AP exam 2014

Download file "ap14_frq_environmental_science.pdf"


AP exam 2015

Free Response questions, 2015 exam:
Download file "ap15_frq_environmental_science.pdf"


Review modules

Download file "APES Review Packet_ Earth.pdf"
Download file "Wiki Module_ Renewable Energy.pdf"
Download file "APES Review - Water.pdf"
Download file "Soil - Conor.pdf"
Download file "Agriculture.pdf"
Download file "APES Cycles.pdf"
Download file "nuclear power.pdf"
Download file "forestry review.pdf"
Download file "Energy Review .pdf"
Download file "ATMOSPHERE AP REVIEW - Georgia and Gabby .pdf"
Download file "APES_ Ecosystems Review.pdf"
Download file "Population Dynamics Study Guide.pdf"
Download file "forestry review.pdf"


2016 FR practice

These are from the 2016 AP exam:
Download file "ap16_frq_environmental_science.pdf"
We'll review during our call Tuesday


FR practice

Email your answers to these by Wednesday:

Download file "apes practice exam 12.2009 FR 1.pdf"
Download file "apes practice exam 12.2009 FR2.pdf"


Welcome back!

Here are some notes for our first weeks working together:

APES plan 2020

AP exam will be given online 2x in April. Dates to be released April 3 or so.

I’ll be holding office hours by invitation every week at 9 AM and 4 PM HST using zoom. I’ll send out a step by step process for setting this up.

Each class meeting (even days): email check-in with progress, due by 6 PM HST

First week: wiki study module on your topic, due Monday April 6: choose one please







population dynamics-Ana



land use


nuclear energy

renewable energy-Maddy

pollution-only air pollution will be covered on the exam

climate change-not covered in the exam

Week two: Create your own diagnostic plan based on your MC test. I have these scanned and will send to you if you don’t have the hard copy.

We will be going over FR questions as homework

If you have your iPad with you, please use this for review. Let me know if there are apps or books you want added. For this, I’ll need to know your icloud account for that iPad (look under settings, it should look like or similar)

Week three: Review of AP modules posted on AP site

Class days:

Thursday 4.2

Monday 4.6

Wednesday 4.8

Friday 4.10

Tuesday 4.14

Thursday 4.16 (AP exam will be in here somewhere)

Resource links:

Physics server for wiki and weblogs:



Physics server video and document uploads: login apes, use wifi password



AP central review documents:

APES exam prep:



Review Modules:


Zoom instructions:

  1. go to
  2. signup (it’s free) using your hpa email address
  3. download the app to your computer or phone
  4. when you get an email invitation from me, click on the link and it should open zoom
  5. you can choose audio only or both audio and video
  6. we can also have a group chat, more on this soon

Who is where:




Diagnostic exam MC questions

Here is a link to the multiple choice questions on the diagnostic exam.
This is a backup link:
Or even this one on campus:

Please go over your answers and correct them over the break for credit.
Let me know how I can help.


Laws and treaties

Download file "apenvirolaws.pdf"

quiz 3.4.20

  1. Explain the difference between RCRA and CERCLA
  2. What is the main idea behind cradle to cradle life cycle?
  3. Why would white plastic laptops cost a bit more than aluminum ones?
  4. What happened at Love Canal NY?


Waste: Withgott text v.6, chapter 22

Download file "withgott 6.22.pdf"

Waste: Defined as anything from human activity that is not saved or re-used
MSW (municipal solid waste) vs. ISW (industrial solid waste)
Typical waste stream:

Consumption is proportional to waste in our society
Affluence leads to waste (plenty of trees, so let's waste firewood!)
Interesting map, note geographical and social patterns:

Click for full-size image
You may have noticed these states on the sides of some of the bottles you drink from...

Check this out:
Orcas Island WA, costs $6 per BAG of trash. Lots of recycling there (also locked dumpsters).
Recycling is complex, especially here on Hawaii island: where does your recycling go? Where did it go 5 years ago? What changed?
HPA has two dumpsters behind maintenance: a recycling one and a trash one. Only one is weighed. Which one do you think? Why?

Greenhouse gas emissions that are reduced by recycling:
Closed and open loop recycling:

RCRA and sanitary landfills: Make sure you understand both of these, as they are always on the AP exam...
RCRA is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, part of the EPA regulating landfills:
Conservation=stuff we use or don't use (conservation)
Recovery=recycling or safe disposal
Act=something Congress decided

Sanitary landfills: isolated from the groundwater, far from rivers, wetlands or earthquakes
Make certain you understand "leachate" and why these produce methane...

Click for full-size image

Incineration is another option, but produces extremely toxic ash that must be treated carefully:

Click for full-size image
This is also where the nasty stuff from power plant scrubbers goes (recall last chapter on pollution)

Look here:
H-Power is trash to power, where the landfills on Oahu were full in the 1980's. One in Laie actually was created inside a volcanic crater that barfed up all the waste one year during a flood.

Life cycle analysis (see also William McDonough in 'cradle to cradle'):
His idea is "up-cycling" instead of re-cycling, essentially designing things so they could be used for other purposes.

Click for full-size image
Hazardous Materials or "Hazmat": There are 4 classes

Click for full-size image

Click for full-size image
You might look for the red label ("1993") on trucks. Here are some common numbers:
1075: Propane
1203: Gasoline
1202: Diesel fuel
3334: Aviation fuel

Look up BLEVE on youtube (Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosions)

E-waste is a growing issue, but there are solutions:
Daisy, the Apple robot that recycles iPhones.
Question: why would the white mac laptops in our classroom cost more to recycle than the aluminum ones? Which is cheaper? Which is cheaper after counting the value of the parts inside each?

Lead from e-waste:
Liquid waste disposal:

Click for full-size image
This is often done off-shore or into remote rivers away from prying eyes.
Deep well injection is a temporary solution, this toxic material is not going away.
Radioactive waste is even more critical, as it melts through containers, and is radioactive for many centuries.
One plan was to bury nuclear waste in the Yucca Salt mines in Nevada, below the water table, and away from earthquake activity. It did not go through, after many years and millions of dollars spent...

Response=responds to accidents
Compensation=pays victims
Liability=finds those resposible
Act=something congress decides

Also known as "superfund" is funded through a tax on hazmat (hazardous materials) industrial producers ("the polluter pays" principle)
"Brownfields" are areas toxic for public use. We had one behind the elab ("Mount Edgar") which we cleaned up to build the elab, gaining LEED credits for cleaning up something we created ourselves...
Two critical cases:
Love canal, NY: Hooker chemical, toxic land, kids got sick, cancer, miscarriages, homeowners had to relocate:
Times Beach, Missouri: Dioxin pollution, sprayed on the roads to reduce dust (dioxin is a contact carcinogen),_Missouri
Town was near a river, when it flooded, the dioxin went everywhere, entire town had to be abandoned.


Pollution review assignment


Ch. 15 Air Pollution

chapter 15: air pollution

Big ideas: air is shared by everyone on the planet, crosses international borders without consent, impacts innocents with little power.

6 major pollutants: “criteria pollutants”

  1. Sulfur dioxide: SO2
  2. Nitrogen oxides:NOx
  3. Carbon monoxide: CO
  4. Particulate matter: PM (PM 2.5, PM 5, PM10)
  5. Ozone: O3
  6. Lead: Pb

Mnemonic: SOX/NOX, CO/O3, PM/Pb

2007 add CO2, VOC, Hg

Click for full-size image


From Methionine (amino acid in living things) in fossil fuels

Combines with water in the air to make H2SO4 (sulfuric acid)


Various forms of oxidized nitrogen, which alone is inert and makes up 78% of the atmosphere at sea level

From high temperature combustion (e.g. auto engines, esp. high efficiency ones, which burn at higher temps)

Also from decomposition of fertilizers (e.g. Ammonium Nitrate)

CO carbon monoxide

Emission from car exhaust, or other incomplete combustion:

C + O2 —> CO2

If not enough O2, then CO forms

Toxic, permanently attaches to hemoglobin rendering it useless for respiration. 30 day life cycle for hemoglobin

See also CO2 and climate change, > 400ppm since 2012, 407ppm today

Air Quality monitoring: Purple Air:|313232&orderby=L&latr=0.28062097322957413&lngr=0.3714752197265625

Check out other locations...


PM2.5 is most dangerous, smaller particles lodge deep in the lungs, beyond ability of pulmonary cilia to flush out

PM5, PM10 larger particles

Main cause: coal fired power plants, diesel engines, oil fired power plants (soot)

See also vog: PM2.5 particles of ash with SO2 dissolved in water droplets: physical abrasive + corrosive acid = respiratory damage


Ozone in stratosphere is good, in troposphere bad

Stratospheric ozone is necessary to filter UV radiation. CFC (chloro-fluro-carbons) destroy this layer this way:

This caused an ozone hole over antarctica:

How did we solve this? 1987 Montreal Protocol:

Tropospheric ozone causes lung and eye irritation, and is toxic to some organisms


Gasoline additive (tetraethyl lead, improves octane rating cheaply), replaced by other worse carcinogenic (cancer causing) chemicals like MTBE:

Decreases mental capacity (e.g. Roman insanity theory)

Found in coal smoke, along with Mercury and other heavy metals. Sludge from mining is worse.


Volatile organic compounds, e.g. gasoline vapors (why your gas cap must be on or you get a dashboard warning):

Smog and other photochemical reactions:

Click for full-size image

Primary and secondary pollutants:

Secondary pollutants: need a chemical reaction (often energy from sunlight) to form (see figures above)

See PANs: Peroxyacyl nitrates: formed from VOCs, NOx

Thermal inversions: London fog, US, Donora, PA 1948 k.20, sick 7000

1952 London 4000-12,000 dead, three nights

Mexico city 1996 300 dead, 400K sick


Normally, the sun heats the surface, warming the air there, which rises. Cooler air aloft then falls to replace this rising air.

In an inversion, warmer air aloft traps the air at the surface (no temperature difference, so no mixing), causing the pollution to be trapped in the lower levels. Most dangerous in valleys or bowl shaped cities (London, Mexico City, Denver, Donora).

Los Angeles has severe smog in the daytime, when hotter air draws in ocean air ("onshore breeze"), but the cycle reverses at night when the water is warmer than the land, so they have an "offshore breeze".

Acid rain: plants, fish, structures. Check this out:

SO2 + O2, water = H2SO4 (sulfuric acid)

NO3 + O2, water = HNO3 (nitric acid)

“Acid snow” yes, acid snow...

Click for full-size image

W. VA had rain more acidic than stomach acid in the 1970's

Important: Know how a power plant air scrubber works (just like the nuclear plant diagram)

Click for full-size image

IAP-indoor air pollution

Leading cause of death in LDC (women)

Burning manure for fuel, open pit fires, CO, PM10

Sick building syndrome: formaldehyde, CO2, VOC

Main culprits: VOC, CO, Radon, Lead, formaldehyde, asbestos, PM10

Click for full-size image

Asbestos-asbestosis, mesothelioma

Radon 222-lung cancer (smoke demo-lungs)


• Air Quality: Air quality can be assessed using various


• Particulates: Sticky paper can be used to collect

air particulates from various sources, and then the

paper can be examined under a microscope. It is

not possible to see the smallest particulates, but

they do color the white paper.

• Ozone: In this lab, an ecobadge or a homemade

potassium iodide gel sampler is hung or worn in

order to collect data on tropospheric ozone. The

badge or KI sample changes color in the presence

of ozone and becomes more intensely colored as

the amount of ozone increases.

• Carbon dioxide: In this lab, a commercial sampling

device is used to determine the amount of

carbon dioxide in an air sample. Car exhaust,

burning tobacco, or other pollutants can also be


Pollution roundup:

Chapter 8 of Princeton Review for AP:


Chapter 17: Human health and env. risks mods 56-58

Module 56 Human Disease
e.coli in produce: summary
acute vs. chronic disease
note global rate of CV disease, usually preventable
Pathways (vectors)

epidemic: rapid increase in disease
pandemic: entire continent
plague: bacterium from fleas (modern antibiotics can cure this if given in time)
Malaria: from the Spanish for "bad air", also why Buenos Aires is such a nice place. Plasmodium in blood, no cure, just cure for symptoms. Once you have it, you have it for life, and it can recur.
Tuberculosis: airborne bacterium (like in Les Miserables), very contagious, modern threat is from drug resistant TB, esp. in Russia.
Emergent ID: AIDS/HIV first seen in early 1980's (along with certain music and hair)
First showed up in babies, homosexuals and blood transfusion recipients
No known cure, but can be managed. Drugs are expensive, so this is still a threat in Sub Saharan Africa, among other places.
Ebola: Hemorrhagic fever, about 90% fatality rate, very contagious, from primates originally
Mad Cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy): prion pathogen, basically a toxic protein that survives cooking, originally found in GB, banned all beef from there for a certain time in 1996.
Swine Flu, Bird Flu: both jumped from animals to humans (like perhaps Covid-19). If this jump is not human-to-human transmitted, then only a few humans die, if it jumps or mutates, then things get serious.
SARS: 2002, 10% fatality rate, air transmission, coronavirus
MERS: another coronavirus in 2012
West Nile virus: in birds from mosquitoes, to humans, causes brain swelling
Lyme disease: from deer ticks, incidents are further north now due to global warming
Zika: pathogen causing babies brains to be damaged/small

Module 57 Toxicology

Note the heavy metals (mercury, lead, arsenic) the artificial chemicals (PVC, VC, Alcohol, phthalates) and the pesticides (atrazine, DDT).
Asbestos is natural, but used in places that can cause cancer through inhalation in humans
Radon is natural, but concentrates in lower dwellings or in the lower lobes of your lungs.

Allergens: not usually taken seriously, but are often synergistic with toxins above.
Endocrine disrupters: can interfere with growth, metabolism and others, often estrogens or similar
Dose response studies: acute or chronic, seeks to find an LD50 or an ED50 (non-lethal)
Surmised to be linear, but often not so, e.g. drugs for the aged are not cleared by their liver/kidney as effectively, so blood levels of the drugs increase.
See also the THC decay curve
NOEL: no observed effect level-non-lethal impact
Bioaccumulation: A single organism, collecting in fat tissues (PCB, dioxins) or muscles (mercury)
Biomagnification: MANY organisms eaten by an apex predator, increasing the level of a toxin, e.g. you eating Ahi, getting mercury poisoning. See Jack Black and Sushi.
POPs: persistent organic pollutants
n.b. roundup was recently banned in CA and EU, suspected of causing cancer

Module 58 Risk Analysis

Note difference between lighting and heart disease...
Risk = probability of exposure x probability of being harmed
probability of exposure example: is you live in Nebraska, not much risk of sharks
If you surf in Hawaii, different story
probability of being harmed: flying is safe, but if the plane crashes, fatality rate is around 100%


e2: Affordable Green Housing

  1. Brad or Morgan?
  2. What is your connection between biological diversity and social diversity like in the film?
  3. Look up the percent of income spent on housing in Hawaii, SF, NYC and Seattle.
  4. "To repair the fabric of communities" is a paraphrase of Tikun Olam in Hebrew. Look this up and describe why it is relevant here.
  5. What factors led to the success of the Burnham Building? hint: what is next to it, for example?
  6. Why did he (Jonathan Rose) put the library in the basement?
  7. Lee Weintraub describes a situation where people who serve a community cannot afford to live in that community. Think of Westchester in NY, Seattle, San Francisco, Aspen Colorado and Waikoloa here. What is common?
  8. Why is this at the core of sustainability?
  9. Look up the history of Harlem in NYC, once known as Haarlem. Why is this so ironic?
  10. Why is local ownership so good for both sides of the economic divide?
  11. The development is aimed at foster kids. Why is this better than building it for retirees?
  12. Rose uses the term "monoculture". Where else have you heard this?
  13. Security, health and ownership are key-why?
  14. Look up the South Bronx on this map of the New York area. Why would this work for low income folks?
  15. What is the physical/psychological impact of walking up through gardens in the Via Verde project?
  16. What does Via Verde translate to in Spanish? Why is this important?
  17. The military has a phrase called "VUCA". Look this up, and describe why it applies to the world you are growing up in.
  18. This is a very aspirational film, what impacted you the most?


Environmental health and toxicology

Withgott (author of our Froggie iBook)
Sixth edition of his text, chapter 14 notes:
Download file "withgott 14 health-toxicology.pdf"

apes withgott 6e.14

See also chapter 17 in the F/R text:

mod 56 Human Disease

mod 57 Toxicology and chemical risk

mod 58 Risk Analysis

Back to Withgott.....


Water bottles, food, baby bottles, tupperware

Endocrine disruptors: what are they, how do they work?

BPA is an estrogen analog:

Hormone mimicry:

4 Hazards:

Physical e.g. UV radiation (DNA damage)

Chemical e.g. drugs, pesticides, venoms, synthetic and natural

Biological e.g. infectious diseases (vectors)

Cultural e.g. smoking, COPD, seat belts, hang gliding, swimming with sharks

Non-infectious diseases: genetics + environmental factors, e.g. cancer, heart disease, obesity

Infectious diseases (ID): ebola, influenza, AIDS, SARS, Covid-19

Spread much faster bc air travel, trains, trucks (see AIDS in Africa, bubonic plague, SARS)

Kinshasa "AIDS highway"

Toxicology-chemical hazards

Radon: 226 mass, stays in lower lobes of the lungs, found in basements where Uranium ores are present (Colorado, Alaska)

Asbestos: fibrous non-burning insulating material, mined for ages as an insulator, tabletop, flooring, insulation. Fibers in the air cause asbestosis in the lungs, and various forms of lung cancer (carcinoma)

lead: used in many manufacturing processes, batteries, plumbing/solder, gasoline (yes, gasoline as tetra ethyl lead), causes brain retardation (see romans and lead), replaced in gasoline by MTBE, which causes cancer.

PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) fire retardants (e.g. TRIS), PBDEs are also hormone disrupters

Risk vs. reward (see malaria and DDT)

VOC in drinking water

Heptachlor in green chop hawaii

EDB in water on Oahu (ant poison)

DDT-foggers in 1960’s….


Carcinogens-cause cancer, long term or short term

Mutagens-mutate you or your kids (reproductive DNA)

Teratogens-cause birth defects: fetal alcohol syndrome (huge in Russia), thalidomide

Neurotoxins-mercury and other heavy metals (Minamata Bay), many derived from insecticides

Allergens-airborne or food borne

Pathway inhibitors-endocrine disruptors, BPA, Phthalates (plastics)


Exposure: acute or chronic

Polar concentration-air currents

toxic concentration: DDT

Bioaccumulation-A single creature

Biomagnification-MANY trophic levels, MANY creatures

Dose response analysis: determining the dose to have some sort of immediate impact, usually on test animals, but can also be part of a "natural experiment" where something happens to a human or other population, not planned, but well documented.

LD50 and ED50 (not the same)

LD50 is the dose that kills 50% of the population, so LD50 means "lethal dose to 50%"

ED50 is the effective dose (ED) in a test, which can be good or bad: good might be aspirin, but usually it means amount to cause some non-lethal effect, like mice losing their hair.

Threshold dose (non linear)

Pesticide poisoning: Yaqui indians, PCB endocrine disruptors

Synergistic effects

Endocrine disruptors

Risk probability

perception vs. reality

risk assessment

innocent until proven guilty vs. precautionary principle


TOSCA 1976

REACH 2007

POPs persistent organic pollutants

Aldrin, Chlordane, DDT, Dieldrin, Dioxin, Endrin


e2: deeper shades of green

Design e2: Deeper shades of green-three visionaries

Part 1. Ken Yeang-singapore library

Part 2. William McDonough-upcycle vs. downcycle 10:30-17:15

"all children of all species for all time"

Part 3. Werner Sobek-R128 (home on one truck) and R129 (soap bubble home)

Consider the energy lab: nothing in the elab can be toxic in production, use or disposal


  1. "I look for what needs to be done"-what does this mean for you?
  2. Look up Buckminster Fuller. What structural design did he create that you might see?
  3. What do you notice about the library Ken Yeang created that is similar to the elab?
  4. What is bioclimatic design?
  5. Recall the California Academy of Science and Renzo Piano-what is similar about these two approaches?
  6. Why did the cheapness of energy in the 1960's impact design?
  7. Why would "low tech" solutions be better in the long run over "high tech" solutions?
  8. "The technology should be invisible"-why is this important? How does it change the sense of the user?
  9. Our older classrooms had something like the light shelves. Look above the lockers in these classrooms and describe how these might work.
  10. Stanford's Y2E2 building has a similar heat stack in the center of it, with automated louvers at the top, and an automated fire door sealing off the bottom in case of fire. How do you think these might work?
  11. "Cradle to cradle" means what?
  12. What is downcycling? What does McDonough advocate?
  13. How could removing the toxic substances from the design of materials impact their upcycling?
  14. What three elements are needed for cradle to cradle?
  15. What is the difference between being efficient and being effective in his mind?
  16. Apple was the first computer company to adopt the cradle to cradle approach. Why do you think the cost apart from components for the white laptops in our classroom are more than for the aluminum ones?
  17. What is our design opportunity in this "second industrial re-evolution"?
  18. As a student in APES, you will be seen as an expert in some of these fields. McDonough mentions that "people don't need to be an expert at everything, just to leverage the expertise of others". How do you fit into this picture?
  19. "Take, make and waste". How could we change this?
  20. "Love of all children of all species, for all time". How do you fit into this?
  21. How does the "all on one truck" idea of a home impact transportation, building and recycling?
  22. Stuttgart Germany is the center of a very intensive industrial area. Why is this contrast so effective for that society?
  23. The elab is one link in the support system for the Mars habitat simulation. What is similar between that HISEAS habitat and the R129 concept building?
  24. "Substitute material with energy"-how does this work, why is it one step towards sustainable design?
  25. "You can do anything, you just must want it" Says Werner Sobek. If you had such an opportunity, what would you want to design?


HPA 2030 plan

apes notes: HPA 2030

budget $50M

international, boarding, 9-12 (13-16?), 600 students

240 acres (24 ha)


“greenest school in the world”

Things to include:

energy: microgrid? co-op? PV, PSH, solar thermal, batteries?

water: harvesting, storage, conservation

food: what can we grow, how? CSA?

waste: within state rules, solid waste, recycling

housing: 300 students, international

transportation: intracampus, off campus

security/emergency profile

maintenance: buildings, lawns, pool

athletics: pool, gym, tennis courts, fields, horsies

library/information center(s)

study locations

chapel/meditation spaces

recreation centers: student union, nap-pods

classrooms: flexible, effective learning spaces

meeting spaces: students, larger groups

theatrical/presentation spaces

food service: central or distributed?

administration spaces

other considerations:

community outreach

research projects

hosting groups

college collaboration/hosting


conference center


e2: Druk White Lotus School in Ladakh

e2: Druk White school in Ladakh

  1. We’ve heard Brad Pitt ask “was it a conscious decision or a momentary lapse of reason”. What is the difference to you?
  2. Look up Ladakh here:
  3. Why is it critical to educate youth about their culture?
  4. What is the message from His Holiness the 12th Gyalwang Drukpa?
  5. Why is Ladakh “a fragile place”?
  6. Ladakh is on several borders. What impact does this have on the cultural diversity there?
  7. The lowest part of Ladakh is about the altitude of the Mauna Kea visitor center (9000 ft.) and the top is twice as high as the summit of Mauna Kea. Consider the biomes there, and what could possibly survive there?
  8. What impact did the airport have in Ladakh?
  9. What Buddhist principles are cited as coincident with sustainable design?
  10. Watching them build the school, did you see any heavy equipment or power tools? Why?
  11. What is the resonant feature of the circular building?
  12. Why is it useful to marry local resources and concepts to a modern design?
  13. What was the learning opportunity for the modern architects there?
  14. Compare the earthquake survival in the monasteries with other schools in asia that have not survived earthquakes. Why are they different?
  15. Why is frugality a key concept in sustainability? Where else do you see this?
  16. How is passive solar used, and why is this critical there?
  17. What is a trombe wall system? Where else do you see this?
  18. How will climate change life there?
  19. How do they take water out of the waste cycle?
  20. Why is it useful for the kids to know how the building works? How does this contrast with a passive occupancy? What social impacts does this have? Where else do you see this?
  21. What is the impact of bringing in rural students? What does it preserve? What does it enable?
  22. What does Glancey think of the project?
  23. Why is the woman architect’s approach so different?
  24. Circle back to the vision of His Holiness the 12th Gyalwang Drukpa. What is his vision for the future?


e2: green apple

e2 design 1.1 green apple

  1. Why is it confusing to think of NYC as an ecosystem? Why does it make sense?
  2. Why is per capita a more accurate measure?
  3. Why did the guy who moved into the country gain weight?
  4. A wise person once said that the greatest cities are those built with walking in mind. How is this different in LA?
  5. Why would a skyscraper be more efficient than a smaller building?
  6. How did “environmental” become “smarter”?
  7. How was 4 Times Square a prototype? What other prototype buildings do you know of?
  8. Last week transparent PV panels were revealed. How would this change the frit concept?
  9. “blast furnace slag” and fly ash are used for the concrete in the film. Why is fly ash banned in Europe?
  10. Instead of using drinking water to flush toilets, they use what?
  11. Why is a 5 year ROI basic business sense?
  12. How is payback different in Europe and Japan?
  13. What parts of the Living Building Challenge resonate with this video?
  14. What would make you want to live in the Solaire, near Battery Park?
  15. What are the blue things on the side of the building?
  16. We are 4.6% of the global population, consuming how much of the world’s resources?


e2: Energy for all

e2 design 1.2 green for all

  1. In the intro (Brad Pitt), there is mention of how much energy buildings use. Why is this?
  2. Why do you think there is a split between ethics and aesthetics in design?
  3. Henk Rogers (Tetris) says that if we expect island nations to live with sustainable energy sources, we should do so here first. How is this similar to Sergio Palleroni?
  4. “Honesty” comes up again here. Why?
  5. What are the points Jeff Speck brings up?
  6. Who are the Yaqui indians? Why is this important?
  7. If you make $2 per day, how long would it take to build a house that costs $5000?
  8. What was wrong with the government homes?
  9. How is architecture linked to health? Why is this relevant in the elab?
  10. Why is the open courtyard a thermal, light and social solution?
  11. How does the community “own” the building? Why is this brilliant?
  12. How is this extened to political and social empowerment?
  13. The new home owners cut the ribbon. Where did this happen at the elab, and why is this culturally relevant in Hawaii?
  14. Many cities are divided by a road or railway. What does the saying “wrong side of the tracks” mean?
  15. How does the Guadalupe project change this?
  16. Who was involved, and why is this important?
  17. In Hawaii we have “ohana” homes. What are these called in the video?
  18. Look at the roof design in the simulation. Why is this important?
  19. What does Sergio mean about the politics of Austin? What cities in Oregon and California might be similar?
  20. How did this video inspire you?


quiz 2.5.20

quiz 2.5.20

  1. Explain the connection between energy harvesting, storage and conservation
  2. How does a smart grid work?
  3. How could you use skyspark to conserve energy on campus?
  4. Draw a detailed diagram of Koa’s solar hot water heater