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4.15.19 apex prep

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APES 2008 FR

Download file "ap08_env_sci_frq.pdf"

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e2: Green Apple

e2 design 1.1 green apple

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/e2_videos/e2%20design%201/1%20green%20apple.mp4


  1. Why is it confusing to think of NYC as an ecosystem? Why does it make sense?
  2. Why is per capita a more accurate measure?
  3. Why did the guy who moved into the country gain weight?
  4. A wise person once said that the greatest cities are those built with walking in mind. How is this different in LA?
  5. Why would a skyscraper be more efficient than a smaller building?
  6. How did “environmental” become “smarter”?
  7. How was 4 Times Square a prototype? What other prototype buildings do you know of?
  8. Recently transparent PV panels were revealed. How would this change the frit concept?
  9. “Blast furnace slag” and fly ash are used for the concrete in the film. Why is fly ash banned in Europe?
  10. Instead of using drinking water to flush toilets, they use what?
  11. Why is a 5 year ROI basic business sense?
  12. How is payback different in Europe and Japan?
  13. What parts of the Living Building Challenge resonate with this video?
  14. What would make you want to live in the Solaire, near Battery Park?
  15. What are the blue things on the side of the building?
  16. We are 4.6% of the global population, consuming how much of the world’s resources?

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Withgott 6.6 Sustainable Development

Download file "withgott 6.6 sust development.pdf"

Ecosystem "services": air and water purification, climate regulation, nutrient cycling (look uphill to our watersheds-why are we not permitted to hike there?)
Also: tourism, resources (timber, mining, fisheries)
PSA-payment for environmental services
  • watershed protection
  • biodiversity
  • scenic beauty (ecotourism)
  • carbon sequestration
ecotourism: 2 million tourists=2 billion $ annually
Ethics-study of good and bad (e.g. values)
relativists: context based
universalists: objective based, no matter the context or culture
Kant: categorical imperative; do unto others as you'd have them do to you (golden rule)
JS Mill: principle of utility: greatest benefit for the most people

instrumental or utilitarian value-pragmatic value
intrinsic or inherent value-value for its own sake
McCauley: "appeal to people's hearts more than their wallets"

Industrialization brought about environmental ethics-why only then? how does this differ from the tribal societies that were here first? Did they believe on owning the land?
Think back to William McDonough: "all children, of all species, for all time"
Issues you will leave YOUR kids: conservation? pollution? species extinction?

conservation=sustainable development
pollution=environmental justice
extinction=intrinsic or instrumental values

Why is this evolving?
We are not just surviving, so we can now make choices
We know more science, so can see cause and effect more clearly

Three views:
Anthro (man) centrism=man-centered: only based around impact on PEOPLE
Bio (life) centrism=life centered: balanced between people and the environment
Ecocentrism=whole system awareness: awareness of the interconnectedness of things (big picture)
Western philosophy is based on "subduing and controlling nature", for our benefit.
Some religions also emphasize stewardship.
Ancient Hawaiians had a word for this: Kuleana
Kuleana: Ahupua'a model: ridge to ridge, peak to ocean (up to your chest)
Implies "your business" or "responsibility", but is much deeper. You are not the steward, you don't accept it, or deign it, it is something given to you because of where you live.
Vontaire: French phrase: "tend to your own garden" "Il faut cultiver son jardin", means either "mind your own business" or "take care of what is given to you"

Transcendentalism 1840: Thoreau, Emerson, Whitman: objected to materialism (e.g. Walden by Thoreau)
Natural entities as symbols or messengers of deeper truths
Preservation ethic-John Muir
John Muir like this stuff. Home in Yosemite (recall the film about Ansel Adams)
Preservation ethic springs from his work: nature for its own sake
"everybody needs beauty as well as bread" "places to play in, pray in, where nature may heal and give strength to body and soul alike"
Conservation ethic-Gifford Pinchot
Later (1910) Gifford Pinchot-first professional American Forester-founded the US Forest Service under Teddy Roosevelt
Conservation ethic springs from his work: greatest good to the greatest number for the greatest span of time (note the last bit)
Prudent use of resources for the good of present AND future generations. Why is this critical?
Environmental Ethic-Aldo Leopold
Aldo Leopold (1930) followed from Pinchot, studied healthy ecosystems. Holistic perspective, people and the land as members of the same community.
"a thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise".
The Land Ethic-his work, also "Sand County Almanac", which along with "Silent Spring" by Rachel Carson are the two most influential environmental books of the 20th century

Environmental justice: pollution, exploitation, resource depletion, species degradation
e.g. Appalachians: mountaintop removal (mining) destroy forests, pollute water, bury streams, flooding, toxic waste

Economy=system that produces goods from resources (e.g. food from sunlight and water)
Economics-study of resource supply and demand
Economics and Ecology both come from the Greek "oikos" meaning household (seen this name somewhere else?)
inputs=natural resources, ecosystem services
outputs=waste

Adam Smith (1750): self interested economic behavior can benefit society as long as the behavior is constrained by the rule of law and private property rights within a competitive marketplace
Classical Economics is the result, and the market is the "invisible hand" guiding these actions
Neoclassical (new classical) economics: supply and demand, also cost benefit analysis (e.g. removing pollution)
See above: when quantity is high (right side of graph), demand is low, supply is high.
When supply is low, price is high.
Equilibrium means "equal freedom"
Compare this with state run economies, where supply is controlled by the central government (e.g. Stalinist USSR, or present day Venezuela, Zimbabwe or other countries).
Fallacy #1 in the Neoclassical economic model: there will always be more resources (think of oil, timber or minerals).
Fallacey #2: all costs and benefits are borne directly by those in the transaction (e.g. no externalized costs).
Externalized costs:
  • health problems (e.g. pollution impact)
  • resource degradation or depletion
  • aesthetic (beauty) damage
  • declining value (resources, tourism, higher health care costs)
When economists ignore the externalized costs, this creates a false impression of the consequences of choices, so change is harder to achieve. It also means the government (e.g all of us) often picks up the cost.

Fallacy #3: future events have less value than present events ("I want it now, someone can deal with the consequences later")
This is known as "discounting" the future

Fallacy #4: Economic growth is essential for social order: "Affluenza"

Sustainable growth:
1; increase in inputs or 2: increase in efficient use of resources (e.g. recycling, cradle to cradle)
"Cornucopians" say #1 is the answer (horn of plenty)
"Cassandras" say #1 will not work (all prophesies of hers were true, but cursed that nobody believed her)

Here's how this could go down:

Cassandra folks: Limits to Growth (Jorgen Randers, who spoke at the opening of the Elab in 2009) and his graduate student Mathis Wackernagel, who founded the Global Footprint Network
Mathis was the first to teach in the elab, on the west whiteboard in our classroom...

Note this is different from Malthus, who only wrote about food and population:


Climate change is another example of this: How much will climate change cost?


Environmental Economics: modified neoclassical economics to achieve sustainability, advocating a "steady-state economy":
Check this out:
This leads to non-market valuation:



Which makes the most sense to you?
Ecosystem services value estimates:

Old way of measuring the output of a country: GDP: Gross Domestic Product (Used to be called GNP but corporations are often off-shore, like Apple)
Alternate method: Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI): positive impacts minus the negative impacts, also known as "full cost accounting" or "true cost accounting". Used in Maryland since 2010, now their GPI is greater than their GDP.

Ecolabeling empowers consumers (brings informed decision making to the marketplace)
See also socially responsible investing (Ben and Jerry's ice cream, Newman's own, etc.)
See also "fair trade" coffee at Starbucks and others
Dark side of this: "greenwashing"

Sustainable development involves a "triple bottom line" ("bottom line" refers to the bottom of a spreadsheet, used in accounting, often a profit/loss line):

UN sustainable goals, 2015:




Which of these can you impact?

Homework: page 155 1-11, page 156 1-4

Next:










































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APES class dates, Q4

Dates:

4.1 M long

4.3 W

4.5 F

—————

4.8 M

4.9 T long

4.11 Th

—————

4.15 M

4.16 T

4.17 W long

——————

4.22 M

4.25 Th

——————-

4.29 M

4.30 T

5.1 W long

5.3 F

——————

5.6 M AP exam, 12 noon

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Minerals and Mining: Withgott 6.23

You may have heard of "conflict diamonds", those mined in conflict areas under wartime conditions (theft, murder, genocide, etc.)
Your phone and computer use very small components called capacitors, that are made from an element called tantalum.
Tantalum is mined in the Congo, from a mineral called tantalite, which is found with columbite ("-ite" usually means some sort of mineral).
Tantalite+columbite = coltan, which is just like conflict diamonds in this era.

Rocks are collections of minerals
Minerals are crystals of one or many elements or compounds
Mining is how we get these cool things.
Here's how many minerals a baby born in 2015 (maybe your little sister or brother) will use in their lifetime:


n.b. bauxite is used to create aluminum by sending huge amounts of electricity through it, so there are energy issues here as well...

Ores are metals in their natural state, often coupled with oxygen or another element to make them unusable (Fe2O3 is rust or iron ore, we only want the Fe part)
How then?
Smelting: heating alone or with other chemicals to free the metals we want
Combining perfectly isolated metals together creates "alloys" like CrMo or Chrome Molybdenum Steel used in fancy knives, airplane frames and steel bikes.

Pollution from metal production is called "tailings", a word also used for the purification of radioactive materials like Uranium. These tailings are usually very toxic, and not well cared for. When water leaches through them, toxins run downstream, or kill folks outright like just a bit ago in Brazil:
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-02-20/brazil-s-deadly-dam-collapse-could-force-the-mining-industry-to-change
Watch the video here:
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/feb/06/brazil-dam-collapse-workers-say-they-warned-owners

Where do we mine this stuff?


How? Two main ways: Strip mining and sub-surface mining:


Another method is open-pit mining, like in Butte, Montana:
https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/berkeley-pit
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berkeley_Pit

Then there's the wonderful "mountain top removal" method:


You may have also heard of "placer mining" which was used in the gold-rush days of 1849 in Sacramento California, and later in the Klondike in Alaska. Here's what that looks like:


Laws, what laws? General Mining Act of 1872 (what? 1872, don't you mean 1972? nope! 1872, in response to the California Gold rush...

Here's where we are headed:
Neodymium is another critical element, used in the magnets in all wind turbines, electric cars and other vehicles, and just about any efficient motor.
China has taken over almost all of the Neodymium mines in the world. How is this a strategic move?
https://www.cnbc.com/2018/10/18/neodymium-china-controls-rare-earth-used-in-phones-electric-cars.html
Also, why is China teaching kids in Africa Chinese?
https://www.pri.org/file/2019-03-27/chinese-influence-africa

Recycling is key to these limited sources (unless we learn to capture asteroids):



...there's that pesky recycling showing up again...













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Waste: Withgott 6.22

Download file "withgott 6.22.pdf"

Waste: anything from human activity that is not saved
MSW vs. ISW
Waste stream:


Consumption is proportional to waste in our society
Affluence leads to waste (plenty of trees, let's waste firewood)
Interesting map, note geographical and social patterns:


Check this out:
http://www.exchangeorcas.org/solid-waste/
Orcas Island WA, costs $6 per BAG of trash. Lots of recycling there (also locked dumpsters).
Recycling is complex, especially here on Hawaii island: where does your recycling go? Where did it go 5 years ago? What changed?
HPA has two dumpsters behind maintenance: a recycling one and a trash one. Only one is weighed. Which one do you think? Why?




Greenhouse gas emissions that are reduced by recycling:

RCRA and sanitary landfills: Make sure you understand both of these, as they are always on the AP exam...
RCRA is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, part of the EPA regulating landfills:
Resources=stuff
Conservation=stuff we use
Recovery=recycling or safe disposal
Act=something congress decided

Sanitary landfills: isolated from the groundwater, far from rivers, wetlands or earthquakes
Make certain you understand "leachate" and why these produce methane...





Incineration is another option, but produces extremely toxic ash that must be treated carefully:

Look here: https://www.covanta.com/Our-Facilities/Covanta-Honolulu
H-Power is trash to power, where the landfills on Oahu were full in the 1980's. One in Laie actually was created inside a volcanic crater that barfed up all the waste one year during a flood.

Life cycle analysis (see also William McDonough in 'cradle to cradle'):

Hazmat: 4 classes






E-waste is a growing issue, but there are solutions:
https://www.theverge.com/2018/4/19/17258180/apple-daisy-iphone-recycling-robot
Daisy, the Apple robot that recycles iPhones.
Question: why would the white laptops in our classroom cost more to recycle than the aluminum ones? Which is cheaper? Which is cheaper after counting the value of the parts inside each?

Lead from e-waste:
Liquid waste disposal:

This is often done off-shore, away from prying eyes.
Deep well injection is a temporary solution, this toxic material is not going away.
Radioactive waste is even more critical, as it melts through containers, and is radioactive for many centuries.

CERCLA:
Comprehensive=all
Environmental=environment
Response=responds to accidents
Compensation=pays victims
Liability=finds those resposible
Act=something congress decides

Also known as "superfund" is funded through a tax on hazmat industrial producers ("the polluter pays" principle)
"Brownfields" are areas toxic for public use. We had one behind the elab ("mount Edgar") which we cleaned up to build the elab, gaining LEED credits for something we created ourselves...
Two critical cases:
Love canal, NY: Hooker chemical, toxic land, kids got sick, cancer, miscarriages, homeowners had to relocate:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Love_Canal
Times Beach, Missouri: Dioxin pollution, sprayed on the roads to reduce dust (dioxin is a contact carcinogen)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Times_Beach,_Missouri
Town was near a river, when it flooded, the dioxin went everywhere, entire town had to be abandoned.












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e2: deeper shades of green

Design e2: Deeper shades of green-three visionaries

Part 1. Ken Yeang-singapore library

Part 2. William McDonough-upcycle vs. downcycle 10:30-17:15

"all children of all species for all time"

Part 3. Werner Sobek-R128 (home on one truck) and R129 (soap bubble home)

Consider the energy lab: nothing in the elab can be toxic in production, use or disposal

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/e2_videos/e2%20design%201/6%20deeper%20shades%20of%20green.mov


Questions:

  1. "I look for what needs to be done"-what does this mean for you?
  2. Look up Buckminster Fuller. What structural design did he create that you might see?
  3. What do you notice about the library Ken Yeang created that is similar to the elab?
  4. What is bioclimatic design?
  5. Recall the California Academy of Science and Renzo Piano-what is similar about these two approaches?
  6. Why did the cheapness of energy in the 1960's impact design?
  7. Why would "low tech" solutions be better in the long run over "high tech" solutions?
  8. "The technology should be invisible"-why is this important? How does it change the sense of the user?
  9. Our older classrooms had something like the light shelves. Look above the lockers in these classrooms and describe how these might work.
  10. Stanford's Y2E2 building has a similar heat stack in the center of it, with automated louvers at the top, and an automated fire door sealing off the bottom in case of fire. How do you think these might work? https://web.stanford.edu/class/cee243/Week2V2.pdf
  11. "Cradle to cradle" means what?
  12. What is downcycling? What does McDonough advocate?
  13. How could removing the toxic substances from the design of materials impact their upcycling?
  14. What three elements are needed for cradle to cradle?
  15. What is the difference between being efficient and being effective in his mind?
  16. Apple was the first computer company to adopt the cradle to cradle approach. Why do you think the cost apart from components for the white laptops in our classroom are more than for the aluminum ones?
  17. What is our design opportunity in this "second industrial re-evolution"?
  18. As a student in APES, you will be seen as an expert in some of these fields. McDonough mentions that "people don't need to be an expert at everything, just to leverage the expertise of others". How do you fit into this picture?
  19. "Take, make and waste". How could we change this?
  20. "Love of all children of all species, for all time". How do you fit into this?
  21. How does the "all on one truck" idea of a home impact transportation, building and recycling?
  22. Stuttgart Germany is the center of a very intensive industrial area. Why is this contrast so effective for that society?
  23. The elab is one link in the support system for the Mars habitat simulation. What is similar between that HISEAS habitat and the R129 concept building?
  24. "Substitute material with energy"-how does this work, why is it one step towards sustainable design?
  25. "You can do anything, you just must want it" Says Werner Sobek. If you had such an opportunity, what would you want to design?


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Withgott ch. 14: Health

Withgott (author of our Froggie iBook)
Sixth edition of his text, chapter 14 notes:
Download file "withgott 14 health-toxicology.pdf"

apes withgott 6e.14


BPA-bisphenol-A

Water bottles, food, baby bottles

See photo 14.1

4 Hazards:

physical e.g. UV radiation

chemical e.g. drugs, pesticides, venoms

biological e.g. infectious diseases (vectors)

cultural e.g. smoking, COPD, seat belts, hang gliding, swimming with sharks


non-infectious diseases: genetics + environmental factors, e.g. cancer, heart disease, obesity


infectious diseases (ID): ebola, influenza, AIDS

spread much faster bc air travel, trains, trucks (see AIDS in Africa)


toxicology-chemical hazards

radon

asbestos

lead

PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) fire retardants (e.g. TRIS)

PBDEs are also hormone disrupters

risk vs. reward (see malaria and DDT)

VOC in drinking water

Heptachlor in green chop hawaii

EDB in water on Oahu (ant poison)

DDT-foggers in 1960’s….


Toxins

Carcinogens-cause cancer

Mutagens-mutate you or your kids (reproductive DNA)

Teratogens-cause birth defects

neurotoxins-mercury and other heavy metals (Minamata Bay)

allergens-airborne or food borne

pathway inhibitors-endocrine disruptors, BPA, Phthalates


exposure: acute or chronic

polar concentration-air currents


see 14.13


toxic concentration: DDT

see 14.14


Bioaccumulation-A single creature

Biomagnification-MANY trophic levels, MANY creatures


Dose response analysis

See 14.17

Threshold dose (non linear)


Pesticide poisoning: Yaqui indians


Synergistic effects

Endocrine disruptors


risk probability

perception vs. reality

risk assessment


innocent until proven guilty vs. precautionary principle


TOSCA 1976

REACH 2007


POPs persistent organic pollutants

Aldrin, Chlordane, DDT, Dieldrin, Dioxin, Endrin








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Ch. 16 Waste generation and disposal

"Humans are the only organism that produce waste others cannot use"
Disposable society-even worse with technology now
iFixit: "repair is noble"
It is also empowering...
e.g. cars, computers, appliances
TV repair: old and new
system integration-not just discrete parts (like kitchen appliances), computers=TV=radio
MSW=municipal (city) solid (not sewage) waste 60% from homes, 40% from industry
Main issues: packaging, food containers, water bottles

Click for full-size image

e-waste: toxic metals, non-compostable
What is compost?
3 R's: reduce (use less) reuse (use again, "super use") recycle (larger infrastructure-glass, paper, aluminum)
What happens to our recycling here in Waimea?
How different from Seattle, Portland or SF?

Closed loop vs. open loop recycling:
Click for full-size image
Closed loop: aluminum cans, carpet
Open loop: PET into jackets, tires into beams

Municipal composting:

Click for full-size image




Not done here...

Landfills (burying), incineration (burning) -see also plasma incineration of medical waste
Sanitary Landfill-MUST be lined with plastic:


Click for full-size image



Incinerator (like the one on Oahu):
Click for full-size image
Hazardous waste:
CERCLA ("Superfund"): Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Recovery Act
-taxes chemical and oil industries to fund cleanup and recovery sites "superfund sites"
RCRA: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-solid waste laws

Look up Love Canal, Hooker Chemical

Look behind the elab for a brownfield site...

Life Cycle Analysis: Cradle to grave analysis (e.g. white macbooks vs. aluminum macbook pros)
Cradle-to-cradle:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cradle-to-cradle_design
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cradle_to_Cradle:_Remaking_the_Way_We_Make_Things
William McDonough: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_McDonough
e2: Deeper shades of Green:

deeper shades of green e2

Ken Yeang-singapore library

William McDonough-upcycle vs. downcycle 10:30-17:15

"all children of all species for all time"

Werner Sobek-R128 (home on one truck) and R129 (soap bubble home)

Consider the energy lab: nothing in the elab can be toxic in production, use or disposal

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/e2_videos/e2%20design%201/6%20deeper%20shades%20of%20green.mov

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Post diagnostic topics

From your feedback:
extra-terrestrial impact on climate change...
atmospheres-names, layers, functions, weather
soil layers-names, functions of each
water treatment (three types)
acts, laws, treaties
environmental wisdom, POV, people
equations: t2, t1/2, ROI, TCO, efficiency
exponential growth
pH, water calculations
nuclear energy, types, plants, diagrams
population pyramids
LD50, toxicity
geological eras, names, order, history of each
conservation easements, land management
CFC, air pollution, Montreal Protocol
fertilizers, trace elements
streams, BOD, pollution types
anthropomorphic activity
energy production (RE and non RE)
thermodynamics (1,2,3 laws)
ocean zones: near/far, shallow/deep
cycles (P, N, O, C, S)
lands: federal and public
NOx and SOx criteria pollutants
Geology basics
topography
biomes: alt, temp, water
ozone: terrestrial and stratospheric
famous folks: Aldo Leopold, etc.
riparian and limnotic zones

From this chapter (mods 56-58) and others:

bioMagnification: Many: food pyramid

bioAccumulation: A single organism

LD50

hazmat

pesticides-IPM

geologic time scale

rock cycle

forestry-logging

rangelands-grazing

federal and public lands

land conservation

mining

fishing

globalization

flood control-dams, irrigation

externalities

laws and treaties

introduced species-Hawaii Hakalau

NPP and GPP

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Laws

Download file "apenvirolaws.pdf"
Download file "17-18.pdf"


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Climate change

Download file "Climate change.pdf"

Climate change

In any crisis, the following steps might help you survive, thrive, or perhaps impact change:

  1. What is the crisis? What words define it? What is the lexicon?
  2. Why should I care? How does this impact me? How will it impact my kids/grandkids?
  3. What are the mechanisms of cause and effect?
  4. What impact timeline can I expect?
  5. What can I do: directly, locally, globally?
  6. How can my understanding of the situation help me impact the situation?

“We are on the precipice of Hell”

-Frontline video HEAT

“Climate change is the biggest business opportunity in the history of Mankind”

-Tito Jankoski, climate change activist, carbon sequestration pioneer, HPA ’05

“Greenhouse”-why? how does a normal greenhouse work? what parts relate to which physical systems?

Demo: car dashboard is dark, absorbs visible radiation passing through the car windshield, re-radiates at lower frequency/longer waves (heat), which is trapped by the glass windshield.

glass=greenhouse gases (CO2, methane, water vapor)

Is this always bad? See diagram:

Earth would be 0°C without any greenhouse effect

These gases have different impact and lifespans:


Where have I seen these before? You might not, but your parents certainly did, about 30 years ago, when the ozone layer was being destroyed by refrigerants (gases we created called “Freons” we used in refrigerators, freezers and air conditioners)

Without the ozone layer, everyone on the planet would suffer from UV radiation, causing skin cancers, plants would die, so would some life in the oceans. This was serious, causing an “ozone hole” over Antarctica:


Here’s how we know we can act globally to avoid disaster:

In 1997, most of the countries of the world met in Montreal Canada to create the Montreal Protocol, banning these CFC’s (chlorinated fluorocarbons) like Freon.

Here’s how we know it worked:


Note the bottom graph. What do you see? When did things change?

Here’s what the trend is for greenhouse gases: (2011 version on the link below)

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/aggi_2011.fig4.png

2017 version:



NASA simulation:

https://climate.nasa.gov/interactives/climate-time-machine

NASA Eyes simulation:

https://eyes.jpl.nasa.gov/eyes-on-the-earth.html

Where is this stuff coming from?


Ok, what gases are naturally sourced:

Volcanic eruptions (complex, as the ash can actually block sunlight, temporarily cooling the planet-see Mt. Pinatubo)

Decomposition/digestion (methane from termites and cow gas, or the truly horrific possibility of melting permafrost)

Denitrification (wet soils, wetlands where NO3 turns into N2O)

Evaporation/evapotranspiration (water vapor)

Human (anthropogenic) causes:

Fossil fuels use (coal, then oil then natural gas)

Deforestation

Agriculture (nitrogen fertilizers)

Landfills (methane again)



Two graphs are important to you:

Here is the pattern of CO2 measured at Mauna Loa since 1958, the famous “Keeling curve”


Here is the historical record, from ice cores and other data:

Note the date...
Where is this coming from, by nation?


Why? US burns fossil fuels like maniacs, China is opening two coal fired power plants EACH WEEK, India is making concrete by heating CaCO3, releasing CO2 to make CaO (“Portland cement”)

So what?

Global warming will change the global temperature, impacting weather, sea levels, severe storms, glaciers, water and food supplies

High CO2 causes ocean acidification, killing corals, and impacting all life in the ocean, a major absorber of CO2 and source of food

Finally, high CO2 levels make us stupid. Anything over 800 ppm has been demonstrated to impact learning, memory and complex thought. There is no escaping this, much like the ozone crisis of the 1980’s

Here’s how warm it is getting:


How do we know CO2 and temp are related?

Check this out:



Here’s what this will look like when you are having grandchildren:

The first picture is 2020-2029, the right side is 2100, when you are in your 90’s:


These assume a constant rate, which is unlikely if the permafrost begins to melt, releasing more methane, and the polar ice caps melt, changing the albedo (remember Albus Dumbledore).

This is an example of a positive feedback loop.

n.b. most folks believe that ocean levels will rise from the melting ice caps and glaciers. This is only a small impact, the greatest impact is that water expands when it warms, so ALL of the water in the ocean is expanding at once, and the ocean is several miles deep around the world-think of that!


https://fitzlab.shinyapps.io/cityapp/

What can we do?

The IPCC (intergovernmental panel on climate change) inspired the 1997 Kyoto Protocols, which the US has not followed.

Here’s what they say:

So, back to our questions:

  1. What is the crisis? What words define it? What is the lexicon?
  2. Why should I care? How does this impact me? How will it impact my kids/grandkids?
  3. What are the mechanisms of cause and effect?
  4. What impact timeline can I expect?
  5. What can I do: directly, locally, globally?
  6. How can my understanding of the situation help me impact the situation?

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Heat Frontline video-climate change

Heat Frontline video

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/heat/Heat.m4v
(starts at minute 3:00)

Some notes:
You might recognize some of the clips from this film in our other videos like the e2 videos, like the coal vs. nuclear video.
This video was first produced and aired in 2008, so some references to presidential campaigns may take you into recent US history.
This is a big assignment, so take your time, and we'll break the due dates into two parts: questions 1-30 and 31-60.
Let me know if you have any questions
aloha
b

1 What river is China planning to divert that will cause conflict with India?

Brahmaputra river

2 Why did Brashears go back to that specific site to take the photo, and what did he see? What possible explanations are there for this? Take both sides of the climate crisis argument in your answer.

Brashears went back to the specific site to take the photo to see the changes by comparing it to the past. It was obvious that the amount of ice of glaciers had decreased. This is because of the global warming and increase of population.

3 What was so surprising in the 1958 movie? Was this common knowledge? How can you tell?

awareness of the issue long ago...

4 How did the cheapness of energy influence public opinion?

no need to conserve

5 Is the climate crisis an energy issue, a tree issue, an albedo issue, or a permafrost issue?

all of these

6 What happened at Kyoto? What was the most embarrassing part? Why did the US behave so?

Bush admin was tied to oil companies (he owned one, so did the VP, Dick Cheney, and all of their buds, even the Saudis)

7 Why would China's growth outweigh any changes the US might make to change carbon emissions?

US: 350 Million, China: 1.3 BILLION or 1300 million. Apples and oranges.

8 What is Geely? Where? What model is their biggest seller? Is this scary? Why? What did their director say?

private car company in china, builds huge cars, no need to conserve as money is loose there. this is changing: China wants to produce 1 million electric vehicles next year

9 How many coal fired power plants does China create every week?

Two. Each one will produce CO2 for 40+ years.

10 Dr. Ling Wen says 30% growth over 5 years. What is the doubling rate for this? (recall the rule of 70). Why is his line "if we can" so scary? What are his responsibilities, in what order?


11 years, only to the shareholders...

11 In what year will India's population exceed that of China? Why?

While you are in college:





12 What is the third largest contributor to greenhouse gases? Where?

Concrete production, in India: CaCO3 ->CO2 and CaO (aka portland cement)

13 What reduction in CO2 did the Indian guy say they could do by 2050? What is the growth rate? What did Sunita Narain say about this? Why is this not sustainable?

10%

14 What did Pachauri say? What are his reasons?

150 years of industrial pollution, therefore our responsibility

15 What did the US negotiators say? Why is this unfair? What did China say?

not our problem-this may have changed a bit since the video was released

16 Google Senator Inhofe, and find out why he is a global warming skeptic. Where does his money come from?

coal

16 This video was filmed in 2008. What was the position of each candidate?

clean coal, to keep jobs in the coal states of WVA, Kentucky, etc.

17 What did Jeffrey Sachs say?

we ignored the problem

18 How many tons of coal are mined in the powder river basin each day?

1 million. each ton of coal produces 2.8 tons of CO2, so 2.8 million tons of CO2 per day

19 The director of the West Virginia power plant (Charlie Powell) says: "we produce 1300 megawatts of power every hour". It is clear he does not know as much about electricity as you do. What is wrong with his statement?

megawatts already has time in it: 1 Watt is 1 Joule/second, so it is like saying "miles per hour per hour"

20 How many pounds of Coal power your TV for one hour? What percentage of power in the US comes from Coal?

0.2 pound per hour, 52%

21 Analyze the term "clean coal" from both sides of the argument. What are the motives of each side and why?

It is a myth, devised by the coal industry to blunt criticism of their role in global warming

22 Senators Byrd and McConnell represent which states? What is their bias?

W.VA and Kentucky, both coal states

23 What is IGCC? Where is it located? Has it been tested? Where would they inject the ground? Why is this dangerous? Are we "carbon capture ready"? Where would this be tested first, and why is it problematic? If pipelines were used, why would these be dangerous?


Integrated gas combined cycle, basically gasifying coal to produce power, then storing the CO2 someplace. Where is an issue: nobody wants to die in a cloud of CO2

24 How many tons of CO2 does the US emit every day?

Actually closer to 3: 2.8 million tons per day (see above)

25 The US is called the "Saudi Arabia of Coal". Why?


Lots and lots of coal

26 What is the second largest emitter of greenhouse gases? Now list the top three in order.

power plants

cement

cars and trucks

27 What are CAFE standards, and what does it stand for? What happened in the last few years to the CAFE standards? When were they created, and track the mpg numbers since then. How did auto manufacturers get around the CAFE standards since the Ford Explorer came out?

combined average fuel economy

27 What is John Dingell's motive? Why? Where is he from? Why did he block seat belts? Is his responsibility only to his 800,000 citizens or to the country, or the planet as a whole?

He is from Detroit, which used to make cars. He blocked seat belts for years saying they would add too much money to cars (about 60$ per car). He died last month.

28 What MPG is "the terminator" seeking for California? By when? Jerry Brown is next in the video. What is his job now?

42.5 MPG. Jerry Brown was governor of CA for years, when I was in college (his name is on my diploma from Berkeley), then again when this video was shot. He is retiring this year.

29 In the 1970's all cars in the US came in two flavors: "49 state" or "CA". Why?

California had higher efficiency and pollution standards, stricter to control air pollution and lead levels which were impacting kids' brains among other things.

30 What pressure was put on the EPA in December 2007? Who was in office then?

Don't let CA have stricter rules for pollution. George Bush (oil guy again)

31 What is the clean air act?

32 Who was the EPA administrator during the Bush administration? What did he do? What do you think about his actions?

33 What was the target of the CA emissions standards?

34 What is Hibernia owned by Exxon? How much oil did it pump since coming into operation? At 80 million bbl/day, how many days of global oil supply did it provide?

35 How did the Exxon lady defend their lack of investment in renewable resources?

36 Dan Kammen says what? Where does he work?

37 How much did Exxon make in the year of the movie? How much did they invest in renewable energy? Explain.

38 It has been said that if you drive a Prius hybrid with fuel from the tar sand of Canada, it's the equivalent of driving a Hummer. Why?

39 During the 2008 video, they state that oil is at $90/bbl. What is it today? (bbl means barrel)

40 The car companies were working on a diesel-electric hybrid: what happened and why?

41 What did Toyota build, and why? How long is their advantage now?

42 Do you believe the lady from GM? Explain.

43 What happened to the Chevy Volt in the Photo Shoot?

44 Is corn ethanol really a green solution? Who is pushing corn ethanol and why?

45 Why does Dan Kammen say corn is not a good biofuel?

46 Explain the three sources of bio-ethanol: corn, cellulosic and sugar cane. Brazil produces which of these?

47 How does Amy's statement about small interests resonate with Senator Dingell's actions earlier in the film?

48 Compare renewable energy in Germany to the US.

49 How does the smart grid fit into the renewable energy solution?

50 T. Boone Pickens sold his oil investments and moved into wind farms in Texas. Check into this on wikipedia to see how he's doing now (2019).

51 About 150,000 megawatts of power is what Pickens plans on installing, which would be worth how much per year? 24 hours per day, 365 days per year, sell the power for $0.10 per kWh. 131.4 billion dollars per year? If his ROI is 7 years, and the turbines last 17 years, how much money will his company make overall?

52 Why is nuclear energy getting a fresh look?

53 Who became president after this video?

54 What is the difference between Navy nuclear power plants and commercial industrial power plants?

55 How is nuclear waste storage involved in this problem?

56 Explain cap and trade, and the plus and minus for this proposal.

57 How has the flood of natural gas from Fracking impacted the coal industry?

58. Why is natural gas better than coal for this? (think of the types of power plants that use each)

59. Coal has pollution impacts that natural gas does not. Explain.

60 What was the most compelling part of this video for you? How old will you be in 2030? 2050?

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/heat/Heat.m4v

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APES notes HPA 2030 plan

apes notes: HPA 2030

budget $50M

international, boarding, 9-12 (13-16?), 600 students

240 acres (24 ha)

sustainable

“greenest school in the world”


Things to include:

energy: microgrid? co-op? PV, PSH, solar thermal, batteries?

water: harvesting, storage, conservation

food: what can we grow, how? CSA?

waste: within state rules, solid waste, recycling

housing: 300 students, international

transportation: intracampus, off campus

security/emergency profile

maintenance: buildings, lawns, pool

athletics: pool, gym, tennis courts, fields, horsies

library/information center(s)

study locations

chapel/meditation spaces

recreation centers: student union, nap-pods

classrooms: flexible, effective learning spaces

meeting spaces: students, larger groups

theatrical/presentation spaces

food service: central or distributed?

administration spaces


other considerations:

community outreach

research projects

hosting groups

college collaboration/hosting

mindfulness

conference center

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Solar radiation lab

Outline:
We will calculate the efficiency of two solar energy harvesting systems: the PPA photovoltaic array above the elab, and the solar thermal panels above the bathrooms at Perry-Fiske (neé "Anna's").

Steps: PV array
  1. Measure the dimension in meters of one panel of the PPA array above the elab
  2. Count the total number of panels
  3. On elab2.hpa.edu, measure both the energy harvested from the array around noon or whenever you took your data, and the solar radiation here at the same time (look under "Telemetry"->"HPA Energy")
  4. Alternate data source: http://elab4.hpa.edu/cgi-bin/EMCcgi?, look under "dashboards" then "other dashboards" for the one called "HPA campus energy". You can also use "monitor" to graph solar and radiation data.
  5. Multiply the solar radiation (in W/m2) by the area (in m2) to get total Watts of solar energy falling on the panels.
  6. Divide the harvested energy (in Watts) by the radiation (in Watts) to get % efficiency (recall the number should be less than 1.00 or 100%)
  7. How many kWh per day would this array provide at 5.5 solar hours per day?
  8. How many $ is this, assuming $0.40 per kWh?
  9. HPA has the option to purchase the PPA array in 2 years for about $150K. What would be the TCO and ROI for this array if it lasts another 15 years?
  10. How big (panels or m2) would the array have to be if it were 95% efficient (like solar thermal) gathering the same power?

Steps: Solar thermal array, Perry Fiske
  1. Count the number of panels on the bathrooms at Perry-Fiske (both buildings)
  2. If each panel is 2 meters wide and 3 meters tall, what is the total area of one panel?
  3. What is the total area of all of the panels?
  4. If these panels are 95% efficient, using the same solar insolation (radiation) numbers from above, how many Watts of power would you expect from this array?
  5. How many kWh would this provide, if it ran for 5.5 hours per day?
  6. How many $ is this, assuming $0.40 per kWh?
  7. If this array cost $2000 per panel, what would be the TCO for one panel?
  8. What would be the ROI if it worked for 20 years?
  9. If propane produces 23 kWh per gallon, how many gallons of propane have we avoided in 20 years?
  10. If 12 pounds of CO2 are released for every gallon of propane, how many pounds of CO2 did we avoid in 20 years?
  11. How could drones be used on our campus to make certain our solar thermal panels are working properly? (hint: think of the thermal camera we tested in class)
  12. Our pool has a very low efficiency solar thermal system on the roof of the locker rooms. How are these leaks costing the campus money?
Green New Deal: carbon neutral by 2030
  1. How is this like the New Deal in the Roosevelt era?
  2. How is this like the moonshot in 1960?
  3. What would be different about our country if we were net carbon neutral in 2030?
  4. What impact would this have on climate change, directly and indirectly?
  5. People will be asking you about this, since you know so much about energy. What would you tell them?

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Power Factor power rangers!

Power Factor lab

What to measure:

Ohms (using the yellow meter set to Ω)

Volts (these are measured with the little kill-a-Watt meters)

Amps

Watts

Power Factor

Predicted Power from P = VxI

Actual Power

Ohmic (heating) or not?

Where to find stuff to measure:

Classroom:

Laptop chargers

computer

TV

Hall way:

Vacuum cleaner 1 (old style)

Vacuum cleaner 2 (Dyson)

Main hall:

Hot water heaters

stereo

coffee maker

coffee grinder

Robotics lab:

Coffee grinder

Coffee maker

toaster oven

desk lamp

Conference room:

TV (east side)

stereo

Computer

other TV (west side)

other stereo




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e2: the art and science of Renzo Piano

e2-design 3.4 Renzo Piano

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/e2_videos/e2%20design%203/4%20the%20art%20and%20science%20of%20renzo%20piano.m4v

Brad Pitt

  1. Have you ever visited the California Academy of Sciences (CAS)?
  2. What “story” is Piano telling?
  3. What environmental ethic went into the energy lab?
  4. If the earthquake of 1989 had not happened, do you think this would have been built?
  5. What is our mission here? What was our statement?
  6. How did the creative process differ from “normal” design processes? Why is this important?
  7. How is the term "transparency" used here? Do you see it here as well?
  8. How does this project combine honesty and green building?
  9. What do they mean by “biomorphic”?
  10. Look up biophilic building design. How is this relevant?
  11. This project combines research and education. Why might this be familiar to you?
  12. What two factors enable native species on the roof to resist invasive species?
  13. What "what if" would you imagine?
  14. In the frame with Sutro radio tower (look this up) in the background, what visual flow do you see? (15:21)
  15. We will soon learn about runoff and something called “water transit time”. How does the roof increase water transit time?
  16. Note the square white sound panels like the student union-how do these work?
  17. Piano describes ecology as a “moral duty”. Why?
  18. On the south lanai of the elab, there are special solar PV panels. Where else have you seen these? Why?
  19. Darwin traveled around the world collecting specimens that informed society about diversity and evolution. How is this similar at CAS, and why is it important today?
  20. How is this project empowering? To whom?

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Smart buildings

The energy lab is a model of sustainable building, meeting both the LEED for schools Platinum criteria and the elusive Living Building Challenge, the first school building in the world to do so.
The US green building council established the LEED specification to promote leadership in energy and environmental design (LEED), but has no post-occupancy monitoring.

LEED for Education scorecard for Energy Lab:

Download file "01352d LEED for Schools Checklist.pdf"

We created the TCM (telemetry control and monitoring) system you know as elab2hpa.edu, and later the EMC systems to monitor all of the metrics specified in the LBC evaluation. These criteria formed some of the "petals" of the LBC, which is pass/fail.
The monitoring system had to gather data on water, energy and environment every few minutes for a year. If we interrupted the data gathering, we had to start over.
We were then audited and later certified in 2011, one year after the building opened for students.
Some of the criteria of the LBC include self sufficiency in energy, water and waste. Nothing in the building can be toxic in either production, use or disposal. We also had to source our materials based on density, meaning our building had less impact on the planet through transportation of building materials than any other building.
Look around the elab for the following features:
  • passive ventilation
  • passive illumination
  • double glazed windows
  • visibility to the outside from every space
  • large thermal mass
  • heat pump for heating
  • thermionic heating and cooling
  • water catchment and treatment
  • onsite waste treatment
  • solar PV
  • solar thermal energy
  • wind energy
  • no toxic materials
  • building automation system to minimize vampire loads
  • locally sourced materials based on density
  • FSC certified lumber
  • LED lighting
  • energy storage systems
  • low sound levels
  • adequate lighting levels
  • No VOCs present
  • Adequate ventilation (low CO2, adequate ACH)
Questions:
  1. If this building cost 3.7M$ to build, and has 6550 sq. ft. of area, what is the cost per square foot?
  2. How does this compare to other buildings in Hawaii in general, and resort homes in particular?
  3. What advantages to the systems above have from a cost standpoint?
  4. What other advantages to the systems above provide?
  5. Why is this so important for an educational facility?
  6. Look up LEED for Schools. What are the major guidelines we had to follow?
  7. Look up the Living Building Challenge. What are the 7 major petals?
  8. Why are these different from LEED?
  9. If you were designing a new school building, what would you include?
  10. Our next project will be to design a new school. What lessons would you bring into this design process?

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Net zero energy

Net zero energy neutrality:

HPA is in effect our own "micro-grid" meaning all energy we use and capture is measured by one HELCO electrical meter near the lower gate to the upper campus. This meter measures kWh, and through some calculations, we can determine our rate of energy use in kiloWatts through the day. As you can see from our graphs, we are energy neutral, or generating more than we are using when the HELCO meter reads zero:

In the graph above, we were net zero with the electric utility (HELCO) at around 9 AM, then mostly until about 1 PM, which is unusual for our campus, since this was a cloudy day. We are usually energy neutral from around 8 AM until 4 PM each sunny day. Net zero means that the total of out and in equal zero.

We have three ways we can claim net zero energy neutrality:

  1. Net energy neutral: We export the same amount of energy around noon that we use overnight, so as far as the HELCO grid is concerned, we have a net zero energy profile. We still pay for what we use at night, though)
  2. Net money neutral: We capture any excess energy during the noon hours when the HELCO meter would be spinning backwards, and use this at night from our batteries or other storage). If we were allowed to sell power to the grid, this would also work.
  3. Net carbon neutral: We measure all carbon used on campus, including transportation, heating and other carbon impacts and offset with energy produced via solar thermal, PV, wind or other means (not nuclear, don’t worry). This is the most current global metric used, and relates well to our sustainability misssion.

Each has certain PR and moral aspects, depending on the goals of the organization. Since our business is creating change agents to solve sustainability issues in the future, each of these is important.

Questions:

  1. If we were to attempt #1 above, how could we offset the propane, diesel and gasoline used in other parts of the campus?
  2. What are these other uses, in other words, what are all of the energy uses on campus?
  3. If we were to try #2 in the Waimea community, who could our "customers" be?
  4. How much would #2 cost us if we used lead acid batteries?
  5. Lithium batteries?
  6. Pumped storage hydro? (you might have to do some research on this using the energy primer wiki)
  7. If we were to become carbon neutral, how could we offset the fossil fuels we use on campus?
  8. Would we first have to become one of the other options?

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