Blog

e2: growing energy

APES questions e2 growing energy

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/e2_videos/e2%20energy/

  1. What is the basic difference between biofuels and fossil fuels?
  2. What is the time frame for collection of solar energy for fossil fuels vs. biofuels?
  3. Brazil has a unique climate, and uses a crop that is native to the area. Compare this with corn ethanol in the Midwest US
  4. Why is corn ethanol so popular in the farm states, and why is there national policy around it?
  5. Steven Chu: look this guy up. Where did he used to work in 2007, on what, and what was his job in Obama’s administration?
  6. Compare cellulosic ethanol with sugar cane or corn ethanol
  7. What is the energy balance of corn ethanol as grown in the US? Does this make sense? Why/why not?
  8. Harbors provide ethanol free gasoline. Why?
  9. What caused the 1973 oil crisis?
  10. PETROBRAS is the national oil company of Brazil. How does this change the rate of progress in their ethanol solution? What kind of government did Brazil have then?
  11. What is the population curve of Brazil?
  12. Why did VW move to biofuels instead of hybrids? What has happened since then?
  13. What is a CAFE standard, and what what was made exempt from these standards in 1995? Why?
  14. Does ethanol provide the same mileage as gasoline? Why?
  15. Imagine a developing country with no fossil fuel resources. How could biofuels impact their development?
  16. Dan Kammen of UC Berkeley describes a repetitive trend in renewable energy. What is the trend?
  17. Where is the first caucus of the US election held? What is their main industry? Why is this important?
  18. When corn ethanol use was legislated, the price of tortillas in Mexico went up tremendously. Why?
  19. How can cows derive energy from grass? How many stomachs do they have?
  20. Look up the FAME biofuel process. What impact could this have?

0 comments

e2: Portland-sense of place

quiz 11.25.19------

11.25.19

  1. In the e2 video a case is made for organic and local foods. Which is more important and why according to them?
  2. What is the difference between a solar and fossil fuel food supply?
  3. Why are the Amish a good model for sustainable food production?
  4. Only 7 cents of every food dollar goes to the farmer. Where does the rest go, and why?
e2: Portland-sense of place
  1. Portland was on the path of suburban sprawl in the 1960's. What happened?
  2. 1973 was a pivotal year there, what happened?
  3. What was the initial reason for the mandate?
  4. Explain a UGB.
  5. Accessibility vs. mobility is the choice they made, like in Switzerland, as well as other European cities. What do you see in the video that you might also see in Europe?
  6. Who is the first class passenger in Portland?
  7. Cities in Europe have vibrant city centers, and are great cities to walk around. How is this done in Portland?
  8. Explain "trip behavior".
  9. How much did property values increase in the Pearl district after the trolley went in? Why? (note the amount of glass in each trolley). http://www.explorethepearl.com/
  10. For what reasons would an electric tram or trolley be greener than a fossil fuel car?
  11. Portland required that every building have street level shops, and limited parking-why?
  12. Why would people want to live along a trolley line? Why is quiet key to this?
  13. Where in Europe do they also have aerial trams? Notice a trend?
  14. How does an aerial tram enable different growth trends?
  15. The young mom says “we did not want to spend all that time in the car”. What is she talking about?
  16. Explain "lifestyle migrants".
  17. What is "gentrification"? Where else have you seen this? (hint: look up the term "landed gentry") https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentrification
  18. What things in the video do you recognize that show a bike friendly city?
  19. What does the man mean about a "burlap future"? What is the difference between aspiration and acquisition?
  20. How does the concept of choice resonate with values in this country? What do you think?
  21. Bring this home: what would you do at HPA to make it more sustainable? What about Waimea? Hawaii in general? Your home?

0 comments

e2: Food miles

e2: Food miles:

http://physics.local/physics/apenvsci/videos/e2_videos/e2%20transport/3%20Food%20miles.m4v

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/e2_videos/e2%20transport/3%20Food%20miles.m4v

  1. Look up Michael Pollan: what books has he written?
  2. What is the fossil fuel to food ratio he cites?
  3. Why is this so high?
  4. What did it used to be?
  5. What does he mean by “sustainable agriculture”?
  6. Why did WWII give us a new form of agriculture?
  7. Look this up: in 1895, what portion of our workforce in our country was farmers? What is it today?
  8. Look up Lancaster PA, and who lives there?
  9. Local farmers may not be able to sell to Foodland and other grocery stores because of guarantees of supply. Where can the farmers then sell their produce, and what does this imply?
  10. When you go into Foodland and see the sandwiches and other wrapped foods, where were these prepared? Why? Why is this so nasty?
  11. Starbucks baked goods used to be baked here in Waimea (Mamane Bakery, behind the Montessori school). They are now baked on the mainland and shipped here frozen. Why does this make sense for Starbucks, and what impact does this have on you?
  12. McDonalds gets their food products from the mainland in huge truck and air shipments. Why do they do this?
  13. In the video, why is a restaurant that buys local food better than the examples above?
  14. Do you know of a restaurant here in Waimea that does this? What about our cafeteria?
  15. Why would Amish farmers be more sustainable farmers than other modern farmers?
  16. How many miles does the average food item travel in the video? Add 2500 miles for us, what is the new total?
  17. Why would they fly salmon to China and back?
  18. Local farmers can supply “food baskets” also known as a “CSA”. What are these and why are they more sustainable? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community-supported_agriculture
  19. Is “eating local” always a good thing? What are these folks known as?
  20. What is the difference between a solar and a fossil fuel food supply?
  21. What percentage of our income do we spend on our food? Is this the same in Hawaii? In Waimea? Why?
  22. Where does most of the cost of food go?
  23. Why do you think folks do not cook the way Pollan suggests?
  24. Contrast the amount of each dollar going to a farmer in the past and now. How does localization change this?
  25. Ok, now think of your home. What could you do differently?

0 comments

Food: Modules 31-33

11.21.19

  1. Give an example of an externalized cost
  2. Why do we have national parks?
  3. Pick one of these folks: Thoreau, Emerson, Leopold or Roosevelt and describe their role in land management
  4. Why was Silent Spring Silent, and who wrote it?

Notes:
Mod 31
Undernutrition: lack of calories
Malnutrition: lack of critical part of diet, usually protein (Kwashiorkor)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwashiorkor

Famine: one of these impacting a large group, often from crop failure, drought or war/displacement

Agribusiness: just what it sounds like, the larger conglomerates taking over instead of smaller privately owned family farms. Often use monoculture crops to increase profits, as well as patented seeds and herbicides (e.g. "roundup ready corn")
n.b. roundup has recently been linked to cancer in humans, look up glyphosate...
See: Monsanto and Cargill
Food Inc. minutes 1:06-1:13


GMO crops: in the beginning were just to withstand frost, now into a larger patent issue with GMO seeds and "round up ready crops"
What is the impact on lesser developed countries of this business model?

Mod 32:
Food energy subsidy (cost factor):
20 kg of grain to produce 1 kg of beef (20:1 factor, or subsidy factor 20x)
2.8 kg of grain to produce 1 kg of chicken (2.8:1 factor, or subsidy factor of 2.8)

Better to eat beef, chicken, fish or tofu? (you need protein in some form)

See also Food Inc about corn and HFCS (High fructose corn syrup): minutes 17:00-22:00
See also DIRT! minutes 0-8:00
----------------------------------------11.21.19

11.22.19

  1. What is the difference between malnutrition and undernutrition?
  2. How does roundup ready corn work?
  3. What is the subsidy difference between beef and chicken?
  4. What is the deal with HFCS?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcendentalism
Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the late 1820s and 1830s in the eastern United States.[1][2][3] It arose as a reaction, to protest against the general state of intellectualism and spirituality at the time.[4] The doctrine of the Unitarian church as taught at Harvard Divinity School was of particular interest.
Transcendentalism emphasizes subjective intuition over objective empiricism. Adherents believe that individuals are capable of generating completely original insights with little attention and deference to past masters.

Food miles:
Average 1240 miles from farm to table (more here, unless you shop at the farmer's market)

Started as a good thing:
Green Revolution, Norman Borlaug-Mexican famine averted by development of hybrid (not GMO) wheat, called dwarf wheat (large kernel, short stalk).

Waterlogging: too much water in the soil, roots die (see hydroponics demo at elab)
Salinization/desertification: using well water for irrigation, salts build up in the soil, infertile soil results

Pesticides and herbicides: can be persistent or not (DDT, round up)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane



Mod 33:
Desertification (see above)
intercropping vs. monocropping, see "the three sisters"

Contour cropping: saves space, reduces runoff, preserves top soil (e.g. our garden, most of Asia)
No-till ag: same idea, retains organic material in topsoil, reduces erosion by wind and water

IPM: integrated pest management (see Lalamilo Farmers)
Organic agriculture (also mentioned in Portlandia and Colin the Chicken)

More than just N-P-K, also micronutrients, slower release time, low salinity

CAFO: concentrated animal feed operation (e.g. chickens, pigs, cattle)

Fishery collapse: see cod crisis in N. Atlantic
Bycatch: killed while harvesting other fish

Methyl xanthines: caffeine, theobromine, theophylline
evolved plant poisons for insects:
Actually, almost anything that ends in -ine is usually a plant poison evolved to kill insects:
nicotine, caffeine, cocaine, etc.

0 comments

e2: portland-sense of place

e2 Transport episode 5


  1. Portland was on the path of suburban sprawl in the 1960's. What happened?
  2. 1973 was a pivotal year there, what happened?
  3. What was the initial reason for the mandate?
  4. Explain a UGB.
  5. Accessibility vs. mobility is the choice they made, like in Switzerland, as well as other European cities. What do you see in the video that you might also see in Europe?
  6. Who is the first class passenger in Portland?
  7. Cities in Europe have vibrant city centers, and are great cities to walk around. How is this done in Portland?
  8. Explain "trip behavior".
  9. How much did property values increase in the Pearl district after the trolley went in? Why? (note the amount of glass in each trolley). http://www.explorethepearl.com/
  10. For what reasons would an electric tram or trolley be greener than a fossil fuel car?
  11. Portland required that every building have street level shops, and limited parking-why?
  12. Why would people want to live along a trolley line? Why is quiet key to this?
  13. Where in Europe do they also have aerial trams? Notice a trend?
  14. How does an aerial tram enable different growth trends?
  15. The young mom says “we did not want to spend all that time in the car”. What is she talking about?
  16. Explain "lifestyle migrants".
  17. What is "gentrification"? Where else have you seen this? (hint: look up the term "landed gentry") https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentrification
  18. What things in the video do you recognize that show a bike friendly city?
  19. What does the man mean about a "burlap future"? What is the difference between aspiration and acquisition?
  20. How does the concept of choice resonate with values in this country? What do you think?
  21. Bring this home: what would you do at HPA to make it more sustainable? What about Waimea? Hawaii in general? Your home?

0 comments

Land use: Modules 29-30

11.14.19

  1. Irving boils his aquarium water to sterilize it, then lets it cool then drops in his fish. What happens, and why?
  2. Explain the connection between temperature and DO in water systems
  3. How could you tell a water sample from the Mississippi river vs. Chesapeake bay?
  4. Your job is to monitor a river for mine runoff. What would you look for?

Quiz 11.19.1911.19.19
  1. You had three samples to identify. What were your clues for the first sample?
  2. The second sample?
  3. The third sample?
  4. Which of these would have the greatest impact on an ecosystem and why?
Big picture: recall
Soil
Water
Lands
Farming
AP simulation exam December (week before semester exams)

Three main points: Living together, thinking of forever...
1. Tragedy of the Commons
2. Conservation movement
3. Urban Sprawl

Tragedy of the commons (old idea, new article) 1968 Garret Harding KNOW THIS...
An old 1833 concept from farming villages, article updated in 1968 this to include rivers, streams, ocean, air...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tragedy_of_the_commons

Externalized costs, externality: shedding financial responsibility for your impact the the whole
e.g. Minamata: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minamata_disease

Conservation movement: Important peeps
Ralph Waldo Emerson-"Nature" "behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_Waldo_Emerson

Henry David Thoreau-Walden "truth in nature and wilderness over the deceits of urban civilization"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_David_Thoreau

Ansel Adams: Photographer championed the National Parks:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/ansel_adams.mp4
0:00-8:00

"it's a place that you step into, and you don't know what's going to happen, a place that can surprise you, it's a place where you are small, where being small is not a bad thing, where being small is actually a wonderful thing"
-Carl Pope, Sierra Club

"...the world is beautiful, that humanity is part of this larger world, that the concerns of the moment are part but not separate from a larger system of forces that that connect us to all creation"
Jonathan Spaulding, Biographer
-----
MSY: maximum sustainable yield: max renewable output without compromising future
See: native peoples: seventh son of seventh sone

Public lands: often victim of economic predation (Burma lumber)
Other side: NRDC and others, purchase lands to protect them from predatory practices (e.g. Amazon basin)
In the US: National Parks are one example of a national recognition of several things:
1. spiritual/psychological benefit to nature
2. preservation of resources for future generations
3. recreation
4. habitat preservation for species (can be land, ocean, islands, etc.)

See also Amboseli in Kenya, Serengeti in Tanzania (Tanganyika+Zanzibar), Kruger park in S. Africa (Afrikaans)

In the US, we classify public lands as
rangelands-open range, enables some ranching with leases
national forests-old growth and new growth, limited forestry
national parks-national treasures, limits on visitors, infrastructure (e.g. Denali)
national wildlife refuges-usually associated with an endangered species or transit/migration path (e.g. wolves)
wilderness areas-no development, often noise abatement as well (think of helicopters in Waipio or Haleakala)

We have several of these here in Hawaii:
Kilauea Volcano
Haleakala
Honokohau
Pearl Harbor
Pu'u Kohola
papa hanau moku a kea-NWHI

Two ethics in competition:
resource conservation ethic-maximum use based on greatest good for everyone, usually preservation
multiple use lands-designated lands for grazing, timber, minerals

These guys again:
Conservation movement: Important peeps
Ralph Waldo Emerson-"Nature" "behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_Waldo_Emerson

Henry David Thoreau-Walden "truth in nature and wilderness over the deceits of urban civilization"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_David_Thoreau

Teddy Roosevelt- ca. 1900, National Parks
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Roosevelt
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/national%20parks/
first two minutes, start again at 7:00-10:00
Note influence of railroads in parks as well as all lands in the west (Leland Stanford, for example)
"Americans think 100 years is a long time, and Europeans think 100 miles is a long distance..."

Aldo Leopold-environmental ethics, wildlife management, conservation, Sand County Almanac (Wisconsin)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldo_Leopold

John Muir-started the Sierra Club: "wilderness mirrors divinity, nourishes humanity and vivifies the spirit"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Muir

Rachel Carson-silent spring DDT (persistent pesticide, weakens bird egg shells), 1963:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rachel_Carson
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

Management in the US:
BLM: Bureau of land management
Grazing, ranching, monitors rangeland health, erosion

USFS: Us Forest Service
Manges timber harvesting, where, how, what trees
Old growth vs. new growth, replanting, clear cut?

Also know about FSC: Forest stewardship council:
FSC certification: no clear cut, no damage to land, replanting, selective cutting, underbrush considerations
HUGE debate over underbrush, USFS believes in regular forest fires to deplete the amount of underbrush (as in nature)
See also California and Australia wildfires: drought, no regular fires, buildup of underbrush
See Yellowstone fire of 1988-result of overgrowth of underbrush

Forests: clear cut vs. selective cut
FSC wood-how different?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forest_Stewardship_Council
Fire management: Yellowstone fire 1988
https://www.northcountrypublicradio.org/news/npr/94114095/series-overview-yellowstone-s-evolution
USFS prefers many small fires, removing flammable underbrush

NPS: National park service
Manages parks for recreation, multiple use ethic, preservation of timber, minerals and "natural curiosities"
Also significant native peoples monuments (see above)

FWS: Fish and wildlife service
Manages fishing and hunting on all public lands

Know these:
BLM: Bureau of Land Management
USFS: US Forest Service
NPS: National Park Service
FWS: Fish and Wildlife Service

NEPA: National Environmental Policy Act 1969 (why then?) mandates an EIS for all development
EIS (environmental impact statements) are new standard for any project
ESA endangered species act-often brought in where development could impact ES

UGB (Urban Growth Boundary)-see Portland
Prevents Urban Sprawl (richer folks move to the suburbs, commute, need parking, city dies from the inside, food deserts, etc.)
Portland Example of urban planning:
Tom McCall Governor of Oregon, 1967-1975
Charlie Hales Mayor of Portland 2013-2017
E2 video: Portland: Sense of Place....listen for Brad Pitt:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/e2_videos/e2%20transport/5%20Portland-sense%20of%20place.m4v

0 comments

Water Part 2: notes and WQI

quiz 11.12.19

  1. If you became a vegetarian, how would this preserve water?
  2. What two things are happening to the Ogallala aquifer and why?
  3. As the Himalayan ice pack disappears, what will be the impact on Asia?
  4. How would a sewage discharge in a river impact the DO?
Notes:
Climate change will raise sea levels
Even a rise in ocean levels of a few meters will mean saltwater intrusion into the Pearl River delta, where most of the rice for Asia is grown:
Same for Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, parts of the Amazon, Bangladesh, and any area where there is a delta like the Nile River Delta in Egypt.

Recall: Energy->Water->Food-> Culture?
Here's how you create potable (drinkable) water from seawater:


Note how much energy is needed. Some countries are considering nuclear power for this.
Conservation:
You may see a question very much like this on the AP exam in May:

You will see these calculations again soon with energy.
TCO is total cost of ownership, and should be negative
ROI is your return on investment, the amount of time until your invested money is paid off, the shorter the better
Lifetime: the lifespan of the project (washing machine, solar panels, etc.)

Whitewater, greywater, blackwater...

Section three: Water Quality Index:

http://www.water-research.net/index.php/water-treatment/water-monitoring/monitoring-the-quality-of-surfacewaters

http://www.water-research.net/watrqualindex/index.htm

http://www.pathfinderscience.net/stream/cproto4.cfm
Calculation worksheet:
http://www.pathfinderscience.net/stream/forms/WQI_worksheet.pdf


See also point source and non-point source pollution (from Poisoned Waters video, remember the Deer?)

Important: cooler water holds dissolved oxygen better (fishermen know this, so do the fish).

Clues:

High turbidity decreases DO, as does high temperature

Metals increase conductivity and are usually acidic

Nitrates and phosphates lead to dead zones

Water Quality Lab:

Lab samples

  1. Post waterfall
  2. Post power plant
  3. Everglades close to ocean
  4. Post sewage plant
  5. Best fishing spot
  6. Mine tailings runoff
  7. Snow melt river
  8. Mississippi river
  9. Chesapeake river
  10. Flood after monsoon rains
  11. Golf course runoff
  12. Eutrophied lake

Metrics:
  • DO
  • BOD
  • pH
  • temperature
  • turbidity
  • conductivity
  • nitrates
  • phosphates
Simulated locations:
Samples:
Sample A
  • DO:1.5
  • BOD:low
  • pH:7
  • temperature:30°C
  • turbidity:high
  • conductivity:low
  • nitrates:high
  • phosphates:high

Sample B
  • DO:6
  • BOD:low
  • pH:7
  • temperature:10°C
  • turbidity-low
  • conductivity-low
  • nitrates-low
  • phosphates-low

Sample C
  • DO: 4
  • BOD:low
  • pH:8
  • temperature:25°C
  • turbidity: high
  • conductivity: high
  • nitrates: high
  • phosphates: high

Sample D-
  • DO: 2
  • BOD: high
  • pH:5
  • temperature: 28°C
  • turbidity:high
  • conductivity: low
  • nitrates: low
  • phosphates: high

Sample E
  • DO: 2
  • BOD:low
  • pH:2
  • temperature:20°C
  • turbidity:high
  • conductivity: high
  • nitrates: low
  • phosphates: low

Sample F
  • DO: 1
  • BOD: high
  • pH: 4
  • temperature: 30°C
  • turbidity: high
  • conductivity: high
  • nitrates: high
  • phosphates: high

0 comments

Soils lab

APES soils lab


Soil sample location:

Soil sample depth:

Soil team members:


Overall observations:

    1. what color is the soil?
    2. is it clumped or dusty?
    3. when you grab in your fist, does it stay together?


  1. Sifting test:
    1. Mass each section of the strainer empty
    2. pour your sample into the strainer
    3. shake well
    4. mass each section
    5. subtract empty mass
    6. determine % for each level (mass/total mass)
  2. Percolation test:
    1. pour your complete sample into a massed paper cup
    2. mass the cup and sample
    3. punch a small hole in the bottom of the cup
    4. measure the depth of the soil in the sample (cm)
    5. pour water into the cup, while timing until water drips from the hole
    6. calculate cm/second for your sample
  3. Moisture content test:
    1. pour water over the sample in the percolation test until it is completely covered
    2. let the sample rest overnight
    3. mass the cup and moist soil
    4. subtract cup and dry soil to measure amount of water content
    5. calculate % water (mass of water/mass of soil)
  4. Chemical tests:
    1. mix some of your soil with water (one part soil to 5 parts water)
    2. filter through a coffee filter to get a clear liquid
    3. add the clear liquid to both sides of the soil test unit
    4. add the color capsule matching the test you are doing (green->green) to the smaller chamber
    5. shake well
    6. wait 10 minutes
    7. view in sunlight and record the color you see


Pre-lab questions:

Sifting test:

In your sifting test, you record the following masses for the empty containers:

    1. A level (top) 174 grams
    2. B level 166 grams
    3. C level 152 grams
    4. D level 140 grams
    5. E level (bottom) 126 grams

Your sample has the following masses:

A 180 grams

B 170 grams

C 160 grams

D 160 grams

E 130 grams


  1. What is the total mass for your sample?
  2. What is the % for each layer?
  3. Which layer predominates?
  4. looking at the triangle chart, where would you classify this soil?
  5. In your percolation test, you measure 23 seconds for the water to travel 5.2 cm. What is the percolation rate for this soil? How would this compare to sand or clay?
  6. In your moisture content test, you measure 120 grams of dry soil that has mass 144 grams the next day. What is the moisture content %?

Quiz 11.6.19
  1. Explain why clay soils hold water more effectively than sandy soils
  2. Which of the three key nutrients is critical for roots and fruits?
  3. Explain the 5 soil layers
  4. What is the perfect soil type, and why?

0 comments

Modules 26-28: Water

11.4.19 quiz

  1. Explain why clay soils hold water more effectively than sandy soils
  2. Which of the three key nutrients is critical for roots and fruits?
  3. Explain the 5 soil layers
  4. What is the perfect soil type, and why?

Recall:
Energy->Water->Food->Culture

Water: key points

Section one: What is it, where is it: freshwater, saltwater, how it moves, aquifers and reservoirs, impact of climate change, water wars

Section two: Pollution:

Often human driven (anthropogenic): Nutrient, thermal, BOD, sediment

Almost always human driven: Pathogens, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals, radioactive chemicals

Section three: Water Quality index:

DO, BOD, pH, temp, turbidity, conductivity, nitrates (NO3), phosphates (PO4)


Section one: What is it, where is it?

Where is the water?
How does it get there?

Click for full-size image
Click for full-size image


Aquifers:


Click for full-size image

Huge aquifer-note recharge time is in centuries, pesticides in NE

Click for full-size image
Water diversion (e.g. rivers)

Two critical issues for China:
Pearl river delta and salt intrusion (sea level rise)
Vanishing Himalayan Glaciers (no farming in western China):
Glaciers
Glaciers are the water towers for Asia...
Rivers impacted:
Ganges, Yangtze, Yellow, Mekong, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Indu, Salween,




Aral Sea (asia minor)

Click for full-size image
Water disputes:

Click for full-size image

Section two: Pollution
Big ideas:
1. Rivers are continuous, so easier to find sources along the route (continuity analysis: all sources add to total)
2. Groundwater is harder to determine point sources, as flow is over larger area (not confined by river banks) and there is no continuity analysis possible (we don't know sources and sinks)
3. Oceans are the hardest to trace, and impact everyone eventually, just like the atmosphere, only without the rain, and it is wetter. And full of fish.
Water Pollution categories:







Pollutant list:

Click for full-size image



Nitrate levels (note farming regions):

Why is there a hypoxic zone there?

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD):
Better diagram:

Click for full-size image


Note that temperature changes DO (dissolved oxygen) content, so does physical agitation (aeration).
Section three: Water Quality Index:

http://www.water-research.net/index.php/water-treatment/water-monitoring/monitoring-the-quality-of-surfacewaters

http://www.water-research.net/watrqualindex/index.htm

http://www.pathfinderscience.net/stream/cproto4.cfm
Calculation worksheet:
http://www.pathfinderscience.net/stream/forms/WQI_worksheet.pdf


See also point source and non-point source pollution (from Poisoned Waters video, remember the Deer?)

Important: cooler water holds dissolved oxygen better (fishermen know this, so do the fish).

Water Quality Lab:

Lab samples

  1. Post waterfall
  2. Post power plant
  3. Everglades close to ocean
  4. Post sewage plant
  5. Best fishing spot
  6. Mine tailings runoff
  7. Snow melt river
  8. Mississippi river
  9. Chesapeake river
  10. Flood after monsoon rains
  11. Golf course runoff
  12. Eutrophied lake

Metrics:
  • DO
  • BOD
  • pH
  • temperature
  • turbidity
  • conductivity
  • nitrates
  • phosphates
Simulated locations:
Samples:
Sample A
  • DO:1.5
  • BOD:low
  • pH:7
  • temperature:30°C
  • turbidity:high
  • conductivity:low
  • nitrates:high
  • phosphates:high

Sample B
  • DO:6
  • BOD:low
  • pH:7
  • temperature:10°C
  • turbidity-low
  • conductivity-low
  • nitrates-low
  • phosphates-low

Sample C
  • DO: 4
  • BOD:low
  • pH:8
  • temperature:25°C
  • turbidity: high
  • conductivity: high
  • nitrates: high
  • phosphates: high

Sample D-
  • DO: 2
  • BOD: high
  • pH:5
  • temperature: 28°C
  • turbidity:high
  • conductivity: low
  • nitrates: low
  • phosphates: high

Sample E
  • DO: 2
  • BOD:low
  • pH:2
  • temperature:20°C
  • turbidity:high
  • conductivity: high
  • nitrates: low
  • phosphates: low

Sample F
  • DO: 1
  • BOD: high
  • pH: 4
  • temperature: 30°C
  • turbidity: high
  • conductivity: high
  • nitrates: high
  • phosphates: high

0 comments

Module 25 Soils

10.31.19 quiz

  1. What rocks would you commonly find here on the island of Hawai’i?
  2. Which of the three types of rock are these?
  3. Why would a house near the epicenter see more damage than one a few miles away (hint: the energy is not that different, it is about the waves)
  4. Explain the formation of the Hawaiian island chain
Next: Rocks Module 25
Igneous (fire)
Sedimentary (layers)
Metamorphic (Kafka rocks, just kidding: changed by heat and pressure)
Click for full-size image




Igneous= directly from magma, can be either basalt (low melting point, like our island or oceanic plates) or granite (lighter, what continents are made of)
Granite breaks down into light colored sand, makes for fertile soil. Basalt (like us) can make sand too, but less fertile (e.g. black sand beach).

Sedimentary= just like it sounds, from mud, sand or dust, usually in layers.

Metamorphic= changed by heat and/or pressure (slate, marble or coal)

Soil-formed by weathering (chemical or physical) of parent rock
Erosion can be by water or air (wind)

Click for full-size image


These used to be just A, B, C layers
E layer was added (eluviated layer-where water washes out nutrients)
O layer was added (overlayer-detritus)

Latest version:



Soil structure (physical analysis)


Click for full-size image
n.b. the trick to reading the lines is always look clockwise...

Finer soils drain slowly (capillary action), hold nutrients (because of reduced water flow), and settle last in rivers
Coarse soils (e.g. sand) drain quickly, are nutrient poor (water washed the nutrients away) and settle first in rivers
Loam is the term for a perfect balance of these inorganic soil types
Farmers refer to "tilth" of a soil, which includes ability to hold water, organic content and more:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tilth

Organic matter is not included here: it holds water and decomposes, releasing nutrients
For healthy soil, we need both the physical (above), organic and chemical systems to balance.

Chemical analysis:
N=nitrogen: critical for plant growth
P=phosphorus: roots and fruits
K= Kalium=Potasssium=potash: plant immunity

pH is the Hydrogen ion content: pH of 7 is neutral water, others may have other values
Hydroponics use a term EC for Electrical conductivity, which is a measure of dissolved ions in solution.
1.5-2.5 is ideal for most hydroponic systems, depending on plant types

See also CEC: Cation exchange capacity

Lab:
Physical tests----
  • Gross analysis: how does the soil feel in your hands: like clay or sand? Does it have organic matter? Can you squeeze it and have it hold shape (tilth)? What color do you see?
  • Percolation test: time it takes water to move through a soil sample, measured in cm/second. Measure the seconds, and the cm depth of your soil, divide.
  • Sedimentation test: settled layers after mixing with water, measure total thickness, then layer thickness, present at percentage of total
  • Dry sifting test: drop your sample into the sifter column, measure mass of each layer
Chemical tests----
  • Decant (pour off) liquid from the sedimentation test above, use for the pH test kit
  • N test: same with the N soil test kit
  • P test: same with the P soil test kit
  • K test: same with the K soil test kit
  • (optional) organic matter test: bake the sample, mass before and after, difference is organic matter

Desertification:
Usually from removal of native plants, overgrazing and/or over-irrigation with well water (salinization)
Solutions:

Click for full-size image

Click for full-size image

See also chapter 12 in the Froggie book...

0 comments

Modules 24-25 Earth and soils

10.28.19 quiz

  1. Caitlinland is a magical kingdom with a high degree of civilization, a low constant birth rate, a low death rate, and a high degree of female reproductive rights. What stage of the demographic model is Catilinland?
  2. Syriana is a poor nation with limited access to clean water, and firmly in stage one of the demographic model. What else would we see if we visited there?
  3. As Syriana increased its access to clean water, what would change and why?
  4. What is common demographically with Germany, Italy and Japan, and what will this cause?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xzAOhyOtfqc

Big picture: 15 by ago...
Big bang, then stars which live for about 10 BY, then...
Nova, supernova, neutron stars


4.5 by ago-solar system (including bits from supernovae)
When first stars die as supernovae (about 10 BY into their life), the heat and pressure created all elements beyond Iron on the periodic table
so...
Anything on our planet that is lower than Iron on the periodic table, came from the explosion of an older star, including stuff inside YOU.
Earth forms from molten elements as our solar system is formed, (called an accretion disc) including Uranium
(reason for heat still in the core-see the minister estimate of Sunday afternoon creation date)

Geo time: ("deep time")


Click for full-size image
You can look up the K-T extinction online, it happened 65MY ago. Look up the dude that discovered it...


See videos: How the earth was made...
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/how%20the%20earth%20was%20made/

Layers: (onion boy)
Core-Mantle-Crust-think of an apple



Core is actually two bits: solid inner iron and nickel, liquid outside that bit. It spins, giving us a weak magnetic field
How do we know this? Nuclear bomb testing and our global seismic sensor network
Hint: the inner part spins around in the opposite direction every 60-80 MY, so the earth's magnetic field actually FLIPS (this is important for later-or sooner)


10.29.19 quiz

  1. How do we know about the core of the earth?
  2. Why are our Hawaiian volcanoes different from those in Seattle?
  3. How do we know about the drift of the continents?
  4. Near a subduction zone, what type of volcanoes would form, and why?
Plate Tectonics-look up this guy: Wegener. Meteorologist (weather guy), so the geo folks laughed at him...
The players:
Magma-(Dr. Evil voice here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVo1S52xdpI)
Asthenosphere-"sticky rock" (from Greek ἀσθενής asthenḗs 'weak' + "sphere")
Lithosphere-floating rock (litho = stone) (Ancient Greek: λίθος [lithos] for "rocky", and σφαίρα [sphaira] for "sphere")
Continents-even more floaty, made of lighter rock (granite) that formed from interaction of magma with oceans

Plates are large, float on the Asthenosphere
Continents are like rafts on the Asthenosphere, more buoyant than the plates
The plates can slide under each other (subduction zones), crash into each other (Himalayas), next to each other (transform faults), and are formed at spreading zones (divergent boundaries)
Click for full-size image

Check out this diagram: note the red (spreading) and the blue (subducting), esp. look at Chile---->

Click for full-size image
What mountains are in Chile?
Volcanoes are the key:
Two kinds of volcanoes: Andesitic (pointy), Basaltic (runny, look out your window)
Andesite-from pressure and heat as plates subduct (sticky, high silica content, e.g. Andes mountains)
Basalt-from ocean crust, lots of water, makes for weak, runny magma, formed as magma pushes through watery ocean plates
Subduction zones:



Note the sticky stuff boiling up in red-this is why the Andesitic volcanoes are sticky, and always found near subduction zones (Andes, Cascades, Japan, Italy, etc.)
Note also the trench where the subduction zone goes down: this is the origin of the Chilean/Peruvian trench we covered in the El Nino notes, as well as the deepest part of the ocean: the Marianas Trench, which is 7 MILES deep. Whoa!

Click for full-size image
Historic data shows subduction zone quakes that would create a tsunami 1000' high or more on the pacific northwest coast, flooding everything west of I-5.

Click for full-size image
Look at all of the earthquakes (red dots) as the plate subducts

Two things to take-away about subduction zones:
1. subduction zones create ANDESITIC (pointy) volcanoes, which are high in silica, and sticky like thick pancake batter.
2. subduction zones create lots of deep focus earthquakes.


Spreading zones:
--See the submarine notes
What the heck is this?

This might help:


Ok, now look at the Oregon coastline:




Note the symmetry along the ridge crest. This was mapped in WWII in an attempt to detect metallic submarines using magnetic sensors on ships. Later on airplanes like this:

Click for full-size image


You will see these practicing at the Kona airport, look out for them. They are spying on submarines. Not ours.




Click for full-size image

Remember the earth magnetic field changing?


Hot spots:
Usually in the middle of an oceanic plate, but can also be mid continent (e.g. Yellowstone supervolcano caldera)
Hot spots-basalt-low silica content, melts easier (e.g. look out the window)
Look at the Hawaii island chain on google earth (underwater version)
While you are at it, look for the Nuuanu landslide that created a 4000' tsunami
You can also look at the Mauna Loa simulated tsunami on youtube...
Click for full-size image

Note the tracking of the pacific plate:

This is what happens to a shield volcano when it "calves" one side, in this case the north east side, in the Nuuanu landslide, one of the largest landslides on earth, causing a tsunami that deposited coral on the top of Mt. Kaala, 4055 ft. high...







Earthquakes:

Click for full-size image
then there's the famous "notmy" fault...

Epicenter is the place ON THE SURFACE above the hypocenter (true origin) or earthquake FOCUS. Deeper hypocentric quakes often feel "longer", while shallow hypocentric quakes feel "sharp".



How do we find these?
Seismographs:
P waves travel by compression (comPression). These are longitudinal waves, like sound. They can travel through liquid or solid.
S waves travel by shear (Shear). These are transverse waves, like a slinky. They can only travel through solids.

This is how we know what the inside of the earth looks like:
This data was found by spying on atomic bomb tests in the 1950's, not because we wanted to know about the guts of our planet...

Ok, back to earthquakes.
Suppose you have a house on posts (called "post and pier" construction). An earthquake happens some distance away. First your house moves back and forth (P wave, much faster at 8 km/sec). After a time, your house bounces up and down from the S waves (slower at 3 km/second).
If you are far away, these are separated by different arrival times.
If you are near the epicenter, they hit at the same time...up, over, down=your house is demolished

We use this difference to calculate distance from the epicenter (and hypocenter if you are interested) using delay times on the seismograph
Click for full-size image


Look at the HPA seismograph here:
http://www.fdsn.org/networks/detail/PT/
and our Hawaii quakes here:
https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo/hvo_earthquakes.html
Click on some earthquakes and note the depth and the seismic image.

Next: Rocks Module 25
Igneous (fire)
Sedimentary (layers)
Metamorphic (Kafka rocks, just kidding: changed by heat and pressure)

Click for full-size image

Igneous= directly from magma, can be either basalt (low melting point, like our island or oceanic plates) or granite (lighter, what continents are made of)
Granite breaks down into light colored sand, makes for fertile soil. Basalt (like us) can make sand too, but less fertile (e.g. black sand beach).

Sedimentary= just like it sounds, from mud, sand or dust, usually in layers.

Metamorphic= changed by heat and/or pressure (slate, marble or coal)

Soil-formed by weathering (chemical or physical) of parent rock
Erosion can be by water or air (wind)

Soil Horizons:
Click for full-size image


Click for full-size image

Our Soil Sieve has 4 filters, with 5 layers:
mesh 5 = 4 mm
mesh 10 = 2 mm
mesh 60 = .25 mm
mesh 230 = 0.063 mm

Basically, most of what you find is silt and clay...

0 comments

Module 23, 24: Human Populations

10.18.19 quiz

  1. Describe the community succession from the coast to Waimea, uphill.
  2. Describe the 4 survivorship curves
  3. Compare parasitism with predation
  4. Compare mutualism with commensalism
Extra credit: which one is more gross: a lamprey or a remora?
----------------------------------------

10.22.19 quiz

  1. When your rabbit population peaked, what was the rabbit and lynx population?
  2. When the lynx population peaked, what was your rabbit and lynx population?
  3. How would the graphs look if the predator were cold blooded?
  4. How could this model be used to map the spread of a disease?
----------------------------------------
First of all a flow diagram:
Click for full-size image
Note that this is for a country, not the planet, since people (so far) are not leaving the planet...or arriving from elsewhere.
National version as a formula:


If you look at the planet as a whole (sans aliens or Elon Musk):


so, there is a neat shorthand formula for this:

Which is an estimate, the real number is 69.3 (why? look below if you want to know)
Here is an example:


Note that as the growth rate increases, the doubling time decreases.
Look for this on the AP as multiples/fractions of 70: 14, 28, 35, and so on...

Now, to babies: TFR is the total number of babies a woman will have in her lifetime.
Replacement level fertility (RLF) is just above 2.0, (usually 2.1, as some babies don't reproduce or make it to reproductive age).
What does this mean in Japan, where young people are not having babies?

RLF depends on developed/developing nations as well (clean water, medical care, access to food, war)
Life expectancy: depends on these as well...
Infant mortality: under age 1 (reason for big Hawaiian one year birthdays)
child mortality: under 5

Look up life expectancy in 1900...
Look up the average family size and how many made it to age of 5 in 1900
What portion of the US population was farmers then?


Age structure diagrams/population pyramids-check these out: UAE, Japan, Sudan, Iraq/Iran, Russia----WHY?
See also baby boom and boom echoes...
Check this out:
https://www.populationpyramid.net/world/2018/
---------------------------------------

10.25.19 quiz

  1. Give an example of how you might see the baby boom and boom echo on your population diagrams.
  2. You work for the UN tracking two nations: Kaimania and Ansonia. Kaimania has a growth rate of 14% and Ansonia has a growth rate of 3.5%. What are the doubling times for each?
  3. Kaimania has an immigration rate of 4%, a CDR of 2%, a CBR of 8% and an emigration rate of 2%. What is the growth rate for Kaimania?
  4. Why are first year birthdays such a big deal in some cultures?
-----------------------------------------

...and look these up:
  1. Go to 1950 and look at the US population. Look again in 1960. Where is the baby boom? Why were there so few babies born during 1940-45?
  2. If you were a 42 year old American in 2000, when were you born? How old are your kids? Find the "boom echo".
  3. Find the impact of the Iran/Iraq war of 1980-89, which side had the biggest impact? If you were a 35 year old Iraqi man in 1995, how old were you during this war?
  4. If you are a 30 year old German man in 1950, when were you born? How old were you in WWII (1936-1945)?
  5. If you were a 35 year old woman in Japan in 1960, why are there so few men to choose from?
  6. Look at the UK in 1960. Where are the casualties of WWII, and are they both male and female? Explain.
  7. What the heck is going on in UAE?
  8. Look at Russia in 1960. What gaps do you see? Why?
  9. Information about China is very spotty-why would this be? See if you can find the impact of the one-child policy from 1979-2016.
  10. Compare present day Japan to Africa. What issues will they need to address?
  11. Look at present day Italy, Japan and Germany. What is common?
  12. Compare present day India and China. What do you see?

Terms:

Fecundity: ability to reproduce

Fertility: production of offspring

CBR: crude birth rate: births per 1000 people

TFR: total fertility rate: total kids per woman in her lifetime (25-30!)

ZPG: zero population growth: 5+ where infant mortality is high, 2.1 is normal

China: was 6 -> 1.8 (below replacement level since 1979, one child policy)

140/100 male to female ratio: why?

Global TFR is 2.6

CDR: crude death rate: deaths per 1000

Why a life span? mitochondrial DNA...

1900 Indian man had life expectancy of 23!

Not now, reasons: nutrition CLEAN WATER, sanitation, education

75 men, 85 women (testosterone, war, "hold my beer and watch this!")

Dependency ratio; baby boomers and your future: how many workers to retirees

imagine your life at your age in other countries...

Russia low TFR: alcoholism and antibiotic resistant Tuberculosis


https://www.gapminder.org/tools/#_chart-type=bubbles

https://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_on_global_population_growth

Module 23 Demographic Transition

Better diagram:

Another possible version:
Click for full-size image



IPAT formula:


GDP vs. GNP (nationalism, global economy)

Urban areas, UGB (Portland)


See also Ecological Footprint Calculator:


http://www.footprintnetwork.org/resources/footprint-calculator/

https://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_shows_the_best_stats_you_ve_ever_seen

Rule of 70, er 69.3...The TRUTH!
We know that Nt =Noe^rt
When Nt/No = 2, this is the doubling time
ln (Nt/No) = ln (e^rt)
ln(e^x) = x just like square root of x squared is x. They are reverse of each other...
ln (2) = 0.693 = rt
So...
0.693/r = t2, the "doubling time"
But wait! we saw 70, not .693...
Growth rates are in percent (part/100) so the percents cancel out, meaning you can just use percent as a number, like 14%.
You will certainly see this on an AP exam, usually as a multiple or fraction of 70: 14, 28, 35, 7, 3.5...
Rule of 70 rules! (or actually the rule of 69.3)....

See Predator Prey lab below for Population simulation worksheets

0 comments

Modules 18-21 Population ecology

Module 18-abundance and distribution
Start with this:
Click for full-size image

We covered ecosystem energy and matter a few weeks ago, this chapter is about population ecology.
--------------------
Quiz: 10.16.19:
  1. What three things in order are necessary for evolution to succeed?
  2. What are the characteristics of an r specific species. Give an example.
  3. What are the characteristics of a K specific species. Give an example as well.
  4. The population of wolves may rise and fall along with rabbits, but not at the same time. Explain why.
--------------------
Population dynamics

Notation: Pop size is represented as N (note not "n"): population size within a defined area at a specific time (brings in migration).

Check out the diagrams on pop distribution: random, uniform and clumped. Important vis a vis biodiversity
Structures: age and gender (sex)

Density dependent factor: e.g. food or reproductive rate in rats (more rats, lower fecundity)
Something that influences reproduction or survival...
Density IN-dependent factors: storms, disasters, fires (note density independent: one bambi or 100 bambi all perish in the same fire)

Limiting resource: usually food, but could include space, nutrients, etc.

Carrying capacity: K (note not "k"): how many individuals an environment can support

Module 19: growth models
Check this out:

This is called exponential growth, or "J shaped growth"
Note that it has no end, or limiting factor.
Small r is the growth rate. If you have had physics (yay!) this is usually "k" in some examples, or related to RC decay/growth.
Learning this equation is VERY useful.
Note that it depends on two things: the amount in the population (No) and the growth rate (r)
Here is an example:
Click for full-size image



Many systems follow J shaped exponential growth until they run out of food or space, then there is overshoot and die-off. A more ideal version of this is the S shaped curve, called logistic growth:


Here is a formula for logistic growth that we'll discuss:

Click for full-size image
dN/dt is just the rate of population growth (some of you may see this as the slope of the S curve)
Note that when the ratio N/K is very small, the parentheses become 1, so the formula is rate = rN
As N/K nears one (number of critters equals carrying capacity) the term in the parentheses becomes zero, so no growth.
Note also that if N/K is GREATER than one, the growth rate (slope of the curve) become negative. This is overshoot and die off.
------

Logistic growth worksheet

First: exponential growth:

Imagine 10 imaginary rabbits (No=10)

Assume r = 0.5 (50 percent growth rate, or each rabbit makes 0.5 rabbits per year)

Find the population 2 years later:

Nt = Noe^rt

Nt = 10e^0.5*2

Nt = 27 rabbits

After 4 years:

After 10 years:

———

Next, use the logistic growth formula, same data, with a carrying capacity (K) of 100:

Small population: 10 rabbits

∆N/∆t = rN(1-N/K)

= 0.5*10(1-10/100)

= 5(1-0.1)

= 5(0.9)

= 4.5 rabbits per year

Find the rabbits per year for these populations:

Medium population: 27 rabbits

Near K: 74 rabbits

Above K: 1489 rabbits

You can use the Apple Grapher app to see this (look in your Utilities folder):




Quiz: 10.17.19

10.17.19 quiz (you may use your worksheet from Wednesday)

  1. 30 rabbits live on an island with carrying capacity 200. They reproduce at a rate of 0.5 per year. How many rabbits will be on the island after 3 years?
  2. What will be the slope of the growth curve at this point?



Next: predator/prey phase diagrams
Check this out:

Click for full-size image
Note the phase (timing) relationship between the abundance of the food and the population of the prey, then the predator.
Predator Prey Lab:
Download file "predator-prey-simulation12.pdf"
Worksheet: (uses Numbers application)
Download file "Population Growth Model.numbers"
Worksheet: excel version:
Download file "Population Growth Model.xls"
Questions:
Download file "ESI-24-modeling_population_growth.pdf"

Now we can discuss generalizations of r and K strategists:
Where do you fit in? How about Nemo?


There is a fourth: deer. How would you imagine this curve?
Related:
I just learned last week another reason why genocides are so damaging to cultures: If an oral tradition (e.g. Hawaiians) are decimated by smallpox for example, it is the very old (the holders of the legends and history) and the very young (those who have time to listen, not work, and will then grow up and tell their kids) that are gone. This is a sort of cultural bottleneck...

Next:
Module 20: Community ecology
Competitive exclusion principle: two species competing for the same resources cannot co-exist, leads to...
Resource partitioning: time, space, type of food (one species picks one, the other survives)
Relationships:
Predation: predator and prey, one lives, the other dies
Symbiotic:
Mutualism: both benefit
Commensalism: one benefits, no harm to the other
Parasitism: one benefits, harm to other
quizlet review



keystone species vs. indicator species

Keystone species-many others depend on it

Indicator species-signal health of a system

Succession: one species takes over another in time

Module 21: Community Succession

Primary succession: From bare rock, no soil: (e.g. lichen)

Click for full-size image


Secondary succession: from disturbed area with soil (e.g. after a fire)

Pioneer species: arrives first, sets up reliable system

Aquatic succession: from stream to pond to shallow pond to marsh

Island biogeography (like here in Waimea): habitat size AND distance from others influences diversity (e.g. birds)


Check out an alternate presentation of these in the Withgott text, with a special section about our island:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/texts/withgott/withgott%206e/3-4.pdf

Frog book chapter 5:

Click for full-size image

0 comments

Modules 15-17 Evolution

Quiz: 10.14.19:

10.14.19:

  1. Your pond has only one color goldfish, what is the Biodiversity index?
  2. Another pond has equal numbers of 4 color fish, what do you estimate the index for this to be?
  3. Use your calculator to determine the H value for this pond:

100 fish total

30 “one fish”

30 “two fish”

20 “red fish”

20 “blue fish”


The formula is below:

H = -((x/n*ln(x/n)) + (x/n*ln(x/n)) + (x/n*ln(x/n)) + (x/n*ln(x/n)))


Mod 15: Evolution (see also chapter 5 in the Froggie book)
Three conditions must be met:
1. genetic variation (mutation)
2. some stress that favors this variation (adaptation)
3. survivors procreate, pass on the variation (reproduction)

Genotype: set of genes (dominant and recessive)
Phenotype: traits expressed in a living creature

Genetic drift-pretty much what it sounds like
Bottleneck effect-VERY important: when a species is almost extinct, there is little variation in the gene pool of the survivors, even if their population rebounds (e.g. whales)

Founder effect: random selection of survivors, creating a new gene pool (birds, gilligan)

mod 16: speciation
Geographic isolation (e.g. Galapagos) also found where we disturb natural habitats with roads
Causes Allo (other) Patric (father) speciation
Eventually reproductive isolation will result: different breeds will not be able to procreate

There is another more rare form of speciation: Sympatric ("same father"), from polyploidy, ("many chromosomes")

GMO: see roundup ready corn and wheat, freeze proof tomatoes and others.
Not to be confused with Dwarf Wheat and Norman Borlaug (see population chapters for more on this).
Dwarf wheat was a simple hybrid, not a GMO.
Look up "gene guns" and CRISPR

mod 17: niches and species distribution
Check this out:

You'll see another like this in population distributions...
Range of tolerance-where it can survive
Fundamental niche-happy place
Realized niche-de facto place
Distribution-areas where they live (we'll see more of this in the chapter on population distributions: random, scattered, patterned)

0 comments

Lab: biodiversity

Shannon's index of diversity (H):


  1. pour into your “pond” a random number of colored goldfish. Calculate the total, the number for each color, and the Shannon’s index for this trial:

Example:

n = 37

yellow = 25/37 = 0.675

orange = 6/37 = 0.162

green = 1/37 = 0.027

red = 5/37 = 0.135

H = (.675*-.393) + (.162*-1.82) + (.027*-3.61) + (.135* -2.00)

H = .265 + .294 + .097 + .27

H = 0.926

  1. Repeat with both a more diverse and a monoculture ecosystem. What do you notice about the range of H?
  2. Statistics folks use Chi-squared analysis of a system like this. How could you use this?
  3. Imagine two ponds separated by 10 kilometers. How could you prove that they were once connected?
Original biodiversity, Pond one:

n total =

yellow fish (one fish)

orange fish (two fish)

red fish (red fish)

green fish (blue fish)

x for each color





x/n





ln (x/n)





x/n * ln(x/n)





H total















Low biodiversity: pond two:





n total =

yellow fish (one fish)

orange fish (two fish)

red fish (red fish)

green fish (blue fish)

x for each color





x/n





ln (x/n)





x/n * ln(x/n)





H total






High biodiversity: pond three

n total =

yellow fish (one fish)

orange fish (two fish)

red fish (red fish)

green fish (blue fish)

x for each color





x/n





ln (x/n)





x/n * ln(x/n)





H total























0 comments

Lab: gambling with biomes

Gambling with biomes


  1. Below is a list of locations around the world. Roll the dice and using your vast knowledge of biomes and the high tech globes on your desk, determine the biome and type of life you might find there.
  2. In the next round reverse the process with the biome list below, determining the locations around the globe.


Locations:

  1. Chile
  2. Zambia
  3. Philippines
  4. Oklahoma
  5. San Luis Obispo
  6. Germany
  7. Seattle
  8. Greenland
  9. Ontario Canada
  10. Tunisia
  11. North Pole
  12. Kamuela


Biomes:

  1. tundra
  2. boreal forest
  3. temperate rain forest
  4. temperate seasonal forest
  5. woodlands
  6. temperate grassland
  7. tropical rain forest
  8. savannah
  9. desert
  10. cold desert
  11. taiga
  12. tropical seasonal forest

0 comments

Biodiversity and Extinction, Ch. 5: modules 14-17

10.8.19:

  1. Why is water depth related to life?
  2. What impacts coral most: temperature, pH or salinity?
  3. Louisiana development removed mangrove swamps. How did this change the impact of Hurricane Katrina?
  4. What is a “littoral Navy”?

Text: p. 147 chapter end questions:
Download file "ch. 4.pdf"
Unit 2 questions:
Download file "Unit 2.pdf"
Unit 2 from Cliff notes 2011:
Download file "cliff unit 2.pdf"
Mod 14: Biodiversity: (see also chapter 7 in Froggie book)


Click for full-size image



Species diversity:
richness vs. evenness. richness = number of species, evenness = balanced proportions
Click for full-size image

We can calculate biodiversity:
Click for full-size image


Mod 15: Evolution
Three conditions must be met:
1. genetic variation (mutation)
2. some stress that favors this variation (adaptation)
3. survivors procreate, pass on the variation (reproduction)

Genotype: set of genes (dominant and recessive)
Phenotype: traits expressed in a living creature

Genetic drift-pretty much what it sounds like
Bottleneck effect-VERY important: when a species is almost extinct, there is little variation in the gene pool of the survivors, even if their population rebounds (e.g. whales)

Founder effect: random selection of survivors, creating a new gene pool (birds, gilligan)

mod 16: speciation
Geographic isolation (e.g. Galapagos) also found where we disturb natural habitats with roads
Causes Allo (other) Patric (father) speciation
Eventually reproductive isolation will result: different breeds will not be able to procreate

There is another more rare form of speciation: Sympatric ("same father"), from polyploidy, ("many chromosomes")

GMO: see roundup ready corn and wheat, freeze proof tomatoes and others.
Not to be confused with Dwarf Wheat and Norman Borlaug (see population chapters for more on this).
Dwarf wheat was a simple hybrid, not a GMO.
Look up "gene guns" and CRISPR

mod 17: niches and species distribution
Check this out:

You'll see another like this in population distributions...
Range of tolerance-where it can survive
Fundamental niche-happy place
Realized niche-de facto place
Distribution-areas where they live (we'll see more of this in the chapter on population distributions: random, scattered, patterned)

0 comments

Module 13-aquatic biomes

Freshwater:
Riparian=river
Limnotic=lakes

Lakes:
Shallow shore area=littoral (means shallow), see the "littoral Navy", photosynthesis here (shallow, light shines through)
Open water area=limnetic zone, no rooted plants (too deep), phytoplankton here, only as deep as sunlight can penetrate
Deep water=profundal ("profound") or deep zone: no light penetrates, bacterial decomposition.
Bottom=benthic zone: mud, dark, cloudy

Click for full-size image



Productivity:
Oligo (few) trophic=low productivity
Meso (middle) trophic=medium
Eutrophic (eu=good trephien=food)=lots of productivity (sometimes too much, like in "Poisoned Waters")

Freshwater wetlands-submerged most of the time (swamps, marshes, bogs) this is the history of all coal and oil we now use

Salt marsh: usually connected to the sea, act as a coastal buffer for Hurricanes, very productive, many nutrients, lots of organic material
Mangrove swamp: special version of this in Tropical areas (e.g. Florida)

Intertidal zone: area between high and low tide

Ocean zones:
Coral reefs-see coral bleaching, pH, temperature and salinity sensitive (see Hamakua coast vs. Puako)
Intertidal zone: between high and low tide
Photic (light) zone-shallow, photosynthesis, kelp, others
Aphotic (dark) zone-too dark for photosynthesis
Chemosythesis/thermosynthesis: deepwater steam vents, based on Sulfur instead of Oxygen, bacteria generate energy with methane (CH4) and H2S (instead of H20)
Benthic=deep ocean
Pelagic=open ocean (think of big sailing ships, whales, stuff like that)
Hadal zones: like Hades: deepest, darkest zones. Weird fish, no light...

Click for full-size image

Frog book notes:
http://physics.hpa.edu/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/0dd23/Frog_book_notes_ch6_Biomes.html

Biodiversity next:
http://physics.hpa.edu/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/8d560/Mod_14151617biodiversity_chapter_5.html

0 comments

Biome game


Clues:
Click for full-size image
Find these places in the first three climatographs:
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
San Diego, California
Belem, Brazil







Find these biomes below:

tropical rain forest

tropical savanna

desert

temperate grasslands

temperate deciduous forest

temperate rain forest

boreal forest

tundra
















Find these biomes:

Tropical Savanna

Temperate Grassland

Chaparral

Desert

Tundra

Taiga

Temperate Deciduous Forest

Tropical Rain Forest










0 comments

module 12-land biomes

Huh? Terrestrial=earth vs. aquatic, having to do with ducks...

9 Biomes are usually defined by precipitation (rain, fog, others) and temperature.
Big Island has 8 of the 9 biomes, or in the 12 biome model, we have 11/12, or 9 of 13, or 10 of 14 in another model. Many models...
https://www.hawaiimagazine.com/content/hawaii-has-10-worlds-14-climate-zones-explorers-guide-each-them

Traveling up a mountain is like crossing biomes. Check this out:
Imagine driving from Hamakua or Hilo up to the summit of Mauna Kea: tropical rain forest to temperate (mild) rain forest to boreal (north) forest to tundra. There is even a glacier up on Mauna Kea. Cool.
This would be like starting in the upper right corner of the diagram and moving diagonally down and to the left.

Now check out the planet:

Click for full-size image

Notice the horizontal bands. If you've read "Guns Germs and Steel" you know that humans migrated horizontally, so their crops and livestock would thrive in similar biomes. See? Migrating north to south is tough.

Now look at this:

Click for full-size image




These diagrams are how we describe biomes without a cool map. The blue line is the amount of rainfall, with units on the RIGHT side of the graph. The red line is the temperature, with units on the LEFT side of the graph. The shaded region in the months below (jfmamjjasond) is the growing season when temperatures are above freezing. When the precipitation line is above the temperature line, growth is limited by temperature (e.g. freezing). When the blue line is below the red line, growth is limited by precipitation (e.g. the desert).

Start with the north: Tundra is what you'd see in Alaska. Permafrost is soon to be in the news. It is made of permanently frozen ground a few feet below the surface. Even roots cannot penetrate it, so some trees grow in a stunted fashion. It is also composed of frozen organic matter, which when it melts will decompose, releasing CO2 and CH4 (methane), which is 20x as powerful as CO2 as a greenhouse gas.

Tundra:

Note the cool temp, so growth is determined by temp, not rainfall. Lots of snow here, and little liquid water for plants, so yeah, mainly snow and glaciers.

Contrast that with the boreal (north) forest:

Note the short growing season. Any plants that survive usually have an oily sap (pine trees, evergreens) that does not freeze. Also note the serious cold in the winter-animals have to adapt to these (fur, hibernation, etc.)

Temperate (mild) forests are nicer, longer growing season, and rarely freeze. They are usually near the ocean, so they do not freeze (ocean is a huge heat sink). The often have lots of rain (think of Seattle). You may recall these are places where the surface parts of Ferrell and Polar cells converge, bringing in clouds and as these clouds rise into the atmosphere, they release their water as precipitation.


Temperate (mild) seasonal forest actually has seasons:
Deciduous trees can live here, like maple and oak. It gets close to freezing, but no real dry season.

Woodland/shrubland is like much of southern California, or the Mediterranean. Wine can grow here:

Note it never really freezes, but growth is determined by precipitation (blue line is below the red line). This is also known as "chaparral" or the "fynbos" or "nice forest" in Afrikaans (South Africa). Look up the main wine regions of the world, they will fit this biome.

Temperate grassland/cold desert is a dry, grassy area, like Oklahoma, although it does get very cold there, so think more of Texas, or the Gobi desert. Again, growth is rain limited: (you may recall these are near Hadley/Ferrel cell subsidence, so dry air from space falls here)


Tropical rainforest is the rainiest of them all, and much of our island has this near the shore. Warm temperatures, and paradoxically poor soil nutrition (all of the nutrients are in the plants). On Mt. Waialeale on Kauai, the rainfall is 480 INCHES per year, 2.5 times as high as the high point on the chart below:


Africa and Brazil hold the next biome: Savanna or tropical seasonal forest. Think of Madagascar (the film): not many large trees, room for animals to roam, lots of grass, happy lions, maybe a bossy penguin or two...
Growth dependent on rainfall: (blue line below red one)


Finally, the subtropical desert biome, like what you'd see in the Sahara desert (another film), or most of Australia, the Atacama in Chile, the Mojave desert in California, and some of Mexico. Note the Gobi desert is not on this list-too cold. Again, note these areas are where dry air subsides (falls) from the Hadley and Ferrell cells.


0 comments