow stuff: sunlight, wind increase EtO

Runoff is just what it sounds like…


Carbon cycle (not carbon bi-cycle)—————————

Gas phase: CO2 (exhale)

Liquid phase: H2CO3 (carbonic acid)

Solid phase: CaCO3 (marble)


Combustion is any combination of O2 and C (any rate)

e.g. gasoline: Octane (8 carbons) + O2 ->CO2, H2O and energy

technically respiration is combustion, only slower…


Macronutrients (for BIG plants)—————

NPK (fertilizer ones) Ca, Mg (dolomite), S (smelly rotten eggs, coal, oil)


Nitrogen cycle (makes grass green, good for plants)——————

MOST confusing of them all

Makes little sense in any language

N2 is atmospheric Nitrogen

Lightning can heat it to mix with O2 or H2 to make NO3 (nitrate) or NH3 (ammonia). This is abiotic nitrogen fixation, very rare, but you smell it after lighting storms…

This is one theory of how life started on earth-lightning making NH3 compounds and then (*zap*) life…

All Nitrogen compounds are called amines, but they all have other names (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, ammonium, confusium, etc.)

Biotic involves bacteria usually, often in the roots of legumes or other plants (beans, etc.)

NH3+ can move to NH4+ where water is around (needs the extra H)

Nitrifying bacteria do this: NH4+ ->NO2- ->NO3- ——>living stuff

Pay no attention to the charges, they make little sense unless you are a chemist…

De-nitrifying bacteria do the reverse: NO3—>NO2—>NO->N2 (gas)

Cool


Phosphorous cycle (no gas phase, just rocks and bones, rocks and bones)——

Ok, there is another form, but it is liquid.

H3PO4 is in coca cola (phosphoric acid)

Phosphate is all over the planet in rocks. It dissolves. Things eat it to make bones and teeth. When they die (or birds poop it out) you have phosphate.

Good fertilizer, needed for roots and fruits.

Hawaiians knew all about this, which is why where we sit was once a very productive farmland.

IN ANIMALS: AMP->ADP->ATP phosphate bonds store energy

Gross thing: farmers dug up the bones of dead people after the battle of Waterloo to fertilize their crops. Shrek did the same thing…

Algal bloom-this is important:

Too much P in a stream, pond or waterway causes a bloom of algae.

Yay algae.

Then they all die.

Boo algae.

Then they sink to the bottom of the pond or whatever.

Then they decay, using up all of the oxygen in the water.

Kills everything.

Biggest one is off the coast of New Orleans (why?)

Another one: Chesapeake Bay (south of DC)


Sulfur (also used to make gunpowder)————

STINKY-rotten eggs smell is protein in the eggs breaking down

Why? Methionine, that’s why (look it up, I’m not kidding)

Basic building block in many amino acids (like methionine)

Dead stuff becomes oil and coal, when we burn that up, the S comes out making SO2, which combines with water in the air to make…

Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)

Acid rain.

Worst acid rain was in Germany (pH 2) and in West Virginia (stronger than stomach acid).

There used to be a forest in the Schwartzwald (black forest) that died completely from this.

Nasty!


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Mod 5 notes: Energy, work, temperature

mod5 (see also frog 17.1)

energy->Joules (work~amount of water)

power->Watts (how fast the work is done~flow)

EMR: shorter wavelengths more energy e.g. UV, X-rays

KE/PE

PE: chemical bonds, height, spring

KE: motion, freewheel, flowing air/water

temp: KE=1/2mv^2 (macro level)

molecular level:

KE=3/2kT, so T prop to v^2 of molecules

thermodynamics: 3 laws (physics version)

  1. you can’t win (no eff. >100%)
  2. you can’t break even (no eff. = 100%)
  3. you can’t get out of the game (S >0 univ)

Chemical version:

  1. energy cannot be created or destroyed
  2. energy can move, but always at a cost (entropy, disorder increases, S>0 universe)

efficiency; never 100%, 30-60% common

Human 35% eff, diesel engine 60%

energy quality-entropy, disorder, e.g. closet S>0, takes energy input to reduce S (entropy)

open/closed systems: energy, mass

steady state: balance

positive/negative feedback: stable, instable c.g. of ships


n.b.

solar panels: 100 kW = 100kJ per second

wind turbine 2.4 kW = 2.4 kJ per second

stairs: how fast could you run up? Mass?

hot water heater: 4.5 kW for 1 hour = 4.5 kWh

4°C water density greatest: ponds don’t freeze solid in winter

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module 4 notes

Notes on module 4, and random stuff Dr. Bill said in class:

matter: d=m/v matter is anything with density (not destiny)
Atoms: a-tom tom=cut tomogram, subway turkey slicer, also brain slicer
molecules: more than one atom connected
elements: see the periodic table, always capital letter then smaller letter as needed
Names often arcane
All elements in same column are chemically similar: Sr 90, I 131
Antimony (Sb) kills monks
Carbon 14/6 6 protons, 6 electrons (if neutral), 8 neutrons
Imbalance of neutrons associated with radioactivity
Radioactive half-lives-THC example of ascending total concentrations
(next: ionic and covalent bonds)
(next: polar and non-polar molecules)
Water: cohesion-water to water adhesion-water to something else
Capillary action: basis of all roots, trees, fibers, long hair
Salt the earth: desertification, water follows salt
next:
pH and pOH, -log10 [H]
organic and inorganic
ionic and covalent bonds
polar and non-polar molecules
CHO-simple or complex chains of CHO
Fats-Glycerol backbone with chains of CHO
Proteins-Nitrogen base with chains of CHO-puppy food, green grass
DNA/RNA
Phospholipid bilayer
cells

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mod 2 notes

  • ecosystem services-brings economics into the picture (see e2 videos)
  • env. indicator-bellweather, indicator species
  • 5 big ones:
    • biodiversity
    • food production per capita (per head)
    • surface temp and CO2
    • human population
    • resource depletion
  • genetic diversity: among a population
  • species diversity: species among a region
  • background extinction rate (see also background mutation/speciation rate-cosmic rays)
  • ecosystem diversity: see monoculture crops (e.g. corn)
  • greenhouse gases-anthropogenic
  • development: IPAT formula
  • dimensional analysis: 1 acre per second, 2.47 acres per hectare, convert to ha per year (ha is about 2 football fields side by side, or 100mx100m, so 1 acre is roughly one football field)
  • sustainability; thinking of forever
  • Easter island: people or rats?
  • biophilic design: life loving design
  • ecological footprint:
  • Weekend assignment: chapter 1 practice exam, p. 28: MC (multiple choice) and FR (free-response) online, and module 3 HW (email to me)

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Topics of interest

carbon footprint

renewable resources

stars and galaxies

sustainability

biodiversity

hawaii environment

energy

sustainability at hpa

NASA mission

home solar

noise pollution

biophilic design

island impacts-climate change

pollution

water conservation

radiation

architecture


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mod 1

First, let's start with something fun:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3m5qxZm_JqM


What does the politician consider "the environment"?

Here's what the book says: O ur environment is the sum ofaU the conditions surrounding us that influence life

Environmental science is like the triathlon of science: it ties all of the subjects together.

Biotic=living

Abiotic=non living (e.g. geology)

Ecosystem=interactive location, context driven (look at the little fishies)



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2017-2018 Year

Team,
Monday, we'll spend some time enabling you to reach our resource server at physics.hpa.edu, followed by a navigation exercise that should be fun.

Tuesday we'll begin chapter one in the Friedland second edition text, as well as the iBook by Withgott. Both of these are listed on the Haiku pages under "Resources".

If you'd like to get a head start on the text and don't have it yet, I have a pdf of the first chapter here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/fr2e/fr_2e_ocr/01-3-ocr.pdf
Let me know if you need help getting access to this.

Finally, our last Wednesday/Thursday class will continue with Ch 1, hopefully covering modules 1 and 2.
Let me know if you have any questions, and how I can help.
aloha
b

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Unit 1

Download file "barrons-apes-unit1.pdf"

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No frogs here chapter 16: waste

APES no frog book ch 16-waste


p. 563 open loop/closed loop recycling

sanitary landfill

fly ash-heavy metals


1976-1980 Carter

RCRA resource conservation recovery act-solid waste laws, cradle to grave responsiblity

HSWA later (1984


CERCLA (superfund) comprehensive environmental response compensation and liability act

NPL-national priorities list


brownfields: contaminated sites


p. 581 William McDonough cradle to cradle (not grave)

“upcycle” instead of recycle


deeper shades of green e2

ken yeang-singapore library

william mcdonough-upcycle

werner sobek-R128

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FR 3.4.16

Download file "ap15_frq.pdf"

Download file "ap11_frq.pdf"

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FR scoring guidelines

Download file "2010-4 scoring.pdf"


Download file "Screen Shot 2016-03-02 at 12.46.22 PM.png"
Download file "Screen Shot 2016-03-02 at 12.46.32 PM.png"
Download file "Screen Shot 2016-03-02 at 12.46.40 PM.png"
Download file "2006-2 scoring.png"

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Dr. Greene-Climate Change

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Readings

First, something fun:
Download file "HarpersMagazine-2016-03-0085851.pdf"

Now, something interesting about underwater rivers in Brooklyn, NY:
Download file "HarpersMagazine-2016-03-0085870.pdf"

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Heat video questions

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/heat/

I know you are juggling final projects, and your time is limited. We'll see the video in class Thursday and Friday, and we can discuss as needed. I hope this helps give you a jump on things:

1 What river is China planning to divert that will cause conflict with India?

2 Why did Brashears go back to that specific site to take the photo, and what did he see? What possible explanations are there for this? Take both sides of the climate crisis argument in your answer.

3 What was so surprising in the 1958 movie? Was this common knowledge? How can you tell?

4 How did the cheapness of energy influence public opinion?

5 Is the climate crisis an energy issue, a tree issue, an albedo issue, or a permafrost issue?

6 What happened at Kyoto? What was the most embarrassing part? Why did the US behave so?

7 Why would China's growth outweigh any changes the US might make to change carbon emissions?

8 What is Geely? Where? What model is their biggest seller? Is this scary? Why? What did their director say?

9 How many coal plants does China create every week?

10 Dr. Ling Wen says 30% growth over 5 years. What is the doubling rate for this? (recall the rule of 70). Why is his line "if we can" so scary? What are his responsibilities, in what order?

11 In what year will India's population exceed that of China? Why?

12 What is the third largest contributor to greenhouse gases? Where?

13 What reduction in CO2 did the Indian guy say they could do by 2050? What is the growth rate? What did Sunita Narain say about this? Why is this not sustainable?

14 What did Pachauri say? What are his reasons?

15 What did the US negotiators say? Why is this unfair? What did China say?

16 Google Senator Inhofe, and find out why he is a global warming skeptic. Where does his money come from?

16 This video was filmed in 2008. What was the position of each candidate?

17 What did Jeffrey Sachs say?

18 How many tons of coal are mined in the powder river basin each day?

19 The director of the West Virginia power plant (Charlie Powell) says: "we produce 1300 kilowatts of power every hour". It is clear he does not know as much about electricity as you do. What is wrong with his statement?

20 How many pounds of Coal power your TV for one hour? What percentage of power in the US comes from Coal?

21 Analyze the term "clean coal" from both sides of the argument. What are the motives of each side and why?

22 Senators Byrd and McConnell represent which states? What is their bias?

23 What is IGCC? Where is it located? Has it been tested? Where would they inject the ground? Why is this dangerous? Are we "carbon capture ready"? Where would this be tested first, and why is it problematic? If pipelines were used, why would these be dangerous?

24 How many tons of CO2 does the US emit every day?

25 The US is called the "Saudi Arabia of Coal". Why?

26 What is the second largest emitter of greenhouse gases? Now list the top three in order.

27 What are CAFE standards, and what does it stand for? What happened in the last few years to the CAFE standards? When were they created, and track the mpg numbers since then. How did auto manufacturers get around the CAFE standards since the Ford Explorer came out?

27 What is John Dingell's motive? Why? Where is he from? Why did he block seat belts? Is his responsibility only to his 800,000 citizens or to the country, or the planet as a whole?

28 What MPG is the terminator seeking for California? By when? Jerry Brown is next in the video. What is his job now?

29 In the 1970's all cars in the US came in two flavors: "49 state" or "CA". Why?

30 What pressure was put on the EPA in December 2007? Who was in office then?

31 What is the clean air act?

32 Who was the EPA administrator during the Bush administration? What did he do? What do you think about his actions?

33 What was the target of the CA emissions standards?

34 What is Hibernia owned by Exxon? How much oil did it pump since coming into operation? At 80 million bbl/day, how many days of global oil supply did it provide?

35 How did the Exxon lady defend their lack of investment in renewable resources?

36 Dan Kammen says what? Where does he work?

37 How much did Exxon make in the year of the movie? How much did they invest in renewable energy? Explain.

38 It has been said that if you drive a Prius hybrid with fuel from the tar sand of Canada, it's the equivalent of driving a Hummer. Why?

39 During the 2008 video, they state that oil is at $90/bbl. What is it today?

40 The car companies were working on a diesel-electric hybrid: what happened and why?

41 What did Toyota build, and why? How long is their advantage now?

42 Do you believe the lady from GM? Explain.

43 What happened to the Chevy Volt in the Photo Shoot?

44 Is corn ethanol really a green solution? Who is pushing corn ethanol and why?

45 Why does Dan Kammen say corn is not a good biofuel?

46 Explain the three sources of bio-ethanol: corn, cellulosic and sugar cane. Brazil produces which of these?

47 How does Amy's statement about small interests resonate with Senator Dingell's actions earlier in the film?

48 Compare renewable energy in Germany to the US.

49 How does the smart grid fit into the renewable energy solution?

50 T. Boone Pickens sold his oil investments and moved into wind farms in Texas. Check into this on wikipedia to see how he's doing now (2012).

51 About 150,000 megawatts of power is what Pickens plans on installing, which would be worth how much per year? 24 hours per day, 365 days per year, sell the power for $0.10 per kWh. 131.4 billion dollars per year? If his ROI is 7 years, and the turbines last 17 years, how much money will his company make overall?

52 Why is nuclear energy getting a fresh look?

53 Who became president?

54 What is the difference between Navy nuclear power plants and commercial industrial power plants?

55 How is nuclear waste storage involved in this problem?

56 Explain cap and trade, and the plus and minus for this proposal.

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Climate Change!

apes 2.22.16 climate change

Begin 2.22.16, end with exam 3.4.16

Frog book ch 16 overview (notes below)


AGGI graph:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/aggi_2011.fig4.png


HEAT video

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/heat/


Ch. 19 in reduced-frog book (Friedland-notes below)


Frog book ch. 16:

Greenhouse effect (demo)

Greenhouse gases:

water vapor, CO2, methane (CH4), N2O

See AGGI graph

Gases are transparent to visible light, but not infrared (IR) light

Demo: IR camera, glass

latitude, sunspots, wind patterns (review)

thermo (heat) haline (salt) circulation

also known as NADW (north atlantic deep water)

El Nino, la nina, make sure you understand normal and El Nino

Normal = happy Peruvian fisher peeps

El Nino = heat in mid pacific, reverse current, sad fisher peeps

climate impacts: latitude, moisture content, volcanoes, vegetation (see also deforestation, desertification, melting ice caps)

IPCC

Precipitation ∆

melting glaciers

sea level change (just from heating water, expansion, not yet from polar ice caps melting)

Permafrost melting (positive feedback, thermal runaway)

Proxy indicator: ice cores, sediments, tree rings

Causes: fossil fuels (carbon dioxide), land changes,

Impacts: habitat changes, diseases (e.g. malaria), coral bleaching (see carbonic acid, pH changes), delta salinization (Pearl river delta), watershed damage, water supply (Himalayas)


response: what you can do-think globally, act locally

efficiency, conservation, food miles, building energy, transportation changes (EV, hybrid)

reforestation, cap and trade, carbon tax (likely in your lifetime), carbon offsets

carbon sequestration-nice idea, not practical yet (dangers)

Maldives- Ibrahim Didi

UNFCCC

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

Montreal protocol-success

Kyoto-2005-US did not sign (why?)

Copenhagen-2009 non-binding

Paris agreement (12.2015) universal, legally binding

http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/international/negotiations/paris/index_en.htm

Governments agreed

  • a long-term goal of keeping the increase in global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels;
  • to aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C, since this would significantly reduce risks and the impacts of climate change;
  • on the need for global emissions to peak as soon as possible, recognising that this will take longer for developing countries;
  • to undertake rapid reductions thereafter in accordance with the best available science.






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Ch. 15 Air Pollution notes

Ch 15 notes: Air Pollution

global commons

Criteria pollutants:

  1. SOx
  2. NOx
  3. CO
  4. O3
  5. PM10, 2.5
  6. Pb

add: CO2 (2007), VOC, Hg


SOx from methionine in plants, coal, oil

see also VOG particles


NOX: high temp combustion (carnot cycle, efficiency)

also: microbes in soil


CO: incomplete combustion, poor ventilation (LDC) impacts hemoglobin (suicide)


Ozone (O3): close to surface bad, in ozone layer necessary to filter UVb

secondary pollutant-sunlight, water and VOCs, degrades lungs, plastic, rubber

photochemical oxidant (needs light for chemical reaction)


PM10, 2.5: smaller are more dangerous, diesels, biofuels, manure, causes cancer (PM2.5), strict regs in EU


Pb: gasoline additive (tetraethyl lead, improves octane rating cheaply), replaced by other worse chemicals


Hg: from coal mining, burning


VOCs; from gasoline (cars), paints, additives, aromatics


Primary pollutants: direct from smokestack. exhaust pipe

CO, CO2, SOx, NOx, VOC


Secondary pollutants: need a chemical reaction (often sunlight) to form

See PANs: Peroxyacyl nitrates: formed from VOCs, NOx


See thermal inversions: london fog, US

Donora, PA 1948 k.20, sick 7000

1952 London 4000-12,000 dead, three nights

Mexico city 1996 300 dead, 400K sick


acid rain: plants, fish, structures

SO2 + O2, water = H2SO4 (sulfuric acid)

NO3 + O2, water = HNO3 (nitric acid)


W. VA had rain more acidic than stomach acid


know how a scrubber works (just like the nuclear plant diagram)


stratospheric ozone: O3 blocks UVb

How formed (usually lightning)

How damaged: CFCs

Polar ozone hole: 1970

ice crystals, stable Cl2



IAP-indoor air pollution

Leading cause of death in LDC (women)

manure, open pit fires, CO, PM10

sick building syndrome: formaldehyde, CO2, VOC

the main culprits:

VOC, CO, Radon, Lead, formaldehyde, asbestos, PM10


asbestos-asbestosis, mesothelioma

Radon222-lung cancer (smoke demo-lungs)

Next: Froggie book Ch. 15


AIR QUALITY LABS

• Air Quality: Air quality can be assessed using various

methods.

• Particulates: Sticky paper can be used to collect

air particulates from various sources, and then the

paper can be examined under a microscope. It is

not possible to see the smallest particulates, but

they do color the white paper.

• Ozone: In this lab, an ecobadge or a homemade

potassium iodide gel sampler is hung or worn in

order to collect data on tropospheric ozone. The

badge or KI sample changes color in the presence

of ozone and becomes more intensely colored as

the amount of ozone increases.

• Carbon dioxide: In this lab, a commercial sampling

device is used to determine the amount of

carbon dioxide in an air sample. Car exhaust,

burning tobacco, or other pollutants can also be

sampled.


Pollution roundup:

Chapter 8 of Princeton Review for AP:

Download file "ch08-pollution.pdf"

Download file "18-pollution.pdf"


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Water notes

Topics for our discussion:

WQI: water quality index

  • temp
  • pH
  • DO (dissolved oxygen)
  • conductivity
  • oxygen reduction potential
  • turbidity
  • secchi disk depth
  • BOD: biochemical oxygen demand: mg O2 consumed after 5 days in the dark


eutrophication/dead zones

continuity theorem

point sources/ non-point sources

endocrine disrupters

dioxin bioaccumulation vs. mercury accumulation

watersheds/wetlands as buffer/filter

runoff-transit time-King County WA

regulations: EPA/CWA

sources and sinks-global water picture

thermal pollution

Runoff

From our video:

sewage treatment: primary, secondary, tertiary
POPs
Private profit, public risk: Externalized costs
Synergism
Deep pockets
ppm, ppb, ppt
NADW/Koyo water
Apex predator
PCB vs. Mercury
Oglalla aquifer
Superfund
clay vs. sand: Boeing
transit time

n.b. for class:

iPad apps: 5 steps to a ...

pH importance in pollution, soils, mineral absorption


lake baikal

if glaciers melt, can we use that fresh water?

how are glaciers water storage tanks?

monsoon

watersheds

why oglalla?

400 gal for 1 kg of grain, 10x for beef

bottled water = 2x to produce

2 gals water to refine 1 gal gasoline

energy and water=recall the four:

energy, water, food, culture

1 gallon = about 4 liters

dams: sedimentation, toxic metals

algal blooms and turbidity: how related?

wqi

20 days to 4 years degradation in groundwater-pesticides

LUST

sewage treatment: pro, sec, tertiary (honolulu and honouliuli)


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