Ch 11 Food

Mod 31, p. 362 1-5
Mod 32, p. 374 1-5
Mod 33, p. 383 1-5
Ch. 11 Practice exam, p. 386, MC 1-16, FR 1,2
Unit 5 exam, p. 389, MC 1-20, FR 1,2

Mod 31
Undernutrition: lack of calories
Malnutrition: lack of critical part of diet, usually protein (Kwashiorkor)

Famine: one of these impacting a large group, often from crop failure, drought or war/displacement

Agribusiness: just what it sounds like, the larger conglomerates taking over instead of smaller privately owned family farms. Often use monoculture crops to increase profits, as well as patented seeds and herbicides
See: Monsanto and Cargill
GMO crops: in the beginning were just to withstand frost, now into a larger patent issue with GMO seeds and "round up ready crops"
Mod 32:
Food energy subsidy (cost factor):
20 kg of grain to produce 1 kg of beef (20:1 factor, or subsidy factor 20x)
2.8 kg of grain to produce 1 kg of chicken (2.8:1 factor, or subsidy factor of 2.8)

Food miles:
Average 1240 miles from farm to table (more here, unless you shop at the farmer's market)

Started as a good thing:
Green Revolution, Norman Borlaug-Mexican famine averted by development of hybrid (not GMO) wheat, called dwarf wheat (large kernel, short stalk).

Waterlogging: too much water in the soil, roots die (see hydroponics demo at elab)
Salinization/desertification: using well water for irrigation, salts build up in the soil, infertile soil results

Pesticides and herbicides: can be persistent or not (DDT, round up)

Mod 33:
Desertification (see above)
intercropping vs. monocropping, see "the three sisters"

Contour cropping: saves space, reduces runoff, preserves top soil
No-till ag: same idea, retains organic material in topsoil, reduces erosion by wind and water

IPM: integrated pest management (see Lalamilo Farmers)
Organic agriculture (also mentioned in Portlandia)
More than just N-P-K, also micronutrients, slower release time, low salinity

CAFO: concentrated animal feed operation (e.g. chickens, pigs, cattle)

Fishery collapse: see cod crisis in N. Atlantic
Bycatch: killed while harvesting other fish


e2 green apple

  1. Why is it confusing to think of NYC as an ecosystem? Why does it make sense?
  2. Why is per capita a more accurate measure?
  3. Why did the guy who moved into the country gain weight?
  4. A wise person once said that the greatest cities are those built with walking in mind. How is this different in LA?
  5. Why would a skyscraper be more efficient than a smaller building?
  6. How did “environmental” become “smarter”?
  7. How was 4 Times Square a prototype? What other prototype buildings do you know of?
  8. Last week transparent PV panels were revealed. How would this change the frit concept?
  9. “blast furnace slag” and fly ash are used for the concrete in the film. Why is fly ash banned in Europe?
  10. Instead of using drinking water to flush toilets, they use what?
  11. Why is a 5 year ROI basic business sense?
  12. How is payback different in Europe and Japan?
  13. What parts of the Living Building Challenge resonate with this video?
  14. What would make you want to live in the Solaire, near Battery Park?
  15. What are the blue things on the side of the building?
  16. We are 4.6% of the global population, consuming how much of the world’s resources?


e2 green for all

  1. In the intro (Brad Pitt), there is mention of how much energy buildings use. Why is this?
  2. Why do you think there is a split between ethics and aesthetics in design?
  3. Henk Rogers (Tetris) says that if we expect island nations to live with sustainable energy sources, we should do so here first. How is this similar to Sergio Palleroni?
  4. “Honesty” comes up again here. Why?
  5. What are the points Jeff Speck brings up?
  6. Who are the Yaqui indians? Why is this important?
  7. If you make $2 per day, how long would it take to build a house that costs $5000?
  8. What was wrong with the government homes?
  9. How is architecture linked to health? Why is this relevant in the elab?
  10. Why is the open courtyard a thermal, light and social solution?
  11. How does the community “own” the building? Why is this brilliant?
  12. How is this extened to political and social empowerment?
  13. The new home owners cut the ribbon. Where did this happen at the elab, and why is this culturally relevant in Hawaii?
  14. Many cities are divided by a road or railway. What does the saying “wrong side of the tracks” mean?
  15. How does the Guadalupe project change this?
  16. Who was involved, and why is this important?
  17. In Hawaii we have “ohana” homes. What are these called in the video?
  18. Look at the roof design in the simulation. Why is this important?
  19. What does Sergio mean about the politics of Austin? What cities in Oregon and California might be similar?
  20. How did this video inspire you?


e2: Seoul: stream of consciousness

e2: Seoul-stream of consciousness


Cheonggyecheon-clear water stream

1. " a king who utilized water well, ruled well"-why?

2. mountains and water are key elements to Feng Sui-why?

3. 600 years ago, the stream passed through many biomes-name a few

4. "cover it up" was started in 1968-what happened to the city? Has this continued?

5. "induced demand" means what? How could you control this if you were emperor?

6. Noh Soo Hong says "they think I'm nut": what does this say about the public awareness about carrying capacity and sustainable development? Are there parallels to other urban societies? What sort of economic/social benefits might you experience?

7. Lee Myung Bak is now the President of Korea, what were his previous two jobs? What's the lesson here? There is an old saying: "only Nixon could have gone to China" What's the connection?

8. What unique talents did Lee Myung Bak bring to the project?

9. What changes did they make to public transportation during construction, and what did they learn about traffic while doing this "experiment"?

10. Is traffic more like a liquid or a gas? Explain.

11. What is the heat island effect, and how did the restoration change this in Seoul?

12. The two ladies are a crackup-they talk over each other, but what is their unique perspective on this?

13. Big picture: think of why the city was located there, how it evolved to cover it's reason for being there, then once it was uncovered and restored, the city re-discovered it's roots. Where else could you imagine seeing this?

14. Hawaiian society was based on the Ahupua'a concept. How is this similar?

15. Koreans plant 480,000 trees each year to offset the impact of the stream-why?

16. Many cities in Europe have strict urban planning policies-compare these with Seoul.

17. Soon we will see a similar video about Alexandria Virginia, where pedestrian traffic has changed. How did pedestrian traffic change in Seoul due to the "road diet"

18. The present mayor of Seoul says "sustainability is the key element to the survival of the city". Why?


Ch. 10-land use: mods 29-30

Three main points: Living together, thinking of forever...
1. Tragedy of the Commons
2. Conservation movement
3. Urban Sprawl

Tragedy of the commons (old idea, new article) 1968 Garret Harding KNOW THIS...
An old 1833 concept from farming villages, article updated in 1968 this to include rivers, streams, ocean, air...

Externalized costs, externality: shedding financial responsibility for your impact the the whole

Conservation movement: Important peeps
Ralph Waldo Emerson-"Nature" "behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present"

Henry David Thoreau-Walden "truth in nature and wilderness over the deceits of urban civilization"

Ansel Adams: Photographer championed the National Parks:

"it's a place that you step into, and you don't know what's going to happen, a place that can surprise you, it's a place where you are small, where being small is not a bad thing, where being small is actually a wonderful thing"
-Carl Pope, Sierra Club

"...the world is beautiful, that humanity is part of this larger world, that the concerns of the moment are part but not separate from a larger system of forces that that connect us to all creation"
Jonathan Spaulding, Biographer

Teddy Roosevelt- ca. 1900, National Parks
first two minutes, start again at 7:00-10:00
Note influence of railroads in parks as well as all lands in the west

Aldo Leopold-environmental ethics, wildlife management, conservation, Sand County Almanac (Wisconsin)

John Muir-started the Sierra Club: "wilderness mirrors divinity, nourishes humanity and vivifies the spirit"

Rachel Carson-silent spring DDT (persistent pesticide, weakens bird egg shells), 1963:

Know these:
BLM: Bureau of Land Management
USFS: US Forest Service
NPS: National Park Service
FWS: Fish and Wildlife Service

Forests: clear cut vs. selective cut
Fire management: Yellowstone fire 1988
USFS prefers many small fires, removing flammable underbrush

NEPA: National Environmental Policy Act 1969 (why then?)
EIS (environmental impact statements) are new standard for any project
UGB (Urban Growth Boundary)
Prevents Urban Sprawl (richer folks move to the suburbs, commute, need parking, city dies from the inside, food deserts, etc.)
Portland Example of urban planning:
Tom McCall Governor of Oregon, 1967-1975
Charlie Hales Mayor of Portland 2013-2017
E2 video: Portland: Sense of Place....listen for Brad Pitt:


e2 video: Portland: sense of place

e2 Transport episode 5

  1. Portland was on the path of suburban sprawl in the 1960's. What happened?
  2. 1973 was a pivotal year there, what happened?
  3. What was the initial reason for the mandate?
  4. Explain a UGB.
  5. Accessibility vs. mobility is the choice they made, like in Switzerland, as well as other European cities. What do you see in the video that you might also see in Europe?
  6. Who is the first class passenger in Portland?
  7. Cities in Europe have vibrant city centers, and are great cities to walk around. How is this done in Portland?
  8. Explain "trip behavior".
  9. How much did property values increase in the Pearl district after the trolley went in? Why? (note the amount of glass in each trolley).
  10. Where in Europe do they also have aerial trams? Notice a trend?
  11. Explain "lifestyle migrants".
  12. What is "gentrification"? Where else have you seen this? (hint: look up the term "landed gentry")
  13. What things in the video do you recognize that show a bike friendly city?
  14. What does the man mean about a "burlap future"?
  15. How does the concept of choice resonate with values in this country? What do you think?



Where is the water?
How does it get there?


Huge aquifer-note recharge time is in centuries, pesticides in NE

Water diversion (e.g. rivers)

Two critical issues for China:
Pearl river delta and salt intrusion (sea level rise)
Vanishing Himalayan Glaciers (no farming in western China):

Download file ""
Glaciers are the water towers for Asia...
Rivers impacted:
Ganges, Yangtze, Yellow, Mekong, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Indu, Salween,

Aral Sea (asia minor)

Water disputes:

Water Pollution categories:

Pollutant list:

Nitrate levels (note farming regions):

Why is there a hypoxic zone there?

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD):
Better diagram:

Note that temperature changes DO (dissolved oxygen) content, so does physical agitation (aeration).

Water Quality Index:
Calculation worksheet:

See also point source and non-point source pollution (from Poisoned Waters video, remember the Deer?)

Important: cooler water holds dissolved oxygen better (fishermen know this, so do the fish).

Water Quality Lab:

Lab samples

  1. Post waterfall
  2. Post power plant
  3. Everglades close to ocean
  4. Post sewage plant
  5. Best fishing spot
  6. Mine tailings runoff
  7. Snow melt river
  8. Mississippi river
  9. Chesapeake river
  10. Flood after monsoon rains
  11. Golf course runoff
  12. Eutrophied lake

  • DO
  • BOD
  • pH
  • temperature
  • turbidity
  • conductivity
  • nitrates
  • phosphates
Simulated locations:
Sample A
  • DO:1.5
  • BOD:low
  • pH:7
  • temperature:30°C
  • turbidity:high
  • conductivity:low
  • nitrates:high
  • phosphates:high

Sample B
  • DO:6
  • BOD:low
  • pH:7
  • temperature:10°C
  • turbidity-low
  • conductivity-low
  • nitrates-low
  • phosphates-low

Sample C
  • DO: 4
  • BOD:low
  • pH:8
  • temperature:25°C
  • turbidity: high
  • conductivity: high
  • nitrates: high
  • phosphates: high

Sample D-
  • DO: 2
  • BOD: high
  • pH:5
  • temperature: 28°C
  • turbidity:high
  • conductivity: low
  • nitrates: low
  • phosphates: high

Sample E
  • DO: 2
  • BOD:low
  • pH:2
  • temperature:20°C
  • turbidity:high
  • conductivity: high
  • nitrates: low
  • phosphates: low

Sample F
  • DO: 1
  • BOD: high
  • pH: 4
  • temperature: 30°C
  • turbidity: high
  • conductivity: high
  • nitrates: high
  • phosphates: high


Mod 25 rocks and soil

Next: Rocks Module 25
Igneous (fire)
Sedimentary (layers)
Metamorphic (Kafka rocks, just kidding: changed by heat and pressure)

Igneous= directly from magma, can be either basalt (low melting point, like our island or oceanic plates) or granite (lighter, what continents are made of)
Granite breaks down into light colored sand, makes for fertile soil. Basalt (like us) can make sand too, but less fertile (e.g. black sand beach).

Sedimentary= just like it sounds, from mud, sand or dust, usually in layers.

Metamorphic= changed by heat and/or pressure (slate, marble or coal)

Soil-formed by weathering (chemical or physical) of parent rock
Erosion can be by water or air (wind)

These used to be just A, B, C layers
E layer was added (eluviated layer-where water washes out nutrients)
O layer was added (overlayer-detritus)

Latest version:

Soil structure (physical analysis)

n.b. the trick to reading the lines is always look clockwise...

Finer soils drain slowly (capillary action), hold nutrients (because of reduced water flow), and settle last in rivers
Coarse soils (e.g. sand) drain quickly, are nutrient poor (water washed the nutrients away) and settle first in rivers
Loam is the term for a perfect balance of these inorganic soil types
Farmers refer to "tilth" of a soil, which includes ability to hold water, organic content and more:

Organic matter is not included here: it holds water and decomposes, releasing nutrients
For healthy soil, we need both the physical (above), organic and chemical systems to balance.

Chemical analysis:
N=nitrogen: critical for plant growth
P=phosphorus: roots and fruits
K= Kalium=Potasssium=potash: plant immunity

pH is the Hydrogen ion content: pH of 7 is neutral water, others may have other values
Hydroponics use a term EC for Electrical conductivity, which is a measure of dissolved ions in solution.
1.5-2.5 is ideal for most hydroponic systems, depending on plant types

See also CEC: Cation exchange capacity

Physical tests----
  • Gross analysis: how does the soil feel in your hands: like clay or sand? Does it have organic matter? Can you squeeze it and have it hold shape (tilth)? What color do you see?
  • Percolation test: time it takes water to move through a soil sample, measured in cm/second. Measure the seconds, and the cm depth of your soil, divide.
  • Sedimentation test: settled layers after mixing with water, measure total thickness, then layer thickness, present at percentage of total
  • Dry sifting test: drop your sample into the sifter column, measure mass of each layer
Chemical tests----
  • Decant (pour off) liquid from the sedimentation test above, use for the pH test kit
  • N test: same with the N soil test kit
  • P test: same with the P soil test kit
  • K test: same with the K soil test kit
  • (optional) organic matter test: bake the sample, mass before and after, difference is organic matter

Usually from removal of native plants, overgrazing and/or over-irrigation with well water (salinization)


ch 8 mod 24 Earth systems

Big picture: 15 by ago...
Big bang, then stars which live for about 10 BY, then...
Nova, supernova, neutron stars

4.5 by ago-solar system (including bits from supernovae)
When first stars die as supernovae (about 10 BY into their life), the heat and pressure created all elements beyond Iron on the periodic table
Anything on our planet that is lower than Iron on the periodic table, came from the explosion of an older star, including stuff inside YOU.
Earth forms from molten elements as our solar system is formed, (called an accretion disc) including Uranium
(reason for heat still in the core-see the minister estimate of Sunday afternoon creation date)

Geo time: ("deep time")

You can look up the K-T extinction online, it happened 65MY ago. Look up the dude that discovered it...

See videos: How the earth was made...

Layers: (onion boy)
Core-Mantle-Crust-think of an apple

Core is actually two bits: solid inner iron and nickel, liquid outside that bit. It spins, giving us a weak magnetic field
How do we know this? Nuclear bomb testing and our global seismic sensor network
Hint: the inner part spins around in the opposite direction every 60-80 MY, so the earth's magnetic field actually FLIPS (this is important for later-or sooner)

Plate Tectonics-look up this guy: Wegener. Meteorologist (weather guy), so the geo folks laughed at him...
The players:
Magma-(Dr. Evil voice here:
Asthenosphere-"sticky rock" (from Greek ἀσθενής asthenḗs 'weak' + "sphere")
Lithosphere-floating rock (litho = stone) (Ancient Greek: λίθος [lithos] for "rocky", and σφαίρα [sphaira] for "sphere")
Continents-even more floaty, made of lighter rock (granite) that formed from interaction of magma with oceans

Plates are large, float on the Asthenosphere
Continents are like rafts on the Asthenosphere, more buoyant than the plates
The plates can slide under each other (subduction zones), crash into each other (Himalayas), next to each other (transform faults), and are formed at spreading zones (divergent boundaries)

Check out this diagram: note the red (spreading) and the blue (subducting), esp. look at Chile---->

What mountains are in Chile?
Volcanoes are the key:
Two kinds of volcanoes: Andesitic (pointy), Basaltic (runny, look out your window)
Andesite-from pressure and heat as plates subduct (sticky, high silica content, e.g. Andes mountains)
Basalt-from ocean crust, lots of water, makes for weak, runny magma, formed as magma pushes through watery ocean plates
Subduction zones:

Note the sticky stuff boiling up in red-this is why the Andesitic volcanoes are sticky, and always found near subduction zones (Andes, Cascades, Japan, Italy, etc.)
Note also the trench where the subduction zone goes down: this is the origin of the Chilean/Peruvian trench we covered in the El Nino notes, as well as the deepest part of the ocean: the Marianas Trench, which is 7 MILES deep. Whoa!

Historic data shows subduction zone quakes that would create a tsunami 1000' high or more on the pacific northwest coast, flooding everything west of I-5.

Look at all of the earthquakes (red dots) as the plate subducts

Two things to take-away about subduction zones:
1. subduction zones create ANDESITIC (pointy) volcanoes, which are high in silica, and sticky like thick pancake batter.
2. subduction zones create lots of deep focus earthquakes.

Spreading zones:
--See the submarine notes
What the heck is this?
Note the symmetry along the ridge crest. This was mapped in WWII in an attempt to detect metallic submarines using magnetic sensors on ships. Later on airplanes like this:

You will see these practicing at the Kona airport, look out for them. They are spying on submarines. Not ours.

Remember the earth magnetic field changing?

Hot spots:
Usually in the middle of an oceanic plate, but can also be mid continent (e.g. Yellowstone supervolcano caldera)
Hot spots-basalt-low silica content, melts easier (e.g. look out the window)
Look at the Hawaii island chain on google earth (underwater version)
While you are at it, look for the Nuuanu landslide that created a 4000' tsunami
You can also look at the Mauna Loa simulated tsunami on youtube...


then there's the famous "notmy" fault...

Epicenter is the place ON THE SURFACE above the hypocenter (true origin) or earthquake FOCUS. Deeper hypocentric quakes often feel "longer", while shallow hypocentric quakes feel "sharp".

How do we find these?
P waves travel by compression (comPression). These are longitudinal waves, like sound. They can travel through liquid or solid.
S waves travel by shear (Shear). These are transverse waves, like a slinky. They can only travel through solids.

This is how we know what the inside of the earth looks like:
This data was found by spying on atomic bomb tests in the 1950's, not because we wanted to know about the guts of our planet...

Ok, back to earthquakes.
Suppose you have a house on posts (called "post and pier" construction). An earthquake happens some distance away. First your house moves back and forth (P wave, much faster at 8 km/sec). After a time, your house bounces up and down from the S waves (slower at 3 km/second).
If you are far away, these are separated by different arrival times.
If you are near the epicenter, they hit at the same time...up, over, down=your house is demolished

We use this difference to calculate distance from the epicenter (and hypocenter if you are interested) using delay times on the seismograph

Look at the HPA seismograph here:
and our Hawaii quakes here:
Click on some earthquakes and note the depth and the seismic image.

Next: Rocks Module 25
Igneous (fire)
Sedimentary (layers)
Metamorphic (Kafka rocks, just kidding: changed by heat and pressure)

Igneous= directly from magma, can be either basalt (low melting point, like our island or oceanic plates) or granite (lighter, what continents are made of)
Granite breaks down into light colored sand, makes for fertile soil. Basalt (like us) can make sand too, but less fertile (e.g. black sand beach).

Sedimentary= just like it sounds, from mud, sand or dust, usually in layers.

Metamorphic= changed by heat and/or pressure (slate, marble or coal)

Soil-formed by weathering (chemical or physical) of parent rock
Erosion can be by water or air (wind)

Soil Horizons:


ch 7-mod 22 Human Populations
First of all a flow diagram:
Note that this is for a country, not the planet, since people (so far) are not leaving the planet...or arriving from elsewhere.
National version as a formula:

If you look at the planet as a whole (sans aliens or Elon Musk):

so, there is a neat shorthand formula for this:

Which is an estimate, the real number is 69.3 (why?)
Here is an example:

Note that as the growth rate increases, the doubling time decreases.
Look for this on the AP as multiples/fractions of 70: 14, 28, 35, and so on...

Now, to babies: TFR is the total number of babies a woman will have in her lifetime.
Replacement level fertility is just above 2.0, (usually 2.1, as some babies don't reproduce or make it to reproductive age).
What does this mean in Japan, where young people are not having babies?
RLF depends on developed/developing nations as well (clean water, medical care, access to food, war)
Life expectancy: depends on these as well...
Infant mortality: under age 1 (reason for big Hawaiian one year birthdays)
child mortality: under 5

Age structure diagrams/population pyramids-check these out: UAE, Japan, Sudan, Iraq/Iran, Russia----WHY?
See also baby boom and boom echoes...

Module 23 Demographic Transition

Better diagram:

IPAT formula:

GDP vs. GNP (nationalism, global economy)

Urban areas, UGB (Portland)

See also Ecological Footprint Calculator:


ch 6 pop eco mods 20-21

Sunrise this morning in Marin:

Community ecology
Competitive exclusion principle: two species competing for the same resources cannot co-exist, leads to...
Resource partitioning: time, space, type of food (one species picks one, the other survives)
Predation: predator and prey, one lives, the other dies
Mutualism: both benefit
Commensalism: one benefits, no harm to the other
Parasitism: one benefits, harm to other

keystone species vs. indicator species

Keystone species-many others depend on it

Indicator species-signal health of a system

Succession: one species takes over another in time

Primary succession: From bare rock, no soil: (e.g. lichen)

Secondary succession: from disturbed area with soil (e.g. after a fire)

Pioneer species: arrives first, sets up reliable system

Aquatic succession: from stream to pond to shallow pond to marsh

Island biogeography (like here in Waimea): habitat size AND distance from others influences diversity (e.g. birds)

Check out an alternate presentation of these in chapters 4 and 5 of the Withgott text:

Frog book chapter 5:


Ch 6 Population Ecology mods 18-19

Module 18-abundance and distribution
Start with this:

We covered ecosystem energy and matter a few weeks ago, this chapter is about population ecology.

Notation: Pop size is represented as N (note not "n"): population size within a defined area at a specific time (brings in migration).

Check out the diagrams on pop distribution: random, uniform and clumped. Important vis a vis biodiversity
Structures: age and gender (sex)

Density dependent factor: e.g. food or reproductive rate in rats (more rats, lower fecundity)
Something that influences reproduction or survival...
Density IN-dependent factors: storms, disasters, fires (note density independent: one bambi or 100 bambi all perish in the same fire)

Limiting resource: usually food, but could include space, nutrients, etc.

Carrying capacity: K (note not "k"): how many individuals an environment can support

Module 19: growth models
Check this out:

This is called exponential growth, or "J shaped growth"
Note that it has no end, or limiting factor.
Small r is the growth rate. If you have had physics (yay!) this is usually "k" in some examples, or related to RC.
Learning this equation is VERY useful.
Note that it depends on two things: the amount in the population (No) and the growth rate (r)
Here is an example:

Many systems follow J shaped exponential growth until they run out of food or space, then there is overshoot and die-off. A more ideal version of this is the S shaped curve, called logistic growth:

Here is a formula for logistic growth that we'll discuss:

dN/dt is just the rate of population growth (some of you may see this as the slope of the S curve)
Note that when the ratio N/K is very small, the parentheses become 1, so the formula is rate = rN
As N/K nears one (number of critters equals carrying capacity) the term in the parentheses becomes zero, so no growth.
Note also that if N/K is GREATER than one, the growth rate (slope of the curve) become negative. This is overshoot and die off.

Ok, now check this out:

Note the phase (timing) relationship between the abundance of the food and the population of the prey, then the predator.

Now we can discuss generalizations of r and K strategists:
Where do you fit in? How about Nemo?

There is a fourth: deer. How would you imagine this curve?


Interspecies relationships

interspecies relationships:



mutualism: both benefit

commensalism: one benefits, no loss to the other

parasitism: one benefits, loss to the second

Keystone species-many others depend on it

Indicator species-signal health of a system


Mod 14/15/16/17-biodiversity (chapter 5)


Species diversity:
richness vs. evenness. richness = number of species, evenness = balanced proportions

We can calculate biodiversity:

Mod 15: Evolution
Three conditions must be met:
1. genetic variation (mutation)
2. some stress that favors this variation (adaptation)
3. survivors procreate, pass on the variation (reproduction)

Genotype: set of genes (dominant and recessive)
Phenotype: traits expressed in a living creature

Genetic drift-pretty much what it sounds like
Bottleneck effect-VERY important: when a species is almost extinct, there is little variation in the gene pool of the survivors, even if their population rebounds (e.g. whales)

Founder effect: random selection of survivors, creating a new gene pool (birds, gilligan)

mod 16: speciation
Geographic isolation (e.g. Galapagos) also found where we disturb natural habitats with roads
Causes Allo (other) Patric (father) speciation
Eventually reproductive isolation will result: different breeds will not be able to procreate

There is another more rare form of speciation: Sympatric ("same father"), from polyploidy, ("many chromosomes")

GMO: see roundup ready corn and wheat, freeze proof tomatoes and others.
Not to be confused with Dwarf Wheat and Norman Borlaug (see population chapters for more on this).
Dwarf wheat was a simple hybrid, not a GMO.
Look up "gene guns" and CRISPR

mod 17: niches and species distribution
Check this out:

You'll see another like this in population distributions...
Range of tolerance-where it can survive
Fundamental niche-happy place
Realized niche-de facto place
Distribution-areas where they live (we'll see more of this in the chapter on population distributions: random, scattered, patterned)


mod 13 aquatic biomes


Shallow shore area=littoral (means shallow), see the "littoral Navy", photosynthesis here (shallow, light shines through)
Open water area=limnetic zone, no rooted plants (too deep), phytoplankton here, only as deep as sunlight can penetrate
Deep water=profundal ("profound") or deep zone: no light penetrates, bacterial decomposition.
Bottom=benthic zone: mud, dark, cloudy

Oligo (few) trophic=low productivity
Meso (middle) trophic=medium
Eutrophic (eu=good trephien=food)=lots of productivity (sometimes too much, like in "Poisoned Waters")

Freshwater wetlands-submerged most of the time (swamps, marshes, bogs) this is the history of all coal and oil we now use

Salt marsh: usually connected to the sea, act as a coastal buffer for Hurricanes, very productive, many nutrients, lots of organic material
Mangrove swamp: special version of this in Tropical areas (e.g. Florida)

Intertidal zone: area between high and low tide

Ocean zones:
Coral reefs-see coral bleaching, pH, temperature and salinity sensitive (see Hamakua coast vs. Puako)
Intertidal zone: between high and low tide
Photic (light) zone-shallow, photosynthesis, kelp, others
Aphotic (dark) zone-too dark for photosynthesis
Chemosythesis/thermosynthesis: deepwater steam vents, based on Sulfur instead of Oxygen, bacteria generate energy with methane (CH4) and H2S (instead of H20)
Benthic=deep ocean
Pelagic=open ocean (think of big sailing ships, whales, stuff like that)
Hadal zones: like Hades: deepest, darkest zones. Weird fish, no light...


Mod 12: terrestrial biomes

Huh? Terrestrial=earth vs. aquatic, having to do with ducks...

9 Biomes are usually defined by precipitation (rain, fog, others) and temperature.
Big Island has 8 of the 9 biomes, or in the 12 biome model, we have 11/12
Traveling up a mountain is like crossing biomes. Check this out:
Imagine driving from Hamakua or Hilo up to the summit of Mauna Kea: tropical rain forest to temperate (mild) rain forest to boreal (north) forest to tundra. There is even a glacier up on Mauna Kea. Cool.
This would be like starting in the upper right corner of the diagram and moving diagonally down and to the left.

Now check out the planet:

Notice the horizontal bands. If you've read "Guns Germs and Steel" you know that humans migrated horizontally, so their crops and livestock would be in similar biomes. See? Migrating north to south is tough.

Now look at this:

These diagrams are how we describe biomes without a cool map. The blue line is the amount of rainfall, with units on the RIGHT side of the graph. The red line is the temperature, with units on the LEFT side of the graph. The shaded region in the months below (jfmamjjasond) is the growing season when temperatures are above freezing. When the precipitation line is above the temperature line, growth is limited by temperature (e.g. freezing). When the blue line is below the red line, growth is limited by precipitation (e.g. the desert).

Start with the north: Tundra is what you'd see in Alaska. Permafrost is soon to be in the news. It is made of permanently frozen ground a few feet below the surface. Even roots cannot penetrate it, so some trees grow in a stunted fashion. It is also composed of frozen organic matter, which when it freezes will decompose, releasing CO2 and CH4 (methane), which is 20x as powerful as CO2 as a greenhouse gas.


Note the cool temp, so growth is determined by temp, not rainfall.

Contrast that with the boreal (north) forest:

Note the short growing season. Any plants that survive usually have an oily sap (pine trees, evergreens) that does not freeze.

Temperate (mild) forests are nicer, longer growing season, and rarely freeze. They are usually near the ocean, so they do not freeze (ocean is a huge heat sink). The often have lots of rain (think of Seattle).

Temperate (mild) seasonal forest actually has seasons:
Deciduous trees can live here, like maple and oak.

Woodland/shrubland is like much of southern California, or the Mediterranean. Wine can grow here:

Note it never really freezes, but growth is determined by precipitation (blue line is below the red line). This is also known as "chaparral" or the "fynbos" or "nice forest" in Afrikaans (South Africa).

Temperate grassland/cold desert is a dry, grassy area, like Oklahoma, although it does get very cold there, so think more of Texas, or the Gobi desert. Again, growth is rain limited:

Tropical rainforest is the rainiest of them all, and much of our island has this near the shore. Warm temperatures, and paradoxically poor soil nutrition (all of the nutrients are in the plants). On Mt. Waialeale on Kauai, the rainfall is 480 INCHES per year, 2.5 times as high as the high point on the chart below:

Africa and Brazil hold the next biome: Savanna or tropical seasonal forest. Think of Madagascar (the film): not many large trees, room for animals to roam, lots of grass, happy lions, maybe a bossy penguin or two...
Growth dependent on rainfall:

Finally, the subtropical desert biome, like what you'd see in the sahara desert (another film), or most of Australia, the Atacama in Chile, the Mojave desert in California, and some of Mexico. Note the Gobi desert is not on this list-too cold.


El nino and La nina

Though ENSO is a single climate phenomenon, it has three states, or phases, it can be in. The two opposite phases, “El Niño” and “La Niña,” require certain changes in both the ocean and the atmosphere because ENSO is a coupled climate phenomenon. “Neutral” is in the middle of the continuum.

  1. El Niño: A warming of the ocean surface, or above-average sea surface temperatures (SST), in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Over Indonesia, rainfall tends to become reduced while rainfall increases over the tropical Pacific Ocean. The low-level surface winds, which normally blow from east to west along the equator (“easterly winds”), instead weaken or, in some cases, start blowing the other direction (from west to east or “westerly winds”).
  2. La Niña: A cooling of the ocean surface, or below-average sea surface temperatures (SST), in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Over Indonesia, rainfall tends to increase while rainfall decreases over the central tropical Pacific Ocean. The normal easterly winds along the equator become even stronger.
  3. Neutral: Neither El Niño or La Niña. Often tropical Pacific SSTs are generally close to average. However, there are some instances when the ocean can look like it is in an El Niño or La Niña state, but the atmosphere is not playing along (or vice versa).


Chapter 4 plan

We'll spend more time on mods 12/13 as they are longer

Chapter 5 looks like this:


mod 11 notes-oceans

Check this out:

  • notice that the north pacific currents flow clockwise, south pacific counter clockwise. why?
  • there are places with little forward current, so they become islands of debris
  • gyres describe the circular flow, some refer to the islands of debris as gyres (not accurate)
  • difference between flotsam and jetsam: one floats, the other is jettisoned from boats
  • thermohaline (thermo=heat, haline=saltwater) circulation:

  • this upwelling of 2000 year old water off the Kona coast is the bases for Koyo water near the airport
  • upwelling off the peruvian/chilean coast-Andean trench=great fishing when in normal conditions (not el nino or la nina)
  • ENSO= el nino souther oscillation-a really big deal, reverses the normal ocean circulation
  • next: module 12: biomes


mod 9/10 notes atmospheres

  • tropo (top) sphere-heated by contact with earth, where most weather occurs
  • strato (high) sphere-cooler, where commercial aircraft travel, more radiation there
  • meso (middle) sphere-higher, but does not contain charged particles
  • thermo (hot) sphere-also known as the ionosphere, charged particles from interaction with the solar wind (charged protons and others), "hot" because of these particles slowing down, but so little atmosphere it would freeze you if you were there. Three layers: D, E and F, with F being the highest, all three reflect radio waves, but only the lower ones conduct/reflect in sunlight
  • exo (outer) sphere-where space begins, freezing cold about one hydrogen molecule per square meter
  • Ozone: between the troposphere and stratosphere, this absorbs UV radiation
  • Magnetosphere: way out there, deflects solar wind, particles then spiral into the north and south poles creating the auroras.
  • If no magnetosphere, we'd cook like in a microwave oven
  • if no ozone layer, all plants would die, DNA would be mutated, life would cease except for deep thermal vents

  • 4 seasons, equinox means "equal night"
  • earth spins counter clockwise when viewed from north pole
  • latitudes are like a ladder, go horizontally (east to west)
  • longitudes are all long, go vertically (north to south)
  • seasons are determined by tilt, not by distance to the sun
  • although, Australia (southern hemisphere) summer happens when we are closer to sun in our elliptical orbit
  • albedo-think of albus (white) dumbledore, means reflectivity. Earth is about 30%, snow is 95%
Water stuff
  • relative humidity: amount of water in the air at a certain temperature, relative to the max it could hold at that temperature (RH). Look this up here: You can blow on the room sensor and see this rise.
  • absolute humidity: true amount of water in percent (AH)
  • saturation point: the max amount of water air can hold at that temp (rises with temperature)
  • dew point: weather term for the temp that water will condense from air, depends on humidity
  • adiabatic cooling: think of Waimea canyon, or the mountains of the Andes, Olympics, Coastal range, Himalayas, etc. As air rises, the reduced pressure makes it cooler. Opposite of pumps, which get hot (compression). You might see this with aerosol spray cans.
  • adiabatic heating: reverse of this: think of Puako or Kawaihae: as air descends, it is compressed and gets hotter.
  • latent (hidden) heat release: when vapor condenses from gas to liquid, it releases energy. Opposite of evaporation or boiling, which both require energy.
  • convection: one of three means that energy moves from place to place: radiation, conduction (contact), convection (movement of mass, usually air or water).
  • Hadley cells: between 30N and 30S, convergence at the equator (hot air rises there), descends after shedding heat to space and water as it rises (rain), descending dry air forms deserts at 30N and 30S. Winds from the north to south at the surface, opposite in the stratosphere.
  • ITCZ: intertropical convergence zone: the place near the equator where this convergence occurs.
  • Ferrell cells: between 30N and 60N, also on the southern hemisphere: deserts at the bottom, northward wind at the surface, opposite in space (stratosphere), which is why commercial flights usually have a headwind where they'd have a tailwind at the surface. Also why when trades are strong, mainland flights are faster/shorter.
  • polar cells: southward wind from 60N to 90N, creates dry desert at the north pole.
  • coriolis effect; spinning of earth makes air near the equator rotate faster around the axis than polar air. This difference creates hurricanes and ocean currents, therefore diagonal winds (see fig 10.6)
  • rain shadow: think of the coast near Mahukona or Lapakahi, between Kawaihae and Hawi: very dry as all moisture has been wrung out of the air by ascending above mount Kohala. Think also of Eastern Washington, or the Desert in Chile, where the Andes dry out the air. Many more-find some!