Ch.16 Waste generation and disposal

"humans are the only organism that produce waste others cannot use"
Disposable society-even worse with technology now
iFixit: "repair is noble"
It is also empowering...
e.g. cars, computers, appliances
TV repair: old and new
system integration-not just discrete parts (like kitchen appliances), computers=TV=radio
MSW=municipal (city) solid (not sewage) waste 60% from homes, 40% from industry
Main issues: packaging, food containers, water bottles

e-waste: toxic metals, non-compostable
What is compost?
3 R's: reduce (use less) reuse (use again, "super use") recycle (larger infrastructure-glass, paper, aluminum)
What happens to our recycling here in Waimea?
How different from Seattle, Portland or SF?

Closed loop vs. open loop recycling:
Closed loop: aluminum cans, carpet
Open loop: PET into jackets, tires into beams

Municipal composting:

Not done here...

Landfills (burying), incineration (burning) -see also plasma incineration of medical waste
Sanitary Landfill-MUST be lined with plastic:

Incinerator (like the one on Oahu):
Hazardous waste:
CERCLA ("Superfund"): Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Recovery Act
-taxes chemical and oil industries to fund cleanup and recovery sites "superfund sites"
RCRA: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-solid waste laws

Look up Love Canal, Hooker Chemical

Look behind the elab for a brownfield site...

Life Cycle Analysis: Cradle to grave analysis (e.g. white macbooks vs. aluminum macbook pros)
William McDonough:
e2: Deeper shades of Green:

deeper shades of green e2

Ken Yeang-singapore library

William McDonough-upcycle vs. downcycle 10:30-17:15

"all children of all species for all time"

Werner Sobek-R128 (home on one truck) and R129 (soap bubble home)

Consider the energy lab: nothing in the elab can be toxic in production, use or disposal


e2 super use (recycling)

e2 super use

  1. Cesere says that “the only abnormal thing is mankind” Why?
  2. Do you recognize the recycling station in the Netherlands? (hint: think locally)
  3. What is the connection with waste streams?
  4. Why are architects uniquely crucial in the video?
  5. What recycled materials to you recognize in the espresso bar?
  6. What is the psychological aspect they mention?
  7. How is the design process “backwards thinking”?
  8. What did you think of the shoe store? Would you shop there? Why?
  9. What can you imagine using 6 billion tires per year for globally?
  10. If the tires are not recycled globally, what disease do they promote?
  11. There is a "gimmicky" aspect of these projects-how practical are they, and what special intelligence must be involved in any project? How does this compare to traditional projects?
  12. Again, psychologically how does curiosity about a store engage the customers?
  13. What is the "harvest map”? How could the internet make this more possible?
  14. What are the health aspects of using recycled materials? Why is it easier to use new materials from this aspect?
  15. Quantity, standardization and ease of use are cited-why?
  16. If "cradle to cradle” reuse becomes more pervasive, could some materials be created with recycling in mind? What are you thinking of?
  17. How does the Welpeloo project (glass home lady, Ingrid Blans) compare with the elab Living Building Challenge? Were any recycled materials used in the elab?
  18. What about her kitchen?
  19. All wood in the elab was “SPF” and “FSC certified”. Why are these important?
  20. Rotterdam was completely demolished in the second world war, as was Dresden and several other European cities. Architects love the architecture of Chicago. What do these three cities have in common, and what opportunities do they present?
  21. Why would the newer apartment buildings have insulation on the North side, and glass on the South side?
  22. Refurbishing existing buildings is a huge market, as opposed to tearing down a structure and starting from scratch. What are the benefits outlined in the video?
  23. What does "cheaper" really mean in the broadest sense?
  24. Why is "close by" important?
  25. Why are the “layers” in the design mentioned important?
  26. How does this reverse the normal design process?


Chapter 15: Air pollution

chapter 15: air pollution

Big ideas: air is shared by everyone on the planet, crosses international borders without consent, impacts innocents with little power.

6 major pollutants: “criteria pollutants”

Sulfur dioxide SO2

Nitrogen oxides NOx

Carbon monoxide CO

Particulate matter PM

Ozone O3

Lead Pb

mnemonic: SOX/NOX, CO/O3, PM/Pb

add: CO2 (2007), VOC, Hg


From Methionine (amino acid in living things) in fossil fuels

Combines with water in the air to make H2SO4 sulfuric acid


Various forms of oxidized nitrogen, which alone is inert

From high temperature combustion (e.g. auto engines)

Also from decomposition of fertilizers


Emission from car exhaust, or other incomplete combustion:

C + O2 —> CO2

If not enough O2, then CO forms

Toxic, causes damage to hemoglobin, 30 day life cycle for hemoglobin

See also CO2 and climate change, > 400ppm since 2012|313232&orderby=L&latr=0.28062097322957413&lngr=0.3714752197265625


PM2.5 is most dangerous, smaller particles lodge deep in the lungs, beyond ability of pulmonary cilia to flush out

PM5, PM10 larger particles

Main cause: power plants, diesel engines

See also vog: PM2.5 particles of ash with SO2 dissolved in water droplets: physical abrasive + corrosive acid = respiratory damage

Ozone and other photochemical oxidants (PANs)

Ozone in stratosphere is good, in troposphere bad

Causes lung irritation, toxic to some organisms

Smog and other photochemical reactions:


Gasoline additive (tetraethyl lead, improves octane rating cheaply), replaced by other worse carcinogenic (cancer causing) chemicals like MTBE:

Decreases mental capacity (e.g. Roman insanity theory)

Found in coal smoke, along with Mercury and other heavy metals. Sludge from mining is worse.


Volatile organic compounds, e.g. gasoline vapors (why your gas cap must be on or you get a dashboard warning):

Secondary pollutants: need a chemical reaction (often energy from sunlight) to form (see figure 47.1 above)

See PANs: Peroxyacyl nitrates: formed from VOCs, NOx

See thermal inversions: london fog, US

Donora, PA 1948 k.20, sick 7000

1952 London 4000-12,000 dead, three nights

Mexico city 1996 300 dead, 400K sick

acid rain: plants, fish, structures

SO2 + O2, water = H2SO4 (sulfuric acid)

NO3 + O2, water = HNO3 (nitric acid)

“Acid snow”

W. VA had rain more acidic than stomach acid

know how a scrubber works (just like the nuclear plant diagram)

IAP-indoor air pollution

Leading cause of death in LDC (women)

manure, open pit fires, CO, PM10

sick building syndrome: formaldehyde, CO2, VOC

the main culprits:

VOC, CO, Radon, Lead, formaldehyde, asbestos, PM10

asbestos-asbestosis, mesothelioma

Radon222-lung cancer (smoke demo-lungs)


• Air Quality: Air quality can be assessed using various


• Particulates: Sticky paper can be used to collect

air particulates from various sources, and then the

paper can be examined under a microscope. It is

not possible to see the smallest particulates, but

they do color the white paper.

• Ozone: In this lab, an ecobadge or a homemade

potassium iodide gel sampler is hung or worn in

order to collect data on tropospheric ozone. The

badge or KI sample changes color in the presence

of ozone and becomes more intensely colored as

the amount of ozone increases.

• Carbon dioxide: In this lab, a commercial sampling

device is used to determine the amount of

carbon dioxide in an air sample. Car exhaust,

burning tobacco, or other pollutants can also be


Pollution roundup:

Chapter 8 of Princeton Review for AP:


Chapter 14: Water Pollution

Water Pollution-Ch. 14 F/R
Big ideas:
1. Rivers are continuous, so easier to find sources along the route (continuity analysis: all sources add to total)
2. Groundwater is harder to determine point sources, as flow is over larger area (not confined by river banks) and there is no continuity analysis possible (we don't know sources and sinks)
3. Oceans are the hardest to trace, and impact everyone eventually

Surface water impairment:

Module 41-Humans and livestock
Point source vs. non-point source Legal liability? Tracking? How is this different in oil spills?
BOD: impacted by anything that will decompose aerobically

Dead zones: low DO levels (via BOD or thermal pollution)
Eutrophication: too much food (nutrients)
Cultural Eutrophication: anthropogenic
Pathogens: cholera and hepatitis (esp. after disasters)
Explain cholera mechanism: intestinal, shock dehydration, cure for infants: salt and sugar water
Fecal Coliform: e. coli from humans, used as an indicator species (see recent rains here)

Septic systems:
Septic tank: septage into leach field (elab into the trees)
Cesspool: deeper, raw sewage leaks into groundwater/ocean (e.g. puako)

Wastewater treatment:
Primary: sedimentation tanks
Secondary: bacterial breakdown
Tertiary: chemical breakdown (chlorine, ozone-only ozone kills viruses)

Module 42-Heavy metals and chemicals
Lead-heavy metal, damages brain, nervous system and kidneys, can be chelated from body using EDTA:

Arsenic (e.g. ant poison, mystery novel poison), found in well water in E. India/Bangladesh:
Often found where mining occurs:
n.b. no arsenic in Hawaii (why not?)

Mercury-organic Methyl Mercury and inorganic (thermometers) "elemental mercury"
Burning coal, gold refining, mining, battery production (Minamata:
Limits to large fish consumption in pregnant women
"mad as a hatter" Milliners

Acid deposition:
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (N2O)
"acid snow" and acid rain
also runoff into streams

Pesticides with long decay rates (e.g. DDT)

Hormones and drugs:
Endocrine disrupters, not cleared by municipal water treatment systems

From rocket fuels (solid rockets, boosters)

PCB: Poly chlorinated biphenyls (recall the orcas from "poisoned waters"), fat soluble, bioaccumulation in orcas, used as an insulating fluid in transformers (n.b. fire departments use hazmat suits when a transformer catches fire)
PBDE: poly brominated diphenyl ethers-brain damage (TRIS in children's clothing as flame retardant)

POP: persistent organic pollutants

Module 43: oil pollution
Slow to decompose, settles to bottom of ocean, e.g. Exxon Valdez (captain was drunk on duty) and BP oil spill in Gulf of Mexico ("Deepwater Horizon")
Oil plumes to 3000' deep in ocean
Damage to fisheries, beaches and corals/seabed animals

Module 44: solid, thermal and noise pollution
Flotsam=floating stuff, jetsam=thrown (jettisoned) stuff
Garbage patch in pacific: pacific gyre

thermal pollution: usually associated with power plants (30% efficient, so 1000 mW power plant spews 2000mW of heat into water system)
Decreases DO levels, also thermal shock to smaller organisms

Noise pollution: serious threat to animals and humans
notice health impacts
dB (decibel scale): 210 dB = Saturn V rocket blastoff, 0 dB = anechoic chamber
>100 dB causes permanent hearing damage (ringing in the ears=dead cilia in cochlea)

Module 45: water pollution laws
Clean Water Act (CWA) 1972-protection and propagation of fish, shellfish and wildlife. Maintain and restore chemical, physical and biological props. of surface waters (n.b. not aquifers, n.b. economic impact of violations, externalized costs)

Safe Water drinking act (SWDA) 1974-EPA (formed under Nixon) est. max contaminant levels (MCL) (see list)


e2 videos-state of resolve

State of resolve:

APES questions energy 4 state of resolve

  1. What is the double entendre in “left coast”? “Fruits and nuts”?
  2. If you have ever been to LA, would you describe it as a pedestrian friendly city? How did this evolve, and why is it key to urban sprawl?
  3. What is the advantage of CA vs. the government vis a vis change and action?
  4. This was filmed in 2007. Who was president then? Did he support emission standards? Explain.
  5. it is said that what happens in CA is what will happen in the US ten years later. Why?
  6. Look up Fran Pavley, and see what has happened since the video was produced.
  7. What percentage of US cars are sold in CA?
  8. Car manufacturers used to produce two models of car: “CA” and “49 states”. Why don’t they do this now?
  9. What is the #2 polluter in CA? What did they do about this?
  10. What did Senate bill 1368 do? Why? What economic driver does this present?
  11. What the heck is “dirty energy”? What does Dan Kammen (Go Bears) say about this?
  12. How is the dirty energy plan like the car plan in how it might lead change in the US?
  13. Why are subsidies bad?
  14. What are the 5 parts of the CA plan?
  15. The price of PV panels in 2008 (when the elab was being built) was $10/Watt. What is the price per Watt for PV panels now? Why?
  16. What is the million roof plan in CA?
  17. Who replaced Bodman as Secretary of Energy? What was his strength?
  18. How much money have oil companies contributed to political campaigns, and how many dollars did they get back for every dollar invested in these campaigns?
  19. What does Kammen say about voluntary compliance? Do you agree?
  20. President Bush declared in 2007 that global climate change is a problem. Why are some folks still resisting this admission?
  21. What percentage of the global population is the US, and how much energy do we use?
  22. What does a large state like CA enable other states to do? How does it exclude any excuses?


e2 videos-growing energy

APES questions e2 growing energy

  1. What is the basic difference between biofuels and fossil fuels?
  2. What is the time frame for collection of solar energy for fossil fuels vs. biofuels?
  3. Brazil has a unique climate, and uses a crop that is native to the area. Compare this with corn ethanol in the Midwest US
  4. Why is corn ethanol so popular in the farm states, and why is there national policy around it?
  5. Steve Chu: look this guy up. Where did he used to work 19 2007, on what, and what was his job in Obama’s administration?
  6. Compare cellulosic ethanol with sugar cane or corn ethanol
  7. What is the energy balance of corn ethanol as grown in the US? Does this make sense? Why/why not?
  8. Harbors provide ethanol free gasoline. Why?
  9. What caused the 1973 oil crisis?
  10. Petrobras is the national oil company of Brazil. How does this change the rate of progress in their ethanol solution? What kind of government did Brazil have then?
  11. What is the population curve of Brazil?
  12. Why did VW move to biofuels instead of hybrids? What has happened since then?
  13. What is a CAFE standard, and what what was made exempt from these standards in 1995? Why?
  14. Does ethanol provide the same mileage as gasoline? Why?
  15. Imagine a developing country with no fossil fuel resources. How could biofuels impact their development?
  16. Dan Kammen of UC Berkeley describes a repetitive trend in renewable energy. What is the trend?
  17. Where is the first caucus of the 2016 election held? What is their main industry?
  18. When corn ethanol use was legislated, the price of tortillas in Mexico went up tremendously. Why?
  19. How can cows derive energy from grass? How many stomachs do they have?
  20. Look up the FAME biofuel process. What impact could this have?


Alternate energy


Radioactive half lives (see below)

Radiation types: particles/rays (see below)

Regarding CO2 transportation and storage underground:

Lake Nyos disaster:

ch 20 Withgott:

ch 20 alternate energy

Nuclear, biofuels, hydropower (all three are well established, provide a significant % of energy, and are global in scope)-all have less impact than fossil fuels.

Nuclear: non-renewable (in our lifetime), hydro and biomass are (depending on biome, e.g. Brazil has rainforest for sugar cane)

Nuclear Energy:

Big picture:

Good: bc lowers CO2 emissions, pollution

Bad: nuclear accidents, waste, terrorism (dirty bomb), china syndrome,

Three critical (public) accidents:

Three mile island (PA), 1977

Chernobyl (Ukraine), 1986

Fukushima (Japan), 2010

Film clip (PWR) from Film "The China Syndrome" released one week BEFORE Three Mile Island accident in 1977:


Iodine 131: radioactive isotope released in Chernobyl accident (graphite in reactor): Soviets administered Iodine tablets to all children (why?)

Fukushima: BWR reactor, earthquake then tsunami, small seawall, no electrical power for pumps, meltdown-ongoing (US fleet response, TEPCO), possible solution: freezing the ground underneath the plant.

Reactor rod cooling ponds still leaking...

See also bomb testing in the south pacific: Bikini atoll, Tahiti/NZ (Strontium 90)

Chernobyl, 1986

Fig 20.8

Smaller accidents: Sweden: Forsmark, Japan: Tokaimura, SL-1 Reactor Idaho Falls

Fig 20.3

n.b. oil and gas are linked (mined together), both with decrease in 73-80

n.b. nuclear flat from 90+ (no permits since 78)

others relatively flat

Evolution of nuclear: submarines to shore (same design) Hyman Rickover

Fission process

Fig 20.4 (example, other reactions also used)

Notice that one neutron goes in, three neutrons are released:

n.b. control rods absorb neutrons, moderator (often water or graphite) slows neutrons so they can have "effective" collisions. These are known as thermal neutrons, as their velocity slows from 150,000 m/s to thermal speeds to heat the water to steam.

Understanding half life:

Common misconception about half life: 2x half-life does not make zero

At = A0 (1/2)n or At = A0/2n (Ao = original amount, At = amount at time t, sometime later, n = number of half-lives)

Can also use population formula (rule of 70):

At = A0e-kt if you know k (the decay rate)

k = 0.693/t1/2 n.b. as t1/2 is larger, k is smaller (slower decay)

Nuclear radiation-key particles:

alpha rays/particles: Helium nucleus various speeds, heavy, stopped by skin, fatal if internal

beta rays/particles: fast electron 137,000 mph, stopped by foil, goes through skin, ionizing

gamma rays: photon, stopped by lead or concrete (lots) very dangerous, "gamma rays" (never particles)

neutrons: no charge, passes through lead and concrete unless very thick, very fatal, embrittles steel

PWR=pressurized water reactor

See PWR diagram 20.5 (know the parts)

Notice control rods in picture

n.b. hot primary loop, safer secondary loop

primary loop water is very radioactive, all material in contact must be buried

nuclear waste is much more than just the fuel (coolant, gloves, tractors, etc.), for a VERY long time

fuel must be cooled in water ponds or it melts (e.g. Fukushima)

meltdown process: fuel (in reactor or spent fuel in ponds) is not cooled enough, melts through containment into water table ("China Syndrome")

BWR (boiling water) reactor has one loop, so is much more dangerous

USSR tried a BWR with metal sodium as the primary coolant, it exploded, town disappeared from map

Third type: breeder reactor: creates bomb fuel (plutonium) U238 into Pu239

More power, less waste, very dangerous (terrorism, unstable countries e.g. Iran, N. Korea)

Compare with nuclear fusion: H + H --> He (star cycle)

More common is H2/1 (deuterium)

Hydrogen bomb uses Tritium (H3/1)

TOKAMAK, Shiva LLL: fusion reactors for energy, not bombs

Interesting stuff about weapons

"Atomic" bomb (A-Bomb): Fission, using Uranium or Plutonium

Uranium 235/92 easier to build, fuel harder to get (Hiroshima)

Plutonium: Pu239/93 harder to build, fuel easier to get (Nagasaki)

"dirty bomb" is not nuclear, but uses readily found plutonium dust (most toxic substance in the universe, ready alpha emitter, dust kills anyone breathing it) with TNT/C4

Nuclear bomb ("H-bomb") uses A-bomb as detonator, deuterium or tritium as fuel, fusion reaction.

Next steps in nuclear fission power: Thorium reactors, pebble bed reactors (e2 video)

Terms to know:

“prompt critical” (e.g. Idaho Falls, Chernobyl, Soviet submarine K-431)

“SCRAM” =“security cut rope axe man” (negative reactivity), or to run away very fast...

SCRAM is called “reactor trip” in PWR reactors (like in the China Syndrome film)

Chernobyl accident 1986, Ukraine:

Caused by operator error, in attempt to enrich the fuel by enhancing neutron flow and test the safety systems at the same time

28 dead at scene, many 100 thousands more from cancer, many children

Much worse bc USSR refused to warn populace and neighbors

10x fallout of Hiroshima


Zero Hour: 2004 video (start at 26:00, very detailed a bit long)

Chernobyl: (cheesy animations)



Nuclear energy

Nuclear Energy:


Please make sure you can tell the difference between the two types of nuclear reactor:

PWR is a pressurized water reactor, with two loops one a PRIMARY (PRIMARY = PWR) and another a secondary loop. These are safer.

The other type is a BWR (boiling water reactor) where the water going over the core is the same water going through the turbine.

Make sure you can describe the process, with all elements:


control rods

fuel rods







You might also look into the third type of reactor, a breeder reactor. These are really bomb factories, where the neutrons from either a PWR or BWR are used to enrich Uranium for use in nuclear weapons.

Make sure you understand the process of 1 neutron in, several neutrons out (depending on the reaction) and how the control rods capture the extra neutrons to make a sustaining nuclear reaction.

Look also into the use of water or graphite as a moderator, which slows the fast neutrons into slower "thermal" neutrons.

There is a chance that such a question could be the nuclear FR question, which could then tie into biomes with the thermal pollution aspect. They may also use it to bring in nuclear waste storage issues and the environmental impact of nuclear power plants, contrasting it with coal fired power plants. Make sure you can compare the benefits and drawbacks of each.


e2: Coal and Nuclear

SALT audio

Coal and nuclear:

APES questions

  1. Why a perfect storm?
  2. When he says “our grandchildren” who does he mean to you?
  3. Why a silver bullet? what is this reference?
  4. What percentage of global energy is sustainable?
  5. Why are coal and nuclear "two 800 lb gorillas"?
  6. Wood to coal-why and when? why is it the 21st century energy source?
  7. How has this changed since this video was created in 2008?
  8. Coal plants: how often are new Chinese coal plants opened, how long will each one last?
  9. Mercury, sulfur compounds-why and to whom do these impact?
  10. Who does Mike Mudd represent? Is he telling the truth?
  11. Jeffrey Sachs stresses testing-why? What have we found about carbon capture?
  12. Carbon capture-why is it dangerous?
  13. Why do you think the Montana folks want to promote carbon capture?
  14. Susan Papalbo says we could capture CO2 for hundreds of years. If the cost of carbon capture makes coal even more expensive in competition with cheaper natural gas, do you think this will still go through?
  15. For how many years could coal provide US energy?
  16. 2100 mW for how many homes? How much for each home?
  17. What does Dan Kammen think about carbon capture?
  18. 1.8 million tons of CO2? for what time period?
  19. Why does the pursuit of carbon capture slow development of greener solutions?
  20. This video is from 2008, what has changed since then that dramatically changes the scene to the use of coal for electricity?
  21. Look up “Future Gen” the IGCC system and see how it worked out.
  22. The coal guy says 2012 is when it should be running-what happened?
  23. How much energy in the us is created by nuclear plants?
  24. Jeffrey Sachs compares coal and nuclear-what does he think?
  25. This video was done before Fukushima Daiichi in Japan. How has public opinion changed since then globally?
  26. Why is a pebble bed reactor safer? How does it differ from a traditional reactor? (look this up)
  27. How is the nuclear waste issue in a PBR differ?
  28. What is NGNP?
  29. What is the LEGO construction model?
  30. Nuclear power plants cost many more times as much to decommission as to build. how does this impact investment?
  31. How many permits for nuclear power have been approved in the last 30 years?
  32. if you develop a solution for these, what will the impact of this be?
  33. What is meant by an “Energy Portfolio”?
  34. Why is Jeffrey Sachs an optimist? Are you part of his vision?


Energy week

We'll begin with an energy timeline of the universe on Monday, then pick teams to defend/sell the following energy technologies:
wood-coal-nuclear-oil-fracking/natural gas-solar-wind-storage
You get to research this Monday night, and argue for your solution on Tuesday.
We'll also begin the e2 series on energy, which you have already seen bits of (Energy for a developing world-the Grameen bank).
Check here for questions on each video, which will be due at the beginning of the next class following each video.
We will also begin our study of renewable energy: wind, solar and solar thermal, including ROI and TCO, which you have seen mentioned in the AP FR questions.
This will be really fun...
Let me know if you have any questions.


Heaters everywhere!

Friday Quiz:

in the radio article, how much carbon did they say was stored in the permafrost?

What organism was described as digesting the permafrost?

What would it produce?

If there are 100 million home water heaters, each using 4500 Watts for 4 hours per day, how many kWh is this per day?

At $0.15/kWh, how much money is this per day?

How much per year?

If you invented a conservation method that saved only 30% of this, how much money would your company save the country?

How many kWh is this?

If each kWh produces 1.4 pounds (about 0.6 kg) of CO2, how many pounds and kg of CO2 would your new invention save the country?

Thursday/Friday Class:

The Cobb family of Fremont is looking at ways to decrease their home water and energy usage. Their current

electric hot-water heater raises the water temperature to 140°F, which requires 0.20 kWh/gallon at a cost of

$0.10/kWh. Each person in the family of four showers once a day for an average of 10 minutes per shower.

The shower has a flow rate of 5.0 gallons per minute.

(a) Calculate the following. Be sure to show all your work and include units with your answers.

(i) The total amount of water that the family uses per year for taking showers

(ii) The annual cost of the electricity for the family showers, assuming that 2.5 gallons per minute of the

water used is from the hot-water heater

(b) The family is considering replacing their current hot-water heater with a new energy-efficient hot-water

heater that costs $1,000 and uses half the energy that their current hot-water heater uses. How many days

would it take for the new hot-water heater to recover the $1,000 initial cost?

(c) Describe 1WO practical measures that the family could take that would reduce their overall water use at


(d) Describe 1WO conservation measures (other than reducing hot water use) that the family could take to

reduce the total amount of energy that they use at home.


In hot water!

In our last test, we measured the power in Watts of several hot water heaters.
We were also able to calculate power in Watts by multiplying Volts (electric potential energy) by Amperes (electric current, also known as "amps"):

Power (Watts) = Volts x Amps

This only works for devices that just create heat, like ovens, hot water heaters and non-induction stoves.
These are known as "ohmic loads", since they don't have any magnetic fields or other complexities, like motors or power supplies.

Another way to calculate power is by using an Ohmmeter, which measures resistance to electric current in Ohms (another dead dude, so we use capital letters)

Try this:
Use the ohmmeter (symbol looks like a horseshoe) to measure electrical resistance across your hands.
Try it with more than one person.
Questions: Why does it fluctuate? Why does it not hurt? How does this thing work? Why do they use this as a lie detector?

Back to the hot water tea maker:
Measure and record the resistance of the tea maker in Ohms .
Power can also be calculated by:
volts x volts/R where R is resistance in Ohms, or V^2/R

Connect your hot water tea maker through the little Kill-a-Watt meter we used before to measure power, current and voltage.
How close was your calculated value for power to the one measured?
What was the current you measured in Amps?

Another fun way to calculate power is this:
Power (Watts) = current x current x resistance, or i^2R
Calculate the predicted power of the tea maker using both of these formulas, and compare to the measured values on the little grey meter.
---------true power part----involves water----
Next, let's see how much power in Watts the hot water tea maker actually produces.

Measure out 1000 ml of cool water in each tea maker (you can see the amounts on the side of each unit).
This is one liter, and has a mass of 1000 grams.
To heat one gram of water one degree C, you would need one calorie (this is the definition of a calorie).

Measure the temperature of your cool water, and turn on the heater, recording the start and ending time, when the water boils. We can assume this happens at 100 °C.

The change in time is in seconds
The change in temperature is ∆t and should be in °C

Calculate the amount of joules of electrical energy you added to the water like this:

Energy (joules) = Watts (joules/second) x seconds (use the values for Watts on the grey meter)

Now it takes 4.18 joules to equal one calorie, so convert your joule number into calories. This is your electrical energy number.
Record this:

From the hot water measurements, heat energy (calories) = mass (grams) x 1.00 (water number) x ∆t (degrees C), or:

Q = mc∆t

(you may be seeing this in chem class this week)
Calculate how many heat calories your hot water heater delivered to the cool water.
m = mass (should be around 1000 grams for your test)
c = 1.00 (definition of water specific heat)
∆t = change in temperature, from starting temp (around 20 °C) to boiling (100 °C)
How many heat calories did the water absorb?

Divide the heat energy number by the electrical energy number. Is this greater than one? Why/why not? What does this number represent?

Now, take this to a bigger scale:
Your home hot water heater has a capacity of about 50 gallons, or 200 liters.
How many grams of water is this?
If the water comes in at 20°C and you want hot water at 70°C, how many degrees warmer is this?
How many calories is this?
How many joules is this?
If your hot water heater is 4500 W (this is 4500 joules/second), how long will this take? (divide the joules by 4500j/s)
How many kW is this?
How many kWh is this?
How much will it cost if HELLCO charges us $0.35/kWh?
How much per month is this, if it happens twice a day?

How could solar thermal panels change this?


17 little froggies

Chapter 17 in the Frog book has a nice intro to energy, some of it old, some new, all of it totally frog-like.
Let's dive in:

Energy=the ability to do work
Heat=lowest form of energy-can only move molecules around
Primitive societies: fire from wood
Wood is scarce, hard to carry, and hard to light when wet or green, so...
What is coal?
Millions of years ago, living things decomposed, some around oxygen, some without oxygen.
If a living thing is made of C H and O, and the water leaves, what is left?
Carbon (coal)
This enabled the industrial revolution to happen: burn coal, make steam, make stuff move around.
Up to this point, you had to be near a river to have a mill. With coal, you could do this anywhere you could drag a humongous pile of coal with you...
Steam can also move fans, or special fans called turbines, so you can make electric generators move (you can also do this with moving water, which is what hydroelectric power is all about).
Back to Energy.
It is measured in some pretty inventive names: Joules ("jowles" if you are British), ergs, calories (like in chemistry, or food, where 1000 cal = 1 Cal), or kWh (this one is really goofy).
Now, what is the difference between energy (the ability to do work) and power?
Power is how FAST you can do the same work.
Imagine two students climbing a ladder to the roof of the elab, 10 meters high. Both have mass 100 kg (big folks, around 220 lbs.).
One climbs up and does this in 10 seconds.
The second one takes his time, taking 100 seconds.
Here is how a physicist would calculate this:
Work = energy = mgh = 100 kg x 9.8m/ss x 10 meters = 9800 joules (same work for both)
Power is work/time, so one does it with 9800/10 or 980 Watts (this is over 1 hp, 1 hp = 747 Watts)
The second does it in ten times the time (say that fast), or 98 Watts, about enough to keep a fan running...
Check this out:

Your turn: measure the time it takes to boil some water in the hot water makers. Note the Watts for each, as well as the time it takes to do this work.

What you are measuring is Watts, convert them to kiloWatts by dividing by 1000.
If you have a 1200 W heater this is 1.2 kW.
Now for the time. You have to convert it into hours, so divide seconds by 60, then again by 60 to get hours, or you can divide seconds by 3600, which is the same thing.
Multiply kiloWatts x hours to get kWh, or kiloWatt-hours.

This unit is a goofy one, created so we could measure electrical energy consumption.
Quick: which one is power and which one is energy? Watts or kWh?

Here is something interesting to ponder:
HELCO (Hawaii Electric Light Company) charges us about $0.35 per kWh.
You can estimate this as about 50 cents for most uses, since this is often the value.

So, if your roommate leaves her 1000W curling iron on 24 hours a day for 180 days of school here, how much would this cost the school? (yes, this really happened).

Back to power:
This we know is measured in Watts (named after some dead British dude).
It can also be measured in horsepower, where about 747 Watts = one horsepower (yes, that means equivalent to the power of one horse, so our climber was stronger than a horse).

The electric company, natural gas company, gasoline company and water company don't care how FAST you use their stuff (electricity, gas, gasoline or water), they just care how MUCH you used, so:
Electricity = kWh
Gas = liters or gallons
Gasoline or diesel = liters or gallons
Water = gallons
If you have a really powerful car (lots of horsepower) you will likely use your gallons of gasoline faster.
Make sense?

Our goal in conservation is to use as few joules, calories or kWh as we can.
Next: Conservation.


Heat Frontline video

1 What river is China planning to divert that will cause conflict with India?

2 Why did Brashears go back to that specific site to take the photo, and what did he see? What possible explanations are there for this? Take both sides of the climate crisis argument in your answer.

3 What was so surprising in the 1958 movie? Was this common knowledge? How can you tell?

4 How did the cheapness of energy influence public opinion?

5 Is the climate crisis an energy issue, a tree issue, an albedo issue, or a permafrost issue?

6 What happened at Kyoto? What was the most embarrassing part? Why did the US behave so?

7 Why would China's growth outweigh any changes the US might make to change carbon emissions?

8 What is Geely? Where? What model is their biggest seller? Is this scary? Why? What did their director say?

9 How many coal fired power plants does China create every week?

10 Dr. Ling Wen says 30% growth over 5 years. What is the doubling rate for this? (recall the rule of 70). Why is his line "if we can" so scary? What are his responsibilities, in what order?

11 In what year will India's population exceed that of China? Why?

12 What is the third largest contributor to greenhouse gases? Where?

13 What reduction in CO2 did the Indian guy say they could do by 2050? What is the growth rate? What did Sunita Narain say about this? Why is this not sustainable?

14 What did Pachauri say? What are his reasons?

15 What did the US negotiators say? Why is this unfair? What did China say?

16 Google Senator Inhofe, and find out why he is a global warming skeptic. Where does his money come from?

16 This video was filmed in 2008. What was the position of each candidate?

17 What did Jeffrey Sachs say?

18 How many tons of coal are mined in the powder river basin each day?

19 The director of the West Virginia power plant (Charlie Powell) says: "we produce 1300 megawatts of power every hour". It is clear he does not know as much about electricity as you do. What is wrong with his statement?

20 How many pounds of Coal power your TV for one hour? What percentage of power in the US comes from Coal?

21 Analyze the term "clean coal" from both sides of the argument. What are the motives of each side and why?

22 Senators Byrd and McConnell represent which states? What is their bias?

23 What is IGCC? Where is it located? Has it been tested? Where would they inject the ground? Why is this dangerous? Are we "carbon capture ready"? Where would this be tested first, and why is it problematic? If pipelines were used, why would these be dangerous?

24 How many tons of CO2 does the US emit every day?

25 The US is called the "Saudi Arabia of Coal". Why?

26 What is the second largest emitter of greenhouse gases? Now list the top three in order.

27 What are CAFE standards, and what does it stand for? What happened in the last few years to the CAFE standards? When were they created, and track the mpg numbers since then. How did auto manufacturers get around the CAFE standards since the Ford Explorer came out?

27 What is John Dingell's motive? Why? Where is he from? Why did he block seat belts? Is his responsibility only to his 800,000 citizens or to the country, or the planet as a whole?

28 What MPG is the terminator seeking for California? By when? Jerry Brown is next in the video. What is his job now?

29 In the 1970's all cars in the US came in two flavors: "49 state" or "CA". Why?

30 What pressure was put on the EPA in December 2007? Who was in office then?

31 What is the clean air act?

32 Who was the EPA administrator during the Bush administration? What did he do? What do you think about his actions?

33 What was the target of the CA emissions standards?

34 What is Hibernia owned by Exxon? How much oil did it pump since coming into operation? At 80 million bbl/day, how many days of global oil supply did it provide?

35 How did the Exxon lady defend their lack of investment in renewable resources?

36 Dan Kammen says what? Where does he work?

37 How much did Exxon make in the year of the movie? How much did they invest in renewable energy? Explain.

38 It has been said that if you drive a Prius hybrid with fuel from the tar sand of Canada, it's the equivalent of driving a Hummer. Why?

39 During the 2008 video, they state that oil is at $90/bbl. What is it today?

40 The car companies were working on a diesel-electric hybrid: what happened and why?

41 What did Toyota build, and why? How long is their advantage now?

42 Do you believe the lady from GM? Explain.

43 What happened to the Chevy Volt in the Photo Shoot?

44 Is corn ethanol really a green solution? Who is pushing corn ethanol and why?

45 Why does Dan Kammen say corn is not a good biofuel?

46 Explain the three sources of bio-ethanol: corn, cellulosic and sugar cane. Brazil produces which of these?

47 How does Amy's statement about small interests resonate with Senator Dingell's actions earlier in the film?

48 Compare renewable energy in Germany to the US.

49 How does the smart grid fit into the renewable energy solution?

50 T. Boone Pickens sold his oil investments and moved into wind farms in Texas. Check into this on wikipedia to see how he's doing now (2018).

51 About 150,000 megawatts of power is what Pickens plans on installing, which would be worth how much per year? 24 hours per day, 365 days per year, sell the power for $0.10 per kWh. 131.4 billion dollars per year? If his ROI is 7 years, and the turbines last 17 years, how much money will his company make overall?

52 Why is nuclear energy getting a fresh look?

53 Who became president after this video?

54 What is the difference between Navy nuclear power plants and commercial industrial power plants?

55 How is nuclear waste storage involved in this problem?

56 Explain cap and trade, and the plus and minus for this proposal.

57 How has the flood of natural gas from Fracking impacted the coal industry?

58. Why is natural gas better than coal for this? (think of the types of power plants that use each)

59. Coal has pollution impacts that natural gas does not. Explain.

60 What was the most compelling part of this video for you?



Welcome back folks,
Our transition back will begin with an overview of heat, the lowest form of energy (random, disorder, high entropy).
We'll begin with a few labs and demos, and follow the frog book for a rough overview, before diving into our normal textbook.
Here are some notes:
Semester one overview:
Unit 6: energy
Unit 7: pollution
Unit 8: global change

Unit 6(text):
ch. 12 Non renewable energy
ch. 13 Renewable energy

Frog book:
ch. 16 Climate change
ch. 17 Non renewable energy
ch. 18 Renewable energy

Energy overview
IR camera
Dashboard greenhouse example
Heat: lowest form of energy
Radiation: needs no medium, can be reflected (white, mirrored surfaces), more efficient at high temperatures (red hot), e.g. solar radiation from the sun to us, 8 light minutes away, through a vacuum.
Conduction: (contact), air over warm earth, picks up heat (thermal energy) by contact
Convection: (mass in motion), dependent on density differences, casue of all wind, storms, heat transfer to space
Frog book:
16: climate change
17: non renewable energy
18: renewable energy

Building insulation
Hot water insulation

MLO= Mauna Loa ("long mountain") Observatory: Mauna = mountain, Loa = long
Begin in 1958, with Keeling, so the curve is called the "Keeling curve"
Look it up: why is it jagged? What does it look like in the southern hemisphere? Why?
Look up NOAA, this is the organization that oversees MLO
NCAR is another cool place to look up.
Find the aggi index graph-which gas is most important? which is changing most today? why is 1990 the 1.0 mark for all gases?
What is the difference between the aggi graph and any other climate change graph?
You might also look up the ozone and CFC graphs, notice what happened to those as well.

Heat transfer lab:
conduction, convection, radiation examples
Energy literacy lab:
1000 W water heater for 1/10 hour = 0.1 kWh
1 Watt = power
1 kW = power
1 HP = power

1 kWh = energy
1 joule = energy (recall mgh = PE, or 1/2mv^2 = KE)
1 calorie = energy (n.b. 1000 cal = 1 Cal, or food calorie)
1 BTU = energy (used in heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems-HVAC)

Energy monitoring lab:
Energy hunt


APES Sem 1 Exam topics

APES sem 1 exam topics

capillary action

energy vs. work vs. power


algal bloom

chemical cycles

photosynthesis and sugar

pri-sec-tert consumers

poisoned waters:

temp and DO


point source pollution

endocrine disrupters

killer whales-bioaccumulation


hadley, ferrell, polar cells

convection, radiation and conduction

ocean currents, NADW

El Nino

atmosphere layers

evolution: variation-stress that favors the variation-reproduction


keystone species

indicator species

survivorship curves

r and K species

logistic vs. J curve growth

population growth, 2^n

demographic transition

boom echo

population pyramids

doubling time 70/% = years

soil composition

soil tests

soil layers



plate tectonics


water tests

DO and temp

DO and turbidity

point source DO depression

dead zones

Himalayan water and climate change

aquifer issues

e2 portland

e2 seoul

e2 NYC

e2 yaqui indians

Roosevelt, Leopold, Muir, Carson

tragedy of the commons

e2 food miles

food energy subsidy



e2: food miles

e2: Food miles

  1. Look up Michael Pollan: what books has he written?
  2. What is the fossil fuel to food ratio he cites?
  3. Why is this so high?
  4. What did it used to be?
  5. What does he mean by “sustainable agriculture”?
  6. How did World War II give us a new form of agriculture?
  7. Look this up: in 1895, what portion of our workforce in our country was farmers? What is it today?
  8. Look up Lancaster PA: who lives there?
  9. Local farmers may not be able to sell to Foodland and other grocery stores because of guarantees of supply. Where can the farmers then sell their produce, and what does this imply?
  10. When you go into Foodland and see the sandwiches and other wrapped foods, where were these prepared? Why? Why is this so nasty?
  11. Starbucks baked goods used to be baked here in Waimea (Mamane Bakery, behind the Montessori school). They are now baked on the mainland and shipped here frozen. Why does this make sense for Starbucks, and what impact does this have on you?
  12. McDonalds gets their food products from the mainland in huge truck and air shipments. Why do they do this?
  13. In the video, why is a restaurant that buys local food better than the examples above?
  14. Do you know of a restaurant here in Waimea that does this? What about our cafeteria?
  15. Why would Amish farmers be more sustainable farmers than other modern farmers?
  16. How many miles does the average food item travel in the video? Add 2500 miles for us, what is the new total?
  17. Why would they fly salmon to China and back?
  18. Local farmers can supply “food baskets” or "vegetable boxes" also known as a “CSA”. What are these and why are they more sustainable?
  19. Is “eating local” always a good thing? What are these folks known as?
  20. What is the difference between a solar and a fossil fuel food supply?
  21. What percentage of our income do we spend on our food? Is this the same in Hawaii? In Waimea? Why?
  22. Where does most of the cost of food go?
  23. Why do you think most folks in our culture do not cook the way Pollan suggests?
  24. Contrast the amount of each dollar going to a farmer in the past and now. How does localization change this?
  25. Ok, now think of your home. What could you do differently?


Ch 11 Food

Mod 31, p. 362 1-5
Mod 32, p. 374 1-5
Mod 33, p. 383 1-5
Ch. 11 Practice exam, p. 386, MC 1-16, FR 1,2
Unit 5 exam, p. 389, MC 1-20, FR 1,2

Mod 31
Undernutrition: lack of calories
Malnutrition: lack of critical part of diet, usually protein (Kwashiorkor)

Famine: one of these impacting a large group, often from crop failure, drought or war/displacement

Agribusiness: just what it sounds like, the larger conglomerates taking over instead of smaller privately owned family farms. Often use monoculture crops to increase profits, as well as patented seeds and herbicides
See: Monsanto and Cargill
GMO crops: in the beginning were just to withstand frost, now into a larger patent issue with GMO seeds and "round up ready crops"
Mod 32:
Food energy subsidy (cost factor):
20 kg of grain to produce 1 kg of beef (20:1 factor, or subsidy factor 20x)
2.8 kg of grain to produce 1 kg of chicken (2.8:1 factor, or subsidy factor of 2.8)

Food miles:
Average 1240 miles from farm to table (more here, unless you shop at the farmer's market)

Started as a good thing:
Green Revolution, Norman Borlaug-Mexican famine averted by development of hybrid (not GMO) wheat, called dwarf wheat (large kernel, short stalk).

Waterlogging: too much water in the soil, roots die (see hydroponics demo at elab)
Salinization/desertification: using well water for irrigation, salts build up in the soil, infertile soil results

Pesticides and herbicides: can be persistent or not (DDT, round up)

Mod 33:
Desertification (see above)
intercropping vs. monocropping, see "the three sisters"

Contour cropping: saves space, reduces runoff, preserves top soil
No-till ag: same idea, retains organic material in topsoil, reduces erosion by wind and water

IPM: integrated pest management (see Lalamilo Farmers)
Organic agriculture (also mentioned in Portlandia)
More than just N-P-K, also micronutrients, slower release time, low salinity

CAFO: concentrated animal feed operation (e.g. chickens, pigs, cattle)

Fishery collapse: see cod crisis in N. Atlantic
Bycatch: killed while harvesting other fish


e2 green apple

  1. Why is it confusing to think of NYC as an ecosystem? Why does it make sense?
  2. Why is per capita a more accurate measure?
  3. Why did the guy who moved into the country gain weight?
  4. A wise person once said that the greatest cities are those built with walking in mind. How is this different in LA?
  5. Why would a skyscraper be more efficient than a smaller building?
  6. How did “environmental” become “smarter”?
  7. How was 4 Times Square a prototype? What other prototype buildings do you know of?
  8. Last week transparent PV panels were revealed. How would this change the frit concept?
  9. “blast furnace slag” and fly ash are used for the concrete in the film. Why is fly ash banned in Europe?
  10. Instead of using drinking water to flush toilets, they use what?
  11. Why is a 5 year ROI basic business sense?
  12. How is payback different in Europe and Japan?
  13. What parts of the Living Building Challenge resonate with this video?
  14. What would make you want to live in the Solaire, near Battery Park?
  15. What are the blue things on the side of the building?
  16. We are 4.6% of the global population, consuming how much of the world’s resources?


e2 green for all

  1. In the intro (Brad Pitt), there is mention of how much energy buildings use. Why is this?
  2. Why do you think there is a split between ethics and aesthetics in design?
  3. Henk Rogers (Tetris) says that if we expect island nations to live with sustainable energy sources, we should do so here first. How is this similar to Sergio Palleroni?
  4. “Honesty” comes up again here. Why?
  5. What are the points Jeff Speck brings up?
  6. Who are the Yaqui indians? Why is this important?
  7. If you make $2 per day, how long would it take to build a house that costs $5000?
  8. What was wrong with the government homes?
  9. How is architecture linked to health? Why is this relevant in the elab?
  10. Why is the open courtyard a thermal, light and social solution?
  11. How does the community “own” the building? Why is this brilliant?
  12. How is this extened to political and social empowerment?
  13. The new home owners cut the ribbon. Where did this happen at the elab, and why is this culturally relevant in Hawaii?
  14. Many cities are divided by a road or railway. What does the saying “wrong side of the tracks” mean?
  15. How does the Guadalupe project change this?
  16. Who was involved, and why is this important?
  17. In Hawaii we have “ohana” homes. What are these called in the video?
  18. Look at the roof design in the simulation. Why is this important?
  19. What does Sergio mean about the politics of Austin? What cities in Oregon and California might be similar?
  20. How did this video inspire you?