e2: Paris and planes


Paris velib

  1. Why did Paris decide to support mass transit? What are the benefits?
  2. When did the policy shifts start happening?

  3. How much traffic are they planning to cut by 2020?
  4. Where did the space for public transport come from?

  5. What does Velib stand for? What is the project’s aim?
  6. What are the benefits of the velibe? (Environmentally and Economically)
  7. How did they encourage the use of bikes (since 2005)?
  8. What is the "21st century mode of transport"?

  9. What made Paris so successful compared to other countries (Amsterdam)?
  10. Which businesses has benefited from this new change?
  11. How does Velib encourage short trips over leisure use? Why do they do this?
  12. How are the bicycles built and designed? Why?
  13. What do they mean by people seeing it as “grandpa’s bike”?
  14. What was taken into consideration with the specific design of Velib bikes?
  15. What problem has the Velib program encountered in terms of the terrain of Paris?
  16. How did they use the cities geography to their advantage?
  17. How is Velib a social technology?
  18. How does the bike repair boat work?
  19. What advantage does Velib have over the subway and the bus?
  20. Any good ideas?

Aviation limited

  1. What percent of the world’s transportation in powered by oil?
  2. Why do you think that the aviation impact was deemed a local problem until recently?
  3. What percent is the aviation industry growing each year?
  4. Which plane has recently become “revolutionary,” and why?
  5. At this point, what has to be sacrificed in order for the plane to be more fuel efficient?
  6. How come there are “interstates” in the air that planes fly the path of?
  7. How could access to restricted airspace help save fuel and put out less greenhouse emissions? Could this be a tool/argument to get countries that aren’t on the best terms to talk to each other?
  8. What are the “carbon offsets” that some airlines are selling?
  9. What metaphor is used to parallel what engineering a fuel is like?
  10. Which element is the hybrid airship inflated with? Why is this safer than the what the Hindenburg inflated with?


e2: paving the way

APES questions—e2 energy 3 paving the way

  1. how many gallons of gas does each american use each day?
  2. why is it encouraging that the VP of research and development (R&D) at GM says what he does?
  3. we will soon see a video about Chinese autos, one of which is called the Geely “King Kong”. is this a small car?
  4. look up Amory Lovins, what does he think represents the best solution?
  5. hydrogen is not really a fuel, but an energy transport technology. why?
  6. what was Henry Ford’s car for his wife?
  7. how many mpg did the Model T get, compared to today?
  8. how efficient is the fuel in a car? why?
  9. Vijay says the solution involves what?
  10. FiberForge is in Colorado, not the normal industrial centers, why is this important?
  11. why is stamping familiar for car makers?
  12. what is Amory’s reference to “The Graduate”? how is this relevant to you? (look it up on youtube)
  13. what are the most expensive parts of a car plant?
  14. what is the role of public policy in this solution?
  15. why is the Chevy Volt different from the Prius and the Tesla?
  16. why is the prius mileage better in the city than the freeway, the opposite of normal cars?
  17. why is the battery technology Elon Musk is developing such a game changer?
  18. why is the hydrogen fuel cell better than battery solutions?
  19. imagine you are having a conversation with your parents about getting a more efficient car. what would you tell them?
  20. since this video came out (2007), GM and other car makers were near bankruptcy, and were rescued by the US government. What was the tradeoff for this rescue?
  21. summarize Vijay’s argument at the end of the video. how would you make this happen?


e2: Seoul stream of consciousness

e2: Seoul-stream of consciousness


Cheonggyecheon-"clear water stream"

1. " A king who utilized water well, ruled well"-why?

2. Mountains and water are key elements to Feng Sui-why?

3. 600 years ago, the stream passed through many biomes-name a few

4. "Cover it up" was started in 1968-what happened to the city? Has this continued?

5. "Induced demand" means what? How could you control this if you were emperor?

6. Noh Soo Hong says "they think I'm nut": what does this say about the public awareness about carrying capacity and sustainable development? Are there parallels to other urban societies? What sort of economic/social benefits might you experience?

7. Lee Myung Bak is now the President of Korea, what were his previous two jobs? What's the lesson here? There is an old saying: "only Nixon could have gone to China" What's the connection?

8. What unique talents did Lee Myung Bak bring to the project?

9. What changes did they make to public transportation during construction, and what did they learn about traffic while doing this "experiment"?

10. Is traffic more like a liquid or a gas? Explain.

11. What is the heat island effect, and how did the restoration change this in Seoul?

12. The two ladies are a crackup-they talk over each other, but what is their unique perspective on this?

13. Big picture: think of why the city was located there, how it evolved to cover it's reason for being there, then once it was uncovered and restored, the city re-discovered it's roots. Where else could you imagine seeing this?

14. Hawaiian society was based on the Ahupua'a concept. How is this similar?

15. Koreans plant 480,000 trees each year to offset the impact of the stream-why?

16. Many cities in Europe have strict urban planning policies-compare these with Seoul.

17. Soon we will see a similar video about Alexandria Virginia, where pedestrian traffic has changed. How did pedestrian traffic change in Seoul due to the "road diet"

18. The present mayor of Seoul says "sustainability is the key element to the survival of the city". Why?


e2 China: red to green

e2 china: red to green

  1. What is the pun in the title “red to green”?
  2. How is China’s future so important globally?
  3. Why is it unprecedented in human history?
  4. What numbers does Willam McDonough cite? Why are these critical?
  5. What doe Jiang Yi say? Why is this not only a concern for China?
  6. What is the impact of Chinese pollution to LA?
  7. What is the comparison with Brazil?
  8. 8-10% growth means a doubling time of how long?
  9. “Small dark cold shacks” to what? What are their needs after this?
  10. What three things would you buy if you were coming from there?
  11. “As China goes, so does the planet” Why?
  12. China has resources, money, and an educated populace. How is this a key to their modernization?
  13. What is BHCP? How could this be used elsewhere? What will be the impact on China?
  14. Why is Accord 21 important? Design? Location? Materials?
  15. Why are the inspectors so skeptical? How is this similar to our LEED experience at the elab?
  16. Why are green building standards not just a luxury there?
  17. What is the impact of pollution on China, and her people?
  18. How does Feng Shui ("wind-water", traditional Chinese: 風水; simplified Chinese: 风水) impact the design of the Hybrid project?
  19. How is geothermal heating/cooling used? What temperature is the GT well? Why is this important?
  20. Why are the bikers wearing masks?
  21. What is forcing bikers to cars? What is the impact and solution?
  22. Look at the catwalks from building to building. How does this cultivate the “city within a city”? A similar idea was used at Pixar by Steve Jobs, and is the idea behind the new Apple campus. Why?
  23. What grey water solutions do you see?
  24. What does the NRDC guy say about generation rules?
  25. What does McDonough quote from Jefferson?
  26. What is the final pun about the Tao?


e2 druk white school ladakh


Druk White school in Ladakh

  1. We’ve heard Brad Pitt ask “was it a conscious decision or a momentary lapse of reason”. What is the difference to you?
  2. Look up Ladakh here:
  3. Why is it critical to educate youth about their culture?
  4. What is the message from His Holiness the 12th Gyalwang Drukpa?
  5. Why is Ladakh “a fragile place”?
  6. Ladakh is on several borders. What impact does this have on the cultural diversity there?
  7. The lowest part of Ladakh is about the altitude of the Mauna Kea visitor center (9000 ft.) and the top is twice as high as the summit of Mauna Kea. Consider the biomes there, and what could possibly survive there?
  8. What impact did the airport have in Ladakh?
  9. What Buddhist principles are cited as coincident with sustainable design?
  10. Watching them build the school, did you see any heavy equipment or power tools? Why?
  11. What is the resonant feature of the circular building?
  12. Why is it useful to marry local resources and concepts to a modern design?
  13. What was the learning opportunity for the modern architects there?
  14. Compare the earthquake survival in the monasteries with other schools in asia that have not survived earthquakes. Why are they different?
  15. Why is frugality a key concept in sustainability? Where else do you see this?
  16. How is passive solar used, and why is this critical there?
  17. What is a trombe wall system? Where else do you see this?
  18. How will climate change life there?
  19. How do they take water out of the waste cycle?
  20. Why is it useful for the kids to know how the building works? How does this contrast with a passive occupancy? What social impacts does this have? Where else do you see this?
  21. What is the impact of bringing in rural students? What does it preserve? What does it enable?
  22. What does Glancey think of the project?
  23. Why is the woman architect’s approach so different?
  24. Circle back to the vision of His Holiness the 12th Gyalwang Drukpa. What is his vision for the future?


Green for all

Green for all

e2 design 1.2 green for all

1. In the intro (Brad Pitt), there is mention of how much energy buildings use. Why is this?
2. Why do you think there is a split between ethics and aesthetics in design?
3. Henk Rogers (Tetris) says that if we expect island nations to live with sustainable energy sources, we should do so here first. How is this similar to Sergio Palleroni?
4. “Honesty” comes up again here. Why?
5. What are the points Jeff Speck brings up?
6. Who are the Yaqui indians? Why is this important?
7. If you make $2 per day, how long would it take to build a house that costs $5000?
8. What was wrong with the government homes?
9. How is architecture linked to health? Why is this relevant in the elab?
10. Why is the open courtyard a thermal, light and social solution?
11. How does the community “own” the building? Why is this brilliant?
12. How is this extened to political and social empowerment?
13. The new home owners cut the ribbon. Where did this happen at the elab, and why is this culturally relevant in Hawaii?
14. Many cities are divided by a road or railway. What does the saying “wrong side of the tracks” mean?
15. How does the Guadalupe project change this?
16. Who was involved, and why is this important?
17. In Hawaii we have “ohana” homes. What are these called in the video?
18. Look at the roof design in the simulation. Why is this important?
19. What does Sergio mean about the politics of Austin? What cities in Oregon and California might be similar?
20. How did this video inspire you?


AP exam review notes

APES notes

Keystone: influence greater than relative abundance

ex: predator keeps herbivore pop down, preserves rare grass


terrestrial, freshwater, marine

latitude, humidity, elevation-terrestrial

freshwater: rivers, wetlands and basins (deeper than what they serve)


neritic -close to shelf

benthic-deep, sloping away from con shelf

pelagic-open sea

abyssal-very deep


food webs:

connections of energy from producer to consumer

trophic pyramid (see plankton to ahi, bioaccumulation)

primary producers: autotrophs-photosynthetic plants, chemotrophic (sulfur)-inorganic sources (also foundation species)

heterotrophs-get energy from organic sources:

herbivores, carnivores, scavengers

lots of energy lost between trophic levels (thermodynamics) rule of 10%


abiotic environment

producers-autotrophs, e.g. plants

consumers-heterotrophs, e.g. herbivores, canrivores



CO2, water, light into organic compounds (e.g. sugars)


carbon fixation (redox rx) reduction is CO2 to CHO

chlorophyll, carotenes and xanthophylls

cellular respiration-

conversion of energy to ATP (phosphate bonds)

glucose, amino acids and fatty acids with O2 as an oxidizer (accepts electrons) OIL RIG

aerobic and anaerobic metabolysis (aerobic is 19x more efficient)

TCA cycle, mitochondria


variation of life forms within a biome or ecosystem




creates stability and robustness in ecosystems

biogeochemical cycles (nutrient cycles)

how an element or molecule travels through biotic (living things) and abiotic (earth, air, water) parts of earth

reservoirs may differ: N2 in air, P in soil

closed system: C N O P

open system: energy, e.g. photosynthesis







also mercury and atrazine (herbicide)

GM crops

genetic engineering vs. selective breeding or mutation breeding

concerns: ecological, economic (LDC) and IP rights (see Monsanto)

uses restriction enzymes to ID and isolate genes

inserted using gene gun (plasmid) or agrobacterium


insertion or deletion of genes

recombinant DNA, transgenic organisms

if no DNA from other species, cisgenic (cis vs trans)

lentiviruses-can transfer genes to animal cells

Genentech-Berkeley 1978, created human insulin from E. Coli (vs. cow or pig insulin)


biological, chemical, antimicrobial, disinfectant

pests: pathogens, insects, weeds, mullosks, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes and microbes

any food competitor or spoiler, also disease vectors

herbicides-glyphosate (roundup)

insecticides-HCl, carbamates, pyrethrins, etc.

green fungicides-paldoxins

EPA regulates

banned: carcinogenic, mutagenic or bioaccumulators

see also NRDC

pesticide laws-

Federal insecticide act-1910

Federal insecticide, fungicide and rodenticide act (FIFRA)-1947 then 1972, 1988

1947-ag dept


3 categories: antimicrobials, biopesticides, conventional

forest management-

silviculture, protection and regulation (Pennsylvania = Penn’s woods)

conservation and economic concerns

watershed management included

see also FSC 1993, forest stewardship council (certifies wood harvests)

applied ecology-

conservation biology, ecology, habitat management

invasive species management

rangeland management

restoration ecology

land management-

habitat conservation

sustainable ag

urban planning

sustainable ag-

environmental stewardship

farm profitability

farming communities

e.g. ability to produce food indefinitely, without causing damage to ecosystem health

see also erosion, irrigation/salinization, crop rotation

see also landraces, e.g. prairie grasses

mining laws-

SMCRA surface mining control and reclamation act (1977)

1. regulates active coal mines

2. reclamation of abandoned mines

dept of interior admin

response to strip mining (1930+)



1. standards of performance

2. permitting

3. bonding

4. inspection/enforcement

5. land restrictions

compare to 1945 strip mining practices

Fisheries laws-

monitor and protect fisheries resources

overfishing conference 1936

1957: Beverton and Holt did study on fish dynamics


1. max sustainable biomass yield

2. max sust. econ yield

3. secure employment

4. secure protein supply

5. income from export

6. bio and economic yield

UNCLOS-UN convention on law of the sea

EEZ-exclusive economic zones

12 mi = coastal sovereignty

200 mi = fishing restrictions

2004-UN made stricter laws on fisheries mgt.

1995 code of conduct for responsible fisheries

quotas, taxation, enforcement (USCG)

tragedy of the commons-

1968 Science article-Garrett Hardin

individual benefit, common damage

strict management of global common goods

see also overgrazing, pollution, privatization

"a fundamental extension of morality"

Rachel Carson: Silent Spring 1962

DDT weakening shells of birds

“biocides” bioaccumulation (single animal)

ozone depletion-

stratospheric ozone depletion

4% since 1970

ozone hole over antarctica

catalytic destruction of ozone by chlorine and bromine

halogen compounds CFCs (freons) and bromofluorocarbons (halons)

ODS ozone depleting substances

ozone blocks UVB 270-315 nm

Montreal protocol 1987 banned CFCs

O + O3 --> 2O2 (transparent)

Cl + O3 -->ClO + O2

ClO + O3 -->Cl + 2O2


1. ++ carcinomas

2. melanomas

3. cataracts

4. ++ tropospheric ozone (toxic)

5. kills cyanobacteria (rice nitrogen fixers)


1963 CAA Clean air act

1970: NEPA National environmental policy act

EIS environmental impact statement

EPA environmental protection agency

1972 CWA clean water act

1973 ESA endangered species act

1973 CITES convention on international trade in endangered species

1974 SDWA safe drinking water act

1976 RCRA resource conservation and recovery act (cradle to grave act)

1980 CERCLA comprehensive environmental response compensation and reliability act (superfund)

1987 Montreal protocol: ozone depletion, CFCs banned

1997 Kyoto protocol: climate change, GHG

Case studies

loss of amphibians

zebra mussels

passenger pigeon extinction


kudzu invasion

grey wolves in yellowstone

california condor


lake erie dead

st. james bay, canada

gulf of mexico dead zone

aral sea

three gorges dam

california aqueduct


china one child policy

easter island




cuyahoga river

deepwater horizon


exxon valdez

hurricane katrina

kissimmee river

london fog

love canal

santa barbara oil spill

three mile island


Practice exam
Please do MC questions 1-100, using the answer blanks on Haiku/Powerschool.




Laws and treaties
Recent exams asked:
  • Identify two federal laws that might be used to save a bird or its habitat.

  • Identify a U.S., federal, or international treaty to prevent the extinction of animals.

  • State two specific provisions of the Clean Water Act.

  • Propose two incentives to switch to electric cars.

  • Discuss the law that requires monitoring of treated sewage discharged into a river.

Laws are formal rules of conduct that people, businesses, or even government agencies must follow; they areenforced by designated authorities. Laws are created and enforced at the local, state, or federal level. Federal lawsare passed by Congress and administered and enforced by specific government agencies. Law.s may be periodically amended.

Regulations are the detailed rules and procedures necessary to enforce a law, commonly established by the agencydesignated to administer the law. Most federal environmental laws are administered and enforced by theEnvironmental Protection Agency (EPA), with some being adJ;llinistered by other U.S. government agencies. The laws included in this section that are not regulated through the EPA are noted.

Treaties are formal agreements between international participants. They are also known as protocols, conventions, agreements, and covenants.

Laws: most important ones

CAA clean air act 1970

CWA clean water act 1972

CERCLA comprehensive response compensation and liability act 1980

ESA endangered species act 1973

FIFRA federal insecticide fungicide and rodenticide act 1996

NEPA national environmental policy act 1969 (EIS and EA)

RCRA resource conservation and recovery act 1976

SWDA safe water drinking act 1974

SMCRA surface mining control and reclamation act 1977

TOSCA Toxic substances control act 1976

Treaties: big list

CITES convention on international trade in endangered species 1963, 1973

Copenhagen protocol 2009

Kyoto protocol 1997

Montreal Protocol 1987


Case studies

  • Loss of amphibians
    • sensitivity, immersed in pollutants, porous skin
    • declining ecosystem health
    • pollution (drugs, pesticides)
    • habitat loss
    • canary in the coal mine
  • Zebra mussels
    • invasive species from Asia
    • carried by tankers/ships into the great lakes
    • no predators, fast reproduction
    • crowds out native species, human infrastructure impact
  • Passenger pigeon Extinction
    • From 1 billion per flock to extinct in 70 years
    • hunted to extinction (1914)
    • humans can impact a species in a short period of time
  • DDT (Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloro-ethane)
    • extinction of birds
    • used against malaria
    • Rachel Carson "Silent spring" (no birds, so silent)
    • bioaccumulation in birds, others
    • persistent organic pollutant (POP)
    • major factor in the recovery of the bald eagle and peregrine falcon
  • Kudzu invasion (Southeast US)
    • intro in 1876 as decorative plant
    • very fast metabolism, fast photosynthesis
    • nitrogen fixer, so fast (jack and the beanstalk)
    • huge root mass, so lots of water
    • fastest plant wins
  • Gray wolves, Yellowstone
    • hunted: 1 million killed by ranchers
    • endangered species 1974
    • genetic bottleneck (see also whales)
    • ecosystem impact: elk, plants overgrown (no predators)
    • 1995 re-introduced, now just "threatened"
  • California Condor
    • lead poisoning from eating birds shot with lead shot
    • 22 remaining in 1987
    • 2003 APES exam did NOT allow use of DDT as a reason for decline
    • breeding programs restored some, slowly
  • Lake Erie dead
    • 1969 DO was close to zero, so dead
    • industrial waste, sewage and fossil fuels
    • paper mills, steel mills, chemical manufacturing
    • high phosphate detergents, algal bloom
    • all fish died
    • some improvement in progress
  • St. James Bay, Quebec Canada
    • hydroelectric dams ("turn off the hydro")
    • 1974, 11 hydro plants on 4 rivers
    • rivers diverted
    • salmon decline, also earthquakes from the mass of water
    • migrating bird decline
  • Gulf of Mexico dead zone
    • Largest of 400 dead zones around the planet, 2x since 2000
    • Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers dump sediment and fertilizers, algal bloom
    • impacts fishing, tourism
  • Aral Sea, Asia
    • saline lake, then dry lake
    • 75 percent decrease in volume, lack of flow
    • excessive diversion of rivers for irrigation
    • interesting: salt dust from this sea lands on the Himalayan ice pack, melting it
  • Three Gorges Dam, China
    • 2009, Yangtze river
    • displaced 1.2 million people
    • sedimentation, release of heavy metals (cooler, darker water)
    • increased salt water intrusion at river mouth to sea from lack of flow
    • lack of seasonal flooding (see also Nile river and Great Aswan Dam)
  • California Water project
    • 1916 diverted water from central valley (e.g. Manzanar) to LA, Owens river valley
    • 1941 added Mono Lake aqueduct, diverting more, including from northern CA (Yosemite)
    • Mono lake dried up, birds on island in the middle died (predators)
    • 2006 court said some water had to be restored to Mono Lake
  • China one child policy
    • 1979 began
    • reduce stress on food supply
    • fine for violators
    • forced abortions
    • female infanticide
    • now illegal to determine sex of baby before birth
    • suspended recently
  • Easter Island: tragedy of the commons
    • limited number of slow growing trees
    • cut down for trade, lumber
    • also rats
    • 1722, famine, few survivors
  • Bhopal chemical disaster
    • union carbide
    • MIC (methyl isocyanate) 1984
    • 2259 dead at once, 3787 later
    • total dead: 558,125
  • Chernobyl nuclear disaster
    • 1986 Ukraine
    • plant exploded
    • I 131 all over area,
    • 28 dead at once, 19 more later, 4,000 cancer deaths
  • Cuyahoga River Fire
    • Not one, but 13 fires there, biggest in 1969
    • chemicals dumped into the river caught fire
    • "a river that oozes rather than flows"
    • CWA legislated cleanup
  • Deepwater Horizon oil spill
    • BP oil rig in deep water, 2010
    • 5 million barrels of oil leaked
    • killed fish, sea birds
    • destroyed fishing industry
    • depleted DO
    • 5000 dead animals collected
  • Exxon Valdez oil spill
    • Drunk captain ran ship aground in Prince William Sound, AK
    • 1989
    • 750,000 barrels of oil
    • worst environmental disaster in human history
    • 1300 miles of coastline, 11,000 square miles of ocean
    • Response: oil pollution act of 1990: double hull ships, no more drunk captains
  • Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear disaster
    • Offshore earthquake and tsunami. 2011
    • flooded generators in plant, so no flow of water through reactor
    • meltdown, toxic even today
  • Hurricane Katrina
    • 1836 people dead
    • 81 billion dollars damage
    • storm surge, levees overloaded
    • poor planning, overdevelopment
  • Kissimmee River dredging, FL
    • everglades 1954 created a canal from a river
    • created straight line canal from twisting river
    • too fast water, damaged lake kissimmee
    • oxbow lake gone
  • London Fog air pollution
    • 1952 "big smoke" December
    • inversion layer
    • 12,000 dead, 100,000 seriously injured
    • led to UK clean air act of 1956, and later our CAA
  • Love Canal Waste dumping
    • Hooker chemical dumped waste into the canal
    • canal was then filled with clay
    • hooker put 55 gallon barrels full of haz mat into the clay
    • dump closed in 1953
    • local school board purchased the land
    • 1978, birth defects, then a superfund site
  • Santa Barbara oil spill
    • 1969
    • Union oil
    • 100,000 barrels of crude oil
  • Three Mile Island nuclear disaster
    • 1979
    • partial meltdown of reactor
    • I 131 released
    • China Syndrome
    • crystallized anti-nuclear sentiment in US
Homework location:


4.15.19 apex prep


APES 2008 FR

Download file "ap08_env_sci_frq.pdf"


e2: Green Apple

e2 design 1.1 green apple

  1. Why is it confusing to think of NYC as an ecosystem? Why does it make sense?
  2. Why is per capita a more accurate measure?
  3. Why did the guy who moved into the country gain weight?
  4. A wise person once said that the greatest cities are those built with walking in mind. How is this different in LA?
  5. Why would a skyscraper be more efficient than a smaller building?
  6. How did “environmental” become “smarter”?
  7. How was 4 Times Square a prototype? What other prototype buildings do you know of?
  8. Recently transparent PV panels were revealed. How would this change the frit concept?
  9. “Blast furnace slag” and fly ash are used for the concrete in the film. Why is fly ash banned in Europe?
  10. Instead of using drinking water to flush toilets, they use what?
  11. Why is a 5 year ROI basic business sense?
  12. How is payback different in Europe and Japan?
  13. What parts of the Living Building Challenge resonate with this video?
  14. What would make you want to live in the Solaire, near Battery Park?
  15. What are the blue things on the side of the building?
  16. We are 4.6% of the global population, consuming how much of the world’s resources?


Withgott 6.6 Sustainable Development

Download file "withgott 6.6 sust development.pdf"

Ecosystem "services": air and water purification, climate regulation, nutrient cycling (look uphill to our watersheds-why are we not permitted to hike there?)
Also: tourism, resources (timber, mining, fisheries)
PSA-payment for environmental services
  • watershed protection
  • biodiversity
  • scenic beauty (ecotourism)
  • carbon sequestration
ecotourism: 2 million tourists=2 billion $ annually
Ethics-study of good and bad (e.g. values)
relativists: context based
universalists: objective based, no matter the context or culture
Kant: categorical imperative; do unto others as you'd have them do to you (golden rule)
JS Mill: principle of utility: greatest benefit for the most people

instrumental or utilitarian value-pragmatic value
intrinsic or inherent value-value for its own sake
McCauley: "appeal to people's hearts more than their wallets"

Industrialization brought about environmental ethics-why only then? how does this differ from the tribal societies that were here first? Did they believe on owning the land?
Think back to William McDonough: "all children, of all species, for all time"
Issues you will leave YOUR kids: conservation? pollution? species extinction?

conservation=sustainable development
pollution=environmental justice
extinction=intrinsic or instrumental values

Why is this evolving?
We are not just surviving, so we can now make choices
We know more science, so can see cause and effect more clearly

Three views:
Anthro (man) centrism=man-centered: only based around impact on PEOPLE
Bio (life) centrism=life centered: balanced between people and the environment
Ecocentrism=whole system awareness: awareness of the interconnectedness of things (big picture)
Western philosophy is based on "subduing and controlling nature", for our benefit.
Some religions also emphasize stewardship.
Ancient Hawaiians had a word for this: Kuleana
Kuleana: Ahupua'a model: ridge to ridge, peak to ocean (up to your chest)
Implies "your business" or "responsibility", but is much deeper. You are not the steward, you don't accept it, or deign it, it is something given to you because of where you live.
Vontaire: French phrase: "tend to your own garden" "Il faut cultiver son jardin", means either "mind your own business" or "take care of what is given to you"

Transcendentalism 1840: Thoreau, Emerson, Whitman: objected to materialism (e.g. Walden by Thoreau)
Natural entities as symbols or messengers of deeper truths
Preservation ethic-John Muir
John Muir like this stuff. Home in Yosemite (recall the film about Ansel Adams)
Preservation ethic springs from his work: nature for its own sake
"everybody needs beauty as well as bread" "places to play in, pray in, where nature may heal and give strength to body and soul alike"
Conservation ethic-Gifford Pinchot
Later (1910) Gifford Pinchot-first professional American Forester-founded the US Forest Service under Teddy Roosevelt
Conservation ethic springs from his work: greatest good to the greatest number for the greatest span of time (note the last bit)
Prudent use of resources for the good of present AND future generations. Why is this critical?
Environmental Ethic-Aldo Leopold
Aldo Leopold (1930) followed from Pinchot, studied healthy ecosystems. Holistic perspective, people and the land as members of the same community.
"a thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise".
The Land Ethic-his work, also "Sand County Almanac", which along with "Silent Spring" by Rachel Carson are the two most influential environmental books of the 20th century

Environmental justice: pollution, exploitation, resource depletion, species degradation
e.g. Appalachians: mountaintop removal (mining) destroy forests, pollute water, bury streams, flooding, toxic waste

Economy=system that produces goods from resources (e.g. food from sunlight and water)
Economics-study of resource supply and demand
Economics and Ecology both come from the Greek "oikos" meaning household (seen this name somewhere else?)
inputs=natural resources, ecosystem services

Adam Smith (1750): self interested economic behavior can benefit society as long as the behavior is constrained by the rule of law and private property rights within a competitive marketplace
Classical Economics is the result, and the market is the "invisible hand" guiding these actions
Neoclassical (new classical) economics: supply and demand, also cost benefit analysis (e.g. removing pollution)
See above: when quantity is high (right side of graph), demand is low, supply is high.
When supply is low, price is high.
Equilibrium means "equal freedom"
Compare this with state run economies, where supply is controlled by the central government (e.g. Stalinist USSR, or present day Venezuela, Zimbabwe or other countries).
Fallacy #1 in the Neoclassical economic model: there will always be more resources (think of oil, timber or minerals).
Fallacey #2: all costs and benefits are borne directly by those in the transaction (e.g. no externalized costs).
Externalized costs:
  • health problems (e.g. pollution impact)
  • resource degradation or depletion
  • aesthetic (beauty) damage
  • declining value (resources, tourism, higher health care costs)
When economists ignore the externalized costs, this creates a false impression of the consequences of choices, so change is harder to achieve. It also means the government (e.g all of us) often picks up the cost.

Fallacy #3: future events have less value than present events ("I want it now, someone can deal with the consequences later")
This is known as "discounting" the future

Fallacy #4: Economic growth is essential for social order: "Affluenza"

Sustainable growth:
1; increase in inputs or 2: increase in efficient use of resources (e.g. recycling, cradle to cradle)
"Cornucopians" say #1 is the answer (horn of plenty)
"Cassandras" say #1 will not work (all prophesies of hers were true, but cursed that nobody believed her)

Here's how this could go down:

Cassandra folks: Limits to Growth (Jorgen Randers, who spoke at the opening of the Elab in 2009) and his graduate student Mathis Wackernagel, who founded the Global Footprint Network
Mathis was the first to teach in the elab, on the west whiteboard in our classroom...

Note this is different from Malthus, who only wrote about food and population:

Climate change is another example of this: How much will climate change cost?

Environmental Economics: modified neoclassical economics to achieve sustainability, advocating a "steady-state economy":
Check this out:
This leads to non-market valuation:

Which makes the most sense to you?
Ecosystem services value estimates:

Old way of measuring the output of a country: GDP: Gross Domestic Product (Used to be called GNP but corporations are often off-shore, like Apple)
Alternate method: Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI): positive impacts minus the negative impacts, also known as "full cost accounting" or "true cost accounting". Used in Maryland since 2010, now their GPI is greater than their GDP.

Ecolabeling empowers consumers (brings informed decision making to the marketplace)
See also socially responsible investing (Ben and Jerry's ice cream, Newman's own, etc.)
See also "fair trade" coffee at Starbucks and others
Dark side of this: "greenwashing"

Sustainable development involves a "triple bottom line" ("bottom line" refers to the bottom of a spreadsheet, used in accounting, often a profit/loss line):

UN sustainable goals, 2015:

Which of these can you impact?

Homework: page 155 1-11, page 156 1-4



APES class dates, Q4


4.1 M long

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4.22 M

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5.6 M AP exam, 12 noon


Minerals and Mining: Withgott 6.23

You may have heard of "conflict diamonds", those mined in conflict areas under wartime conditions (theft, murder, genocide, etc.)
Your phone and computer use very small components called capacitors, that are made from an element called tantalum.
Tantalum is mined in the Congo, from a mineral called tantalite, which is found with columbite ("-ite" usually means some sort of mineral).
Tantalite+columbite = coltan, which is just like conflict diamonds in this era.

Rocks are collections of minerals
Minerals are crystals of one or many elements or compounds
Mining is how we get these cool things.
Here's how many minerals a baby born in 2015 (maybe your little sister or brother) will use in their lifetime:

n.b. bauxite is used to create aluminum by sending huge amounts of electricity through it, so there are energy issues here as well...

Ores are metals in their natural state, often coupled with oxygen or another element to make them unusable (Fe2O3 is rust or iron ore, we only want the Fe part)
How then?
Smelting: heating alone or with other chemicals to free the metals we want
Combining perfectly isolated metals together creates "alloys" like CrMo or Chrome Molybdenum Steel used in fancy knives, airplane frames and steel bikes.

Pollution from metal production is called "tailings", a word also used for the purification of radioactive materials like Uranium. These tailings are usually very toxic, and not well cared for. When water leaches through them, toxins run downstream, or kill folks outright like just a bit ago in Brazil:
Watch the video here:

Where do we mine this stuff?

How? Two main ways: Strip mining and sub-surface mining:

Another method is open-pit mining, like in Butte, Montana:

Then there's the wonderful "mountain top removal" method:

You may have also heard of "placer mining" which was used in the gold-rush days of 1849 in Sacramento California, and later in the Klondike in Alaska. Here's what that looks like:

Laws, what laws? General Mining Act of 1872 (what? 1872, don't you mean 1972? nope! 1872, in response to the California Gold rush...

Here's where we are headed:
Neodymium is another critical element, used in the magnets in all wind turbines, electric cars and other vehicles, and just about any efficient motor.
China has taken over almost all of the Neodymium mines in the world. How is this a strategic move?
Also, why is China teaching kids in Africa Chinese?

Recycling is key to these limited sources (unless we learn to capture asteroids):

...there's that pesky recycling showing up again...


Waste: Withgott 6.22

Download file "withgott 6.22.pdf"

Waste: anything from human activity that is not saved
Waste stream:

Consumption is proportional to waste in our society
Affluence leads to waste (plenty of trees, let's waste firewood)
Interesting map, note geographical and social patterns:

Check this out:
Orcas Island WA, costs $6 per BAG of trash. Lots of recycling there (also locked dumpsters).
Recycling is complex, especially here on Hawaii island: where does your recycling go? Where did it go 5 years ago? What changed?
HPA has two dumpsters behind maintenance: a recycling one and a trash one. Only one is weighed. Which one do you think? Why?

Greenhouse gas emissions that are reduced by recycling:

RCRA and sanitary landfills: Make sure you understand both of these, as they are always on the AP exam...
RCRA is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, part of the EPA regulating landfills:
Conservation=stuff we use
Recovery=recycling or safe disposal
Act=something congress decided

Sanitary landfills: isolated from the groundwater, far from rivers, wetlands or earthquakes
Make certain you understand "leachate" and why these produce methane...

Incineration is another option, but produces extremely toxic ash that must be treated carefully:

Look here:
H-Power is trash to power, where the landfills on Oahu were full in the 1980's. One in Laie actually was created inside a volcanic crater that barfed up all the waste one year during a flood.

Life cycle analysis (see also William McDonough in 'cradle to cradle'):

Hazmat: 4 classes

E-waste is a growing issue, but there are solutions:
Daisy, the Apple robot that recycles iPhones.
Question: why would the white laptops in our classroom cost more to recycle than the aluminum ones? Which is cheaper? Which is cheaper after counting the value of the parts inside each?

Lead from e-waste:
Liquid waste disposal:

This is often done off-shore, away from prying eyes.
Deep well injection is a temporary solution, this toxic material is not going away.
Radioactive waste is even more critical, as it melts through containers, and is radioactive for many centuries.

Response=responds to accidents
Compensation=pays victims
Liability=finds those resposible
Act=something congress decides

Also known as "superfund" is funded through a tax on hazmat industrial producers ("the polluter pays" principle)
"Brownfields" are areas toxic for public use. We had one behind the elab ("mount Edgar") which we cleaned up to build the elab, gaining LEED credits for something we created ourselves...
Two critical cases:
Love canal, NY: Hooker chemical, toxic land, kids got sick, cancer, miscarriages, homeowners had to relocate:
Times Beach, Missouri: Dioxin pollution, sprayed on the roads to reduce dust (dioxin is a contact carcinogen),_Missouri
Town was near a river, when it flooded, the dioxin went everywhere, entire town had to be abandoned.


e2: deeper shades of green

Design e2: Deeper shades of green-three visionaries

Part 1. Ken Yeang-singapore library

Part 2. William McDonough-upcycle vs. downcycle 10:30-17:15

"all children of all species for all time"

Part 3. Werner Sobek-R128 (home on one truck) and R129 (soap bubble home)

Consider the energy lab: nothing in the elab can be toxic in production, use or disposal


  1. "I look for what needs to be done"-what does this mean for you?
  2. Look up Buckminster Fuller. What structural design did he create that you might see?
  3. What do you notice about the library Ken Yeang created that is similar to the elab?
  4. What is bioclimatic design?
  5. Recall the California Academy of Science and Renzo Piano-what is similar about these two approaches?
  6. Why did the cheapness of energy in the 1960's impact design?
  7. Why would "low tech" solutions be better in the long run over "high tech" solutions?
  8. "The technology should be invisible"-why is this important? How does it change the sense of the user?
  9. Our older classrooms had something like the light shelves. Look above the lockers in these classrooms and describe how these might work.
  10. Stanford's Y2E2 building has a similar heat stack in the center of it, with automated louvers at the top, and an automated fire door sealing off the bottom in case of fire. How do you think these might work?
  11. "Cradle to cradle" means what?
  12. What is downcycling? What does McDonough advocate?
  13. How could removing the toxic substances from the design of materials impact their upcycling?
  14. What three elements are needed for cradle to cradle?
  15. What is the difference between being efficient and being effective in his mind?
  16. Apple was the first computer company to adopt the cradle to cradle approach. Why do you think the cost apart from components for the white laptops in our classroom are more than for the aluminum ones?
  17. What is our design opportunity in this "second industrial re-evolution"?
  18. As a student in APES, you will be seen as an expert in some of these fields. McDonough mentions that "people don't need to be an expert at everything, just to leverage the expertise of others". How do you fit into this picture?
  19. "Take, make and waste". How could we change this?
  20. "Love of all children of all species, for all time". How do you fit into this?
  21. How does the "all on one truck" idea of a home impact transportation, building and recycling?
  22. Stuttgart Germany is the center of a very intensive industrial area. Why is this contrast so effective for that society?
  23. The elab is one link in the support system for the Mars habitat simulation. What is similar between that HISEAS habitat and the R129 concept building?
  24. "Substitute material with energy"-how does this work, why is it one step towards sustainable design?
  25. "You can do anything, you just must want it" Says Werner Sobek. If you had such an opportunity, what would you want to design?


Withgott ch. 14: Health

Withgott (author of our Froggie iBook)
Sixth edition of his text, chapter 14 notes:
Download file "withgott 14 health-toxicology.pdf"

apes withgott 6e.14


Water bottles, food, baby bottles

See photo 14.1

4 Hazards:

physical e.g. UV radiation

chemical e.g. drugs, pesticides, venoms

biological e.g. infectious diseases (vectors)

cultural e.g. smoking, COPD, seat belts, hang gliding, swimming with sharks

non-infectious diseases: genetics + environmental factors, e.g. cancer, heart disease, obesity

infectious diseases (ID): ebola, influenza, AIDS

spread much faster bc air travel, trains, trucks (see AIDS in Africa)

toxicology-chemical hazards




PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) fire retardants (e.g. TRIS)

PBDEs are also hormone disrupters

risk vs. reward (see malaria and DDT)

VOC in drinking water

Heptachlor in green chop hawaii

EDB in water on Oahu (ant poison)

DDT-foggers in 1960’s….


Carcinogens-cause cancer

Mutagens-mutate you or your kids (reproductive DNA)

Teratogens-cause birth defects

neurotoxins-mercury and other heavy metals (Minamata Bay)

allergens-airborne or food borne

pathway inhibitors-endocrine disruptors, BPA, Phthalates

exposure: acute or chronic

polar concentration-air currents

see 14.13

toxic concentration: DDT

see 14.14

Bioaccumulation-A single creature

Biomagnification-MANY trophic levels, MANY creatures

Dose response analysis

See 14.17

Threshold dose (non linear)

Pesticide poisoning: Yaqui indians

Synergistic effects

Endocrine disruptors

risk probability

perception vs. reality

risk assessment

innocent until proven guilty vs. precautionary principle

TOSCA 1976

REACH 2007

POPs persistent organic pollutants

Aldrin, Chlordane, DDT, Dieldrin, Dioxin, Endrin