Blog

Heat Frontline video

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/heat/

1 What river is China planning to divert that will cause conflict with India?

2 Why did Brashears go back to that specific site to take the photo, and what did he see? What possible explanations are there for this? Take both sides of the climate crisis argument in your answer.

3 What was so surprising in the 1958 movie? Was this common knowledge? How can you tell?

4 How did the cheapness of energy influence public opinion?

5 Is the climate crisis an energy issue, a tree issue, an albedo issue, or a permafrost issue?

6 What happened at Kyoto? What was the most embarrassing part? Why did the US behave so?

7 Why would China's growth outweigh any changes the US might make to change carbon emissions?

8 What is Geely? Where? What model is their biggest seller? Is this scary? Why? What did their director say?

9 How many coal fired power plants does China create every week?

10 Dr. Ling Wen says 30% growth over 5 years. What is the doubling rate for this? (recall the rule of 70). Why is his line "if we can" so scary? What are his responsibilities, in what order?

11 In what year will India's population exceed that of China? Why?

12 What is the third largest contributor to greenhouse gases? Where?

13 What reduction in CO2 did the Indian guy say they could do by 2050? What is the growth rate? What did Sunita Narain say about this? Why is this not sustainable?

14 What did Pachauri say? What are his reasons?

15 What did the US negotiators say? Why is this unfair? What did China say?

16 Google Senator Inhofe, and find out why he is a global warming skeptic. Where does his money come from?

16 This video was filmed in 2008. What was the position of each candidate?

17 What did Jeffrey Sachs say?

18 How many tons of coal are mined in the powder river basin each day?

19 The director of the West Virginia power plant (Charlie Powell) says: "we produce 1300 kilowatts of power every hour". It is clear he does not know as much about electricity as you do. What is wrong with his statement?

20 How many pounds of Coal power your TV for one hour? What percentage of power in the US comes from Coal?

21 Analyze the term "clean coal" from both sides of the argument. What are the motives of each side and why?

22 Senators Byrd and McConnell represent which states? What is their bias?

23 What is IGCC? Where is it located? Has it been tested? Where would they inject the ground? Why is this dangerous? Are we "carbon capture ready"? Where would this be tested first, and why is it problematic? If pipelines were used, why would these be dangerous?

24 How many tons of CO2 does the US emit every day?

25 The US is called the "Saudi Arabia of Coal". Why?

26 What is the second largest emitter of greenhouse gases? Now list the top three in order.

27 What are CAFE standards, and what does it stand for? What happened in the last few years to the CAFE standards? When were they created, and track the mpg numbers since then. How did auto manufacturers get around the CAFE standards since the Ford Explorer came out?

27 What is John Dingell's motive? Why? Where is he from? Why did he block seat belts? Is his responsibility only to his 800,000 citizens or to the country, or the planet as a whole?

28 What MPG is the terminator seeking for California? By when? Jerry Brown is next in the video. What is his job now?

29 In the 1970's all cars in the US came in two flavors: "49 state" or "CA". Why?

30 What pressure was put on the EPA in December 2007? Who was in office then?

31 What is the clean air act?

32 Who was the EPA administrator during the Bush administration? What did he do? What do you think about his actions?

33 What was the target of the CA emissions standards?

34 What is Hibernia owned by Exxon? How much oil did it pump since coming into operation? At 80 million bbl/day, how many days of global oil supply did it provide?

35 How did the Exxon lady defend their lack of investment in renewable resources?

36 Dan Kammen says what? Where does he work?

37 How much did Exxon make in the year of the movie? How much did they invest in renewable energy? Explain.

38 It has been said that if you drive a Prius hybrid with fuel from the tar sand of Canada, it's the equivalent of driving a Hummer. Why?

39 During the 2008 video, they state that oil is at $90/bbl. What is it today?

40 The car companies were working on a diesel-electric hybrid: what happened and why?

41 What did Toyota build, and why? How long is their advantage now?

42 Do you believe the lady from GM? Explain.

43 What happened to the Chevy Volt in the Photo Shoot?

44 Is corn ethanol really a green solution? Who is pushing corn ethanol and why?

45 Why does Dan Kammen say corn is not a good biofuel?

46 Explain the three sources of bio-ethanol: corn, cellulosic and sugar cane. Brazil produces which of these?

47 How does Amy's statement about small interests resonate with Senator Dingell's actions earlier in the film?

48 Compare renewable energy in Germany to the US.

49 How does the smart grid fit into the renewable energy solution?

50 T. Boone Pickens sold his oil investments and moved into wind farms in Texas. Check into this on wikipedia to see how he's doing now (2012).

51 About 150,000 megawatts of power is what Pickens plans on installing, which would be worth how much per year? 24 hours per day, 365 days per year, sell the power for $0.10 per kWh. 131.4 billion dollars per year? If his ROI is 7 years, and the turbines last 17 years, how much money will his company make overall?

52 Why is nuclear energy getting a fresh look?

53 Who became president after this video?

54 What is the difference between Navy nuclear power plants and commercial industrial power plants?

55 How is nuclear waste storage involved in this problem?

56 Explain cap and trade, and the plus and minus for this proposal.

57 How has the flood of natural gas from Fracking impacted the coal industry?

58. Why is natural gas better than coal for this? (think of the types of power plants that use each)

59. Coal has pollution impacts that natural gas does not. Explain.

60 What was the most compelling part of this video for you?

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Energy!

Welcome back folks,
Our transition back will begin with an overview of heat, the lowest form of energy (random, disorder, high entropy).
We'll begin with a few labs and demos, and follow the frog book for a rough overview, before diving into our normal textbook.
Here are some notes:
Semester one overview:
Unit 6: energy
Unit 7: pollution
Unit 8: global change

Unit 6(text):
ch. 12 Non renewable energy
ch. 13 Renewable energy

Frog book:
ch. 16 Climate change
ch. 17 Non renewable energy
ch. 18 Renewable energy

Energy overview
IR camera
Dashboard greenhouse example
Heat: lowest form of energy
Radiation: needs no medium, can be reflected (white, mirrored surfaces), more efficient at high temperatures (red hot), e.g. solar radiation from the sun to us, 8 light minutes away, through a vacuum.
Conduction: (contact), air over warm earth, picks up heat (thermal energy) by contact
Convection: (mass in motion), dependent on density differences, casue of all wind, storms, heat transfer to space
Frog book:
16: climate change
17: non renewable energy
18: renewable energy

Implications:
Building insulation
Hot water insulation
HVAC
Housing
Industry
Transportation

MLO= Mauna Loa ("long mountain") Observatory: Mauna = mountain, Loa = long
Begin in 1958, with Keeling, so the curve is called the "Keeling curve"
Look it up: why is it jagged? What does it look like in the southern hemisphere? Why?
Look up NOAA, this is the organization that oversees MLO
NCAR is another cool place to look up.
Find the aggi index graph-which gas is most important? which is changing most today? why is 1990 the 1.0 mark for all gases?
What is the difference between the aggi graph and any other climate change graph?
You might also look up the ozone and CFC graphs, notice what happened to those as well.

Heat transfer lab:
conduction, convection, radiation examples
Energy literacy lab:
1000 W water heater for 1/10 hour = 0.1 kWh
1 Watt = power
1 kW = power
1 HP = power

1 kWh = energy
1 joule = energy (recall mgh = PE, or 1/2mv^2 = KE)
1 calorie = energy (n.b. 1000 cal = 1 Cal, or food calorie)
1 BTU = energy (used in heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems-HVAC)

Energy monitoring lab:
Energy hunt

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APES Sem 1 Exam topics

APES sem 1 exam topics


capillary action

energy vs. work vs. power

thermodynamics

algal bloom

chemical cycles

photosynthesis and sugar

pri-sec-tert consumers

poisoned waters:

temp and DO

watersheds

point source pollution

endocrine disrupters

killer whales-bioaccumulation

biomes

hadley, ferrell, polar cells

convection, radiation and conduction

ocean currents, NADW

El Nino

atmosphere layers

evolution: variation-stress that favors the variation-reproduction

predator-mutualism-commensalism-parasitism

keystone species

indicator species

survivorship curves

r and K species

logistic vs. J curve growth

population growth, 2^n

demographic transition

boom echo

population pyramids

doubling time 70/% = years

soil composition

soil tests

soil layers

earthquakes

volcanoes

plate tectonics

WQI

water tests

DO and temp

DO and turbidity

point source DO depression

dead zones

Himalayan water and climate change

aquifer issues

e2 portland

e2 seoul

e2 NYC

e2 yaqui indians

Roosevelt, Leopold, Muir, Carson

tragedy of the commons

e2 food miles

food energy subsidy

IPM


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e2: food miles

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/e2_videos/e2%20transport/3%20Food%20miles.mp4

e2: Food miles

  1. Look up Michael Pollan: what books has he written?
  2. What is the fossil fuel to food ratio he cites?
  3. Why is this so high?
  4. What did it used to be?
  5. What does he mean by “sustainable agriculture”?
  6. How did World War II give us a new form of agriculture?
  7. Look this up: in 1895, what portion of our workforce in our country was farmers? What is it today?
  8. Look up Lancaster PA: who lives there?
  9. Local farmers may not be able to sell to Foodland and other grocery stores because of guarantees of supply. Where can the farmers then sell their produce, and what does this imply?
  10. When you go into Foodland and see the sandwiches and other wrapped foods, where were these prepared? Why? Why is this so nasty?
  11. Starbucks baked goods used to be baked here in Waimea (Mamane Bakery, behind the Montessori school). They are now baked on the mainland and shipped here frozen. Why does this make sense for Starbucks, and what impact does this have on you?
  12. McDonalds gets their food products from the mainland in huge truck and air shipments. Why do they do this?
  13. In the video, why is a restaurant that buys local food better than the examples above?
  14. Do you know of a restaurant here in Waimea that does this? What about our cafeteria?
  15. Why would Amish farmers be more sustainable farmers than other modern farmers?
  16. How many miles does the average food item travel in the video? Add 2500 miles for us, what is the new total?
  17. Why would they fly salmon to China and back?
  18. Local farmers can supply “food baskets” or "vegetable boxes" also known as a “CSA”. What are these and why are they more sustainable? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community-supported_agriculture
  19. Is “eating local” always a good thing? What are these folks known as?
  20. What is the difference between a solar and a fossil fuel food supply?
  21. What percentage of our income do we spend on our food? Is this the same in Hawaii? In Waimea? Why?
  22. Where does most of the cost of food go?
  23. Why do you think most folks in our culture do not cook the way Pollan suggests?
  24. Contrast the amount of each dollar going to a farmer in the past and now. How does localization change this?
  25. Ok, now think of your home. What could you do differently?

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Ch 11 Food

Homework:
Mod 31, p. 362 1-5
Mod 32, p. 374 1-5
Mod 33, p. 383 1-5
Ch. 11 Practice exam, p. 386, MC 1-16, FR 1,2
Unit 5 exam, p. 389, MC 1-20, FR 1,2

Notes:
Mod 31
Undernutrition: lack of calories
Malnutrition: lack of critical part of diet, usually protein (Kwashiorkor)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwashiorkor

Famine: one of these impacting a large group, often from crop failure, drought or war/displacement

Agribusiness: just what it sounds like, the larger conglomerates taking over instead of smaller privately owned family farms. Often use monoculture crops to increase profits, as well as patented seeds and herbicides
See: Monsanto and Cargill
GMO crops: in the beginning were just to withstand frost, now into a larger patent issue with GMO seeds and "round up ready crops"
Mod 32:
Food energy subsidy (cost factor):
20 kg of grain to produce 1 kg of beef (20:1 factor, or subsidy factor 20x)
2.8 kg of grain to produce 1 kg of chicken (2.8:1 factor, or subsidy factor of 2.8)

Food miles:
Average 1240 miles from farm to table (more here, unless you shop at the farmer's market)

Started as a good thing:
Green Revolution, Norman Borlaug-Mexican famine averted by development of hybrid (not GMO) wheat, called dwarf wheat (large kernel, short stalk).

Waterlogging: too much water in the soil, roots die (see hydroponics demo at elab)
Salinization/desertification: using well water for irrigation, salts build up in the soil, infertile soil results

Pesticides and herbicides: can be persistent or not (DDT, round up)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane



Mod 33:
Desertification (see above)
intercropping vs. monocropping, see "the three sisters"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Sisters_(agriculture)

Contour cropping: saves space, reduces runoff, preserves top soil
No-till ag: same idea, retains organic material in topsoil, reduces erosion by wind and water

IPM: integrated pest management (see Lalamilo Farmers)
Organic agriculture (also mentioned in Portlandia)
More than just N-P-K, also micronutrients, slower release time, low salinity

CAFO: concentrated animal feed operation (e.g. chickens, pigs, cattle)

Fishery collapse: see cod crisis in N. Atlantic
Bycatch: killed while harvesting other fish


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e2 green apple

  1. Why is it confusing to think of NYC as an ecosystem? Why does it make sense?
  2. Why is per capita a more accurate measure?
  3. Why did the guy who moved into the country gain weight?
  4. A wise person once said that the greatest cities are those built with walking in mind. How is this different in LA?
  5. Why would a skyscraper be more efficient than a smaller building?
  6. How did “environmental” become “smarter”?
  7. How was 4 Times Square a prototype? What other prototype buildings do you know of?
  8. Last week transparent PV panels were revealed. How would this change the frit concept?
  9. “blast furnace slag” and fly ash are used for the concrete in the film. Why is fly ash banned in Europe?
  10. Instead of using drinking water to flush toilets, they use what?
  11. Why is a 5 year ROI basic business sense?
  12. How is payback different in Europe and Japan?
  13. What parts of the Living Building Challenge resonate with this video?
  14. What would make you want to live in the Solaire, near Battery Park?
  15. What are the blue things on the side of the building?
  16. We are 4.6% of the global population, consuming how much of the world’s resources?

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e2 green for all

  1. In the intro (Brad Pitt), there is mention of how much energy buildings use. Why is this?
  2. Why do you think there is a split between ethics and aesthetics in design?
  3. Henk Rogers (Tetris) says that if we expect island nations to live with sustainable energy sources, we should do so here first. How is this similar to Sergio Palleroni?
  4. “Honesty” comes up again here. Why?
  5. What are the points Jeff Speck brings up?
  6. Who are the Yaqui indians? Why is this important?
  7. If you make $2 per day, how long would it take to build a house that costs $5000?
  8. What was wrong with the government homes?
  9. How is architecture linked to health? Why is this relevant in the elab?
  10. Why is the open courtyard a thermal, light and social solution?
  11. How does the community “own” the building? Why is this brilliant?
  12. How is this extened to political and social empowerment?
  13. The new home owners cut the ribbon. Where did this happen at the elab, and why is this culturally relevant in Hawaii?
  14. Many cities are divided by a road or railway. What does the saying “wrong side of the tracks” mean?
  15. How does the Guadalupe project change this?
  16. Who was involved, and why is this important?
  17. In Hawaii we have “ohana” homes. What are these called in the video?
  18. Look at the roof design in the simulation. Why is this important?
  19. What does Sergio mean about the politics of Austin? What cities in Oregon and California might be similar?
  20. How did this video inspire you?

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e2: Seoul: stream of consciousness

e2: Seoul-stream of consciousness

Terms:

Cheonggyecheon-clear water stream

1. " a king who utilized water well, ruled well"-why?

2. mountains and water are key elements to Feng Sui-why?

3. 600 years ago, the stream passed through many biomes-name a few

4. "cover it up" was started in 1968-what happened to the city? Has this continued?

5. "induced demand" means what? How could you control this if you were emperor?

6. Noh Soo Hong says "they think I'm nut": what does this say about the public awareness about carrying capacity and sustainable development? Are there parallels to other urban societies? What sort of economic/social benefits might you experience?

7. Lee Myung Bak is now the President of Korea, what were his previous two jobs? What's the lesson here? There is an old saying: "only Nixon could have gone to China" What's the connection?

8. What unique talents did Lee Myung Bak bring to the project?

9. What changes did they make to public transportation during construction, and what did they learn about traffic while doing this "experiment"?

10. Is traffic more like a liquid or a gas? Explain.

11. What is the heat island effect, and how did the restoration change this in Seoul?

12. The two ladies are a crackup-they talk over each other, but what is their unique perspective on this?

13. Big picture: think of why the city was located there, how it evolved to cover it's reason for being there, then once it was uncovered and restored, the city re-discovered it's roots. Where else could you imagine seeing this?

14. Hawaiian society was based on the Ahupua'a concept. How is this similar?

15. Koreans plant 480,000 trees each year to offset the impact of the stream-why?

16. Many cities in Europe have strict urban planning policies-compare these with Seoul.

17. Soon we will see a similar video about Alexandria Virginia, where pedestrian traffic has changed. How did pedestrian traffic change in Seoul due to the "road diet"

18. The present mayor of Seoul says "sustainability is the key element to the survival of the city". Why?

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Ch. 10-land use: mods 29-30

Three main points: Living together, thinking of forever...
1. Tragedy of the Commons
2. Conservation movement
3. Urban Sprawl

Tragedy of the commons (old idea, new article) 1968 Garret Harding KNOW THIS...
An old 1833 concept from farming villages, article updated in 1968 this to include rivers, streams, ocean, air...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tragedy_of_the_commons

Externalized costs, externality: shedding financial responsibility for your impact the the whole

Conservation movement: Important peeps
Ralph Waldo Emerson-"Nature" "behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_Waldo_Emerson

Henry David Thoreau-Walden "truth in nature and wilderness over the deceits of urban civilization"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_David_Thoreau

Ansel Adams: Photographer championed the National Parks:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/ansel_adams.mp4
0:00-8:00

"it's a place that you step into, and you don't know what's going to happen, a place that can surprise you, it's a place where you are small, where being small is not a bad thing, where being small is actually a wonderful thing"
-Carl Pope, Sierra Club

"...the world is beautiful, that humanity is part of this larger world, that the concerns of the moment are part but not separate from a larger system of forces that that connect us to all creation"
Jonathan Spaulding, Biographer

Teddy Roosevelt- ca. 1900, National Parks
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Roosevelt
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/national%20parks/
first two minutes, start again at 7:00-10:00
Note influence of railroads in parks as well as all lands in the west

Aldo Leopold-environmental ethics, wildlife management, conservation, Sand County Almanac (Wisconsin)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldo_Leopold

John Muir-started the Sierra Club: "wilderness mirrors divinity, nourishes humanity and vivifies the spirit"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Muir

Rachel Carson-silent spring DDT (persistent pesticide, weakens bird egg shells), 1963:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rachel_Carson
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane


Know these:
BLM: Bureau of Land Management
USFS: US Forest Service
NPS: National Park Service
FWS: Fish and Wildlife Service

Forests: clear cut vs. selective cut
Fire management: Yellowstone fire 1988
USFS prefers many small fires, removing flammable underbrush

NEPA: National Environmental Policy Act 1969 (why then?)
EIS (environmental impact statements) are new standard for any project
UGB (Urban Growth Boundary)
Prevents Urban Sprawl (richer folks move to the suburbs, commute, need parking, city dies from the inside, food deserts, etc.)
Portland Example of urban planning:
Tom McCall Governor of Oregon, 1967-1975
Charlie Hales Mayor of Portland 2013-2017
E2 video: Portland: Sense of Place....listen for Brad Pitt:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/e2_videos/e2%20transport/5%20Portland-sense%20of%20place.m4v

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e2 video: Portland: sense of place

e2 Transport episode 5


  1. Portland was on the path of suburban sprawl in the 1960's. What happened?
  2. 1973 was a pivotal year there, what happened?
  3. What was the initial reason for the mandate?
  4. Explain a UGB.
  5. Accessibility vs. mobility is the choice they made, like in Switzerland, as well as other European cities. What do you see in the video that you might also see in Europe?
  6. Who is the first class passenger in Portland?
  7. Cities in Europe have vibrant city centers, and are great cities to walk around. How is this done in Portland?
  8. Explain "trip behavior".
  9. How much did property values increase in the Pearl district after the trolley went in? Why? (note the amount of glass in each trolley). http://www.explorethepearl.com/
  10. Where in Europe do they also have aerial trams? Notice a trend?
  11. Explain "lifestyle migrants".
  12. What is "gentrification"? Where else have you seen this? (hint: look up the term "landed gentry")
  13. What things in the video do you recognize that show a bike friendly city?
  14. What does the man mean about a "burlap future"?
  15. How does the concept of choice resonate with values in this country? What do you think?

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Water

Recall:
Energy->Water->Food->Culture
Where is the water?
How does it get there?



Aquifers:



Huge aquifer-note recharge time is in centuries, pesticides in NE

Water diversion (e.g. rivers)

Two critical issues for China:
Pearl river delta and salt intrusion (sea level rise)
Vanishing Himalayan Glaciers (no farming in western China):

Download file "glaciers.mov"
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/glaciers.mov
Glaciers are the water towers for Asia...
Rivers impacted:
Ganges, Yangtze, Yellow, Mekong, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Indu, Salween,




Aral Sea (asia minor)

Water disputes:

Water Pollution categories:

Pollutant list:


Nitrate levels (note farming regions):

Why is there a hypoxic zone there?

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD):
Better diagram:

Note that temperature changes DO (dissolved oxygen) content, so does physical agitation (aeration).

Water Quality Index:

http://www.water-research.net/index.php/water-treatment/water-monitoring/monitoring-the-quality-of-surfacewaters

http://www.water-research.net/watrqualindex/index.htm

http://www.pathfinderscience.net/stream/cproto4.cfm
Calculation worksheet:
http://www.pathfinderscience.net/stream/forms/WQI_worksheet.pdf


See also point source and non-point source pollution (from Poisoned Waters video, remember the Deer?)

Important: cooler water holds dissolved oxygen better (fishermen know this, so do the fish).

Water Quality Lab:

Lab samples

  1. Post waterfall
  2. Post power plant
  3. Everglades close to ocean
  4. Post sewage plant
  5. Best fishing spot
  6. Mine tailings runoff
  7. Snow melt river
  8. Mississippi river
  9. Chesapeake river
  10. Flood after monsoon rains
  11. Golf course runoff
  12. Eutrophied lake

Metrics:
  • DO
  • BOD
  • pH
  • temperature
  • turbidity
  • conductivity
  • nitrates
  • phosphates
Simulated locations:
Samples:
Sample A
  • DO:1.5
  • BOD:low
  • pH:7
  • temperature:30°C
  • turbidity:high
  • conductivity:low
  • nitrates:high
  • phosphates:high

Sample B
  • DO:6
  • BOD:low
  • pH:7
  • temperature:10°C
  • turbidity-low
  • conductivity-low
  • nitrates-low
  • phosphates-low

Sample C
  • DO: 4
  • BOD:low
  • pH:8
  • temperature:25°C
  • turbidity: high
  • conductivity: high
  • nitrates: high
  • phosphates: high

Sample D-
  • DO: 2
  • BOD: high
  • pH:5
  • temperature: 28°C
  • turbidity:high
  • conductivity: low
  • nitrates: low
  • phosphates: high

Sample E
  • DO: 2
  • BOD:low
  • pH:2
  • temperature:20°C
  • turbidity:high
  • conductivity: high
  • nitrates: low
  • phosphates: low

Sample F
  • DO: 1
  • BOD: high
  • pH: 4
  • temperature: 30°C
  • turbidity: high
  • conductivity: high
  • nitrates: high
  • phosphates: high

















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Mod 25 rocks and soil

Next: Rocks Module 25
Igneous (fire)
Sedimentary (layers)
Metamorphic (Kafka rocks, just kidding: changed by heat and pressure)




Igneous= directly from magma, can be either basalt (low melting point, like our island or oceanic plates) or granite (lighter, what continents are made of)
Granite breaks down into light colored sand, makes for fertile soil. Basalt (like us) can make sand too, but less fertile (e.g. black sand beach).

Sedimentary= just like it sounds, from mud, sand or dust, usually in layers.

Metamorphic= changed by heat and/or pressure (slate, marble or coal)

Soil-formed by weathering (chemical or physical) of parent rock
Erosion can be by water or air (wind)



These used to be just A, B, C layers
E layer was added (eluviated layer-where water washes out nutrients)
O layer was added (overlayer-detritus)

Latest version:



Soil structure (physical analysis)


n.b. the trick to reading the lines is always look clockwise...

Finer soils drain slowly (capillary action), hold nutrients (because of reduced water flow), and settle last in rivers
Coarse soils (e.g. sand) drain quickly, are nutrient poor (water washed the nutrients away) and settle first in rivers
Loam is the term for a perfect balance of these inorganic soil types
Farmers refer to "tilth" of a soil, which includes ability to hold water, organic content and more:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tilth

Organic matter is not included here: it holds water and decomposes, releasing nutrients
For healthy soil, we need both the physical (above), organic and chemical systems to balance.

Chemical analysis:
N=nitrogen: critical for plant growth
P=phosphorus: roots and fruits
K= Kalium=Potasssium=potash: plant immunity

pH is the Hydrogen ion content: pH of 7 is neutral water, others may have other values
Hydroponics use a term EC for Electrical conductivity, which is a measure of dissolved ions in solution.
1.5-2.5 is ideal for most hydroponic systems, depending on plant types

See also CEC: Cation exchange capacity

Lab:
Physical tests----
  • Gross analysis: how does the soil feel in your hands: like clay or sand? Does it have organic matter? Can you squeeze it and have it hold shape (tilth)? What color do you see?
  • Percolation test: time it takes water to move through a soil sample, measured in cm/second. Measure the seconds, and the cm depth of your soil, divide.
  • Sedimentation test: settled layers after mixing with water, measure total thickness, then layer thickness, present at percentage of total
  • Dry sifting test: drop your sample into the sifter column, measure mass of each layer
Chemical tests----
  • Decant (pour off) liquid from the sedimentation test above, use for the pH test kit
  • N test: same with the N soil test kit
  • P test: same with the P soil test kit
  • K test: same with the K soil test kit
  • (optional) organic matter test: bake the sample, mass before and after, difference is organic matter

Desertification:
Usually from removal of native plants, overgrazing and/or over-irrigation with well water (salinization)
Solutions:













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ch 8 mod 24 Earth systems

Big picture: 15 by ago...
Big bang, then stars which live for about 10 BY, then...
Nova, supernova, neutron stars


4.5 by ago-solar system (including bits from supernovae)
When first stars die as supernovae (about 10 BY into their life), the heat and pressure created all elements beyond Iron on the periodic table
so...
Anything on our planet that is lower than Iron on the periodic table, came from the explosion of an older star, including stuff inside YOU.
Earth forms from molten elements as our solar system is formed, (called an accretion disc) including Uranium
(reason for heat still in the core-see the minister estimate of Sunday afternoon creation date)

Geo time: ("deep time")


You can look up the K-T extinction online, it happened 65MY ago. Look up the dude that discovered it...


See videos: How the earth was made...
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/how%20the%20earth%20was%20made/

Layers: (onion boy)
Core-Mantle-Crust-think of an apple



Core is actually two bits: solid inner iron and nickel, liquid outside that bit. It spins, giving us a weak magnetic field
How do we know this? Nuclear bomb testing and our global seismic sensor network
Hint: the inner part spins around in the opposite direction every 60-80 MY, so the earth's magnetic field actually FLIPS (this is important for later-or sooner)

Plate Tectonics-look up this guy: Wegener. Meteorologist (weather guy), so the geo folks laughed at him...
The players:
Magma-(Dr. Evil voice here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVo1S52xdpI)
Asthenosphere-"sticky rock" (from Greek ἀσθενής asthenḗs 'weak' + "sphere")
Lithosphere-floating rock (litho = stone) (Ancient Greek: λίθος [lithos] for "rocky", and σφαίρα [sphaira] for "sphere")
Continents-even more floaty, made of lighter rock (granite) that formed from interaction of magma with oceans

Plates are large, float on the Asthenosphere
Continents are like rafts on the Asthenosphere, more buoyant than the plates
The plates can slide under each other (subduction zones), crash into each other (Himalayas), next to each other (transform faults), and are formed at spreading zones (divergent boundaries)

Check out this diagram: note the red (spreading) and the blue (subducting), esp. look at Chile---->

What mountains are in Chile?
Volcanoes are the key:
Two kinds of volcanoes: Andesitic (pointy), Basaltic (runny, look out your window)
Andesite-from pressure and heat as plates subduct (sticky, high silica content, e.g. Andes mountains)
Basalt-from ocean crust, lots of water, makes for weak, runny magma, formed as magma pushes through watery ocean plates
Subduction zones:



Note the sticky stuff boiling up in red-this is why the Andesitic volcanoes are sticky, and always found near subduction zones (Andes, Cascades, Japan, Italy, etc.)
Note also the trench where the subduction zone goes down: this is the origin of the Chilean/Peruvian trench we covered in the El Nino notes, as well as the deepest part of the ocean: the Marianas Trench, which is 7 MILES deep. Whoa!

Historic data shows subduction zone quakes that would create a tsunami 1000' high or more on the pacific northwest coast, flooding everything west of I-5.

Look at all of the earthquakes (red dots) as the plate subducts

Two things to take-away about subduction zones:
1. subduction zones create ANDESITIC (pointy) volcanoes, which are high in silica, and sticky like thick pancake batter.
2. subduction zones create lots of deep focus earthquakes.


Spreading zones:
--See the submarine notes
What the heck is this?
Note the symmetry along the ridge crest. This was mapped in WWII in an attempt to detect metallic submarines using magnetic sensors on ships. Later on airplanes like this:



You will see these practicing at the Kona airport, look out for them. They are spying on submarines. Not ours.





Remember the earth magnetic field changing?


Hot spots:
Usually in the middle of an oceanic plate, but can also be mid continent (e.g. Yellowstone supervolcano caldera)
Hot spots-basalt-low silica content, melts easier (e.g. look out the window)
Look at the Hawaii island chain on google earth (underwater version)
While you are at it, look for the Nuuanu landslide that created a 4000' tsunami
You can also look at the Mauna Loa simulated tsunami on youtube...

Earthquakes:

then there's the famous "notmy" fault...

Epicenter is the place ON THE SURFACE above the hypocenter (true origin) or earthquake FOCUS. Deeper hypocentric quakes often feel "longer", while shallow hypocentric quakes feel "sharp".



How do we find these?
Seismographs:
P waves travel by compression (comPression). These are longitudinal waves, like sound. They can travel through liquid or solid.
S waves travel by shear (Shear). These are transverse waves, like a slinky. They can only travel through solids.

This is how we know what the inside of the earth looks like:
This data was found by spying on atomic bomb tests in the 1950's, not because we wanted to know about the guts of our planet...

Ok, back to earthquakes.
Suppose you have a house on posts (called "post and pier" construction). An earthquake happens some distance away. First your house moves back and forth (P wave, much faster at 8 km/sec). After a time, your house bounces up and down from the S waves (slower at 3 km/second).
If you are far away, these are separated by different arrival times.
If you are near the epicenter, they hit at the same time...up, over, down=your house is demolished

We use this difference to calculate distance from the epicenter (and hypocenter if you are interested) using delay times on the seismograph


Look at the HPA seismograph here:
http://www.fdsn.org/networks/detail/PT/
and our Hawaii quakes here:
https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo/hvo_earthquakes.html
Click on some earthquakes and note the depth and the seismic image.

Next: Rocks Module 25
Igneous (fire)
Sedimentary (layers)
Metamorphic (Kafka rocks, just kidding: changed by heat and pressure)


Igneous= directly from magma, can be either basalt (low melting point, like our island or oceanic plates) or granite (lighter, what continents are made of)
Granite breaks down into light colored sand, makes for fertile soil. Basalt (like us) can make sand too, but less fertile (e.g. black sand beach).

Sedimentary= just like it sounds, from mud, sand or dust, usually in layers.

Metamorphic= changed by heat and/or pressure (slate, marble or coal)

Soil-formed by weathering (chemical or physical) of parent rock
Erosion can be by water or air (wind)

Soil Horizons:


















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ch 7-mod 22 Human Populations

https://www.arcgis.com/home/webmap/viewer.html?webmap=df8bcc10430f48878b01c96e907a1fc3
First of all a flow diagram:
Note that this is for a country, not the planet, since people (so far) are not leaving the planet...or arriving from elsewhere.
National version as a formula:


If you look at the planet as a whole (sans aliens or Elon Musk):


so, there is a neat shorthand formula for this:

Which is an estimate, the real number is 69.3 (why?)
Here is an example:


Note that as the growth rate increases, the doubling time decreases.
Look for this on the AP as multiples/fractions of 70: 14, 28, 35, and so on...

Now, to babies: TFR is the total number of babies a woman will have in her lifetime.
Replacement level fertility is just above 2.0, (usually 2.1, as some babies don't reproduce or make it to reproductive age).
What does this mean in Japan, where young people are not having babies?
RLF depends on developed/developing nations as well (clean water, medical care, access to food, war)
Life expectancy: depends on these as well...
Infant mortality: under age 1 (reason for big Hawaiian one year birthdays)
child mortality: under 5

Age structure diagrams/population pyramids-check these out: UAE, Japan, Sudan, Iraq/Iran, Russia----WHY?
See also baby boom and boom echoes...

https://www.populationpyramid.net/world/2017/

https://www.gapminder.org/tools/#_chart-type=bubbles

https://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_on_global_population_growth

Module 23 Demographic Transition

Better diagram:




IPAT formula:


GDP vs. GNP (nationalism, global economy)

Urban areas, UGB (Portland)


See also Ecological Footprint Calculator:


http://www.footprintnetwork.org/resources/footprint-calculator/

https://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_shows_the_best_stats_you_ve_ever_seen








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ch 6 pop eco mods 20-21

Sunrise this morning in Marin:



Community ecology
Competitive exclusion principle: two species competing for the same resources cannot co-exist, leads to...
Resource partitioning: time, space, type of food (one species picks one, the other survives)
Relationships:
Predation: predator and prey, one lives, the other dies
Symbiotic:
Mutualism: both benefit
Commensalism: one benefits, no harm to the other
Parasitism: one benefits, harm to other



keystone species vs. indicator species

Keystone species-many others depend on it

Indicator species-signal health of a system

Succession: one species takes over another in time

Primary succession: From bare rock, no soil: (e.g. lichen)



Secondary succession: from disturbed area with soil (e.g. after a fire)

Pioneer species: arrives first, sets up reliable system

Aquatic succession: from stream to pond to shallow pond to marsh

Island biogeography (like here in Waimea): habitat size AND distance from others influences diversity (e.g. birds)


Check out an alternate presentation of these in chapters 4 and 5 of the Withgott text:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/withgott/withgott_5e/withgott-5e-4-6.pdf

Frog book chapter 5:









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Ch 6 Population Ecology mods 18-19

Module 18-abundance and distribution
Start with this:

We covered ecosystem energy and matter a few weeks ago, this chapter is about population ecology.

Notation: Pop size is represented as N (note not "n"): population size within a defined area at a specific time (brings in migration).

Check out the diagrams on pop distribution: random, uniform and clumped. Important vis a vis biodiversity
Structures: age and gender (sex)

Density dependent factor: e.g. food or reproductive rate in rats (more rats, lower fecundity)
Something that influences reproduction or survival...
Density IN-dependent factors: storms, disasters, fires (note density independent: one bambi or 100 bambi all perish in the same fire)

Limiting resource: usually food, but could include space, nutrients, etc.

Carrying capacity: K (note not "k"): how many individuals an environment can support

Module 19: growth models
Check this out:

This is called exponential growth, or "J shaped growth"
Note that it has no end, or limiting factor.
Small r is the growth rate. If you have had physics (yay!) this is usually "k" in some examples, or related to RC.
Learning this equation is VERY useful.
Note that it depends on two things: the amount in the population (No) and the growth rate (r)
Here is an example:



Many systems follow J shaped exponential growth until they run out of food or space, then there is overshoot and die-off. A more ideal version of this is the S shaped curve, called logistic growth:


Here is a formula for logistic growth that we'll discuss:

dN/dt is just the rate of population growth (some of you may see this as the slope of the S curve)
Note that when the ratio N/K is very small, the parentheses become 1, so the formula is rate = rN
As N/K nears one (number of critters equals carrying capacity) the term in the parentheses becomes zero, so no growth.
Note also that if N/K is GREATER than one, the growth rate (slope of the curve) become negative. This is overshoot and die off.

Ok, now check this out:

Note the phase (timing) relationship between the abundance of the food and the population of the prey, then the predator.

Now we can discuss generalizations of r and K strategists:
Where do you fit in? How about Nemo?


There is a fourth: deer. How would you imagine this curve?













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Interspecies relationships

interspecies relationships:

Predation

Symbiotic:

mutualism: both benefit

commensalism: one benefits, no loss to the other

parasitism: one benefits, loss to the second


Keystone species-many others depend on it

Indicator species-signal health of a system

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Mod 14/15/16/17-biodiversity (chapter 5)

Biodiversity:





Species diversity:
richness vs. evenness. richness = number of species, evenness = balanced proportions

We can calculate biodiversity:


Mod 15: Evolution
Three conditions must be met:
1. genetic variation (mutation)
2. some stress that favors this variation (adaptation)
3. survivors procreate, pass on the variation (reproduction)

Genotype: set of genes (dominant and recessive)
Phenotype: traits expressed in a living creature

Genetic drift-pretty much what it sounds like
Bottleneck effect-VERY important: when a species is almost extinct, there is little variation in the gene pool of the survivors, even if their population rebounds (e.g. whales)

Founder effect: random selection of survivors, creating a new gene pool (birds, gilligan)

mod 16: speciation
Geographic isolation (e.g. Galapagos) also found where we disturb natural habitats with roads
Causes Allo (other) Patric (father) speciation
Eventually reproductive isolation will result: different breeds will not be able to procreate

There is another more rare form of speciation: Sympatric ("same father"), from polyploidy, ("many chromosomes")

GMO: see roundup ready corn and wheat, freeze proof tomatoes and others.
Not to be confused with Dwarf Wheat and Norman Borlaug (see population chapters for more on this).
Dwarf wheat was a simple hybrid, not a GMO.
Look up "gene guns" and CRISPR

mod 17: niches and species distribution
Check this out:

You'll see another like this in population distributions...
Range of tolerance-where it can survive
Fundamental niche-happy place
Realized niche-de facto place
Distribution-areas where they live (we'll see more of this in the chapter on population distributions: random, scattered, patterned)











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mod 13 aquatic biomes

Freshwater:
Riparian=river
Limnotic=lakes

Lakes:
Shallow shore area=littoral (means shallow), see the "littoral Navy", photosynthesis here (shallow, light shines through)
Open water area=limnetic zone, no rooted plants (too deep), phytoplankton here, only as deep as sunlight can penetrate
Deep water=profundal ("profound") or deep zone: no light penetrates, bacterial decomposition.
Bottom=benthic zone: mud, dark, cloudy




Productivity:
Oligo (few) trophic=low productivity
Meso (middle) trophic=medium
Eutrophic (eu=good trephien=food)=lots of productivity (sometimes too much, like in "Poisoned Waters")

Freshwater wetlands-submerged most of the time (swamps, marshes, bogs) this is the history of all coal and oil we now use

Salt marsh: usually connected to the sea, act as a coastal buffer for Hurricanes, very productive, many nutrients, lots of organic material
Mangrove swamp: special version of this in Tropical areas (e.g. Florida)

Intertidal zone: area between high and low tide

Ocean zones:
Coral reefs-see coral bleaching, pH, temperature and salinity sensitive (see Hamakua coast vs. Puako)
Intertidal zone: between high and low tide
Photic (light) zone-shallow, photosynthesis, kelp, others
Aphotic (dark) zone-too dark for photosynthesis
Chemosythesis/thermosynthesis: deepwater steam vents, based on Sulfur instead of Oxygen, bacteria generate energy with methane (CH4) and H2S (instead of H20)
Benthic=deep ocean
Pelagic=open ocean (think of big sailing ships, whales, stuff like that)
Hadal zones: like Hades: deepest, darkest zones. Weird fish, no light...







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Mod 12: terrestrial biomes

Huh? Terrestrial=earth vs. aquatic, having to do with ducks...



9 Biomes are usually defined by precipitation (rain, fog, others) and temperature.
Big Island has 8 of the 9 biomes, or in the 12 biome model, we have 11/12
Traveling up a mountain is like crossing biomes. Check this out:
Imagine driving from Hamakua or Hilo up to the summit of Mauna Kea: tropical rain forest to temperate (mild) rain forest to boreal (north) forest to tundra. There is even a glacier up on Mauna Kea. Cool.
This would be like starting in the upper right corner of the diagram and moving diagonally down and to the left.

Now check out the planet:


Notice the horizontal bands. If you've read "Guns Germs and Steel" you know that humans migrated horizontally, so their crops and livestock would be in similar biomes. See? Migrating north to south is tough.

Now look at this:

These diagrams are how we describe biomes without a cool map. The blue line is the amount of rainfall, with units on the RIGHT side of the graph. The red line is the temperature, with units on the LEFT side of the graph. The shaded region in the months below (jfmamjjasond) is the growing season when temperatures are above freezing. When the precipitation line is above the temperature line, growth is limited by temperature (e.g. freezing). When the blue line is below the red line, growth is limited by precipitation (e.g. the desert).

Start with the north: Tundra is what you'd see in Alaska. Permafrost is soon to be in the news. It is made of permanently frozen ground a few feet below the surface. Even roots cannot penetrate it, so some trees grow in a stunted fashion. It is also composed of frozen organic matter, which when it freezes will decompose, releasing CO2 and CH4 (methane), which is 20x as powerful as CO2 as a greenhouse gas.

Tundra:

Note the cool temp, so growth is determined by temp, not rainfall.

Contrast that with the boreal (north) forest:

Note the short growing season. Any plants that survive usually have an oily sap (pine trees, evergreens) that does not freeze.

Temperate (mild) forests are nicer, longer growing season, and rarely freeze. They are usually near the ocean, so they do not freeze (ocean is a huge heat sink). The often have lots of rain (think of Seattle).

Temperate (mild) seasonal forest actually has seasons:
Deciduous trees can live here, like maple and oak.

Woodland/shrubland is like much of southern California, or the Mediterranean. Wine can grow here:

Note it never really freezes, but growth is determined by precipitation (blue line is below the red line). This is also known as "chaparral" or the "fynbos" or "nice forest" in Afrikaans (South Africa).

Temperate grassland/cold desert is a dry, grassy area, like Oklahoma, although it does get very cold there, so think more of Texas, or the Gobi desert. Again, growth is rain limited:


Tropical rainforest is the rainiest of them all, and much of our island has this near the shore. Warm temperatures, and paradoxically poor soil nutrition (all of the nutrients are in the plants). On Mt. Waialeale on Kauai, the rainfall is 480 INCHES per year, 2.5 times as high as the high point on the chart below:


Africa and Brazil hold the next biome: Savanna or tropical seasonal forest. Think of Madagascar (the film): not many large trees, room for animals to roam, lots of grass, happy lions, maybe a bossy penguin or two...
Growth dependent on rainfall:


Finally, the subtropical desert biome, like what you'd see in the sahara desert (another film), or most of Australia, the Atacama in Chile, the Mojave desert in California, and some of Mexico. Note the Gobi desert is not on this list-too cold.



























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