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Energy on campus

APES notes Energy

Renewable energy on our campus:

Solar PV: radiation from the sun (visible) making electrons move in a special semiconductor material (silicon, made from sand), so photo (light) voltaic (Volts) = PV or photovoltaic. These release direct current (+ and -) energy like a battery. To be used in our electrical system, we use an inverter to change the DC to AC (alternating current). Inverters are large boxes that are usually hot when in use. PV panels are usually made of glass, often with a purple color, which is the semiconductor below.


Solar Thermal: radiation from the sun (visible) hits a dark metallic surface (often copper or aluminum, since they conduct heat well). The dark surface transforms visible radiation into thermal (infrared) energy, which is conducted by the copper or aluminum to attached water pipes. To keep the heat energy from radiating away from the panel, the metal is coated with a special paint, and covered with a special glass insulating layer. The glass is the heaviest part!


Wind energy: Solar radiation (mainly visible) heats the surface (water or ground) which makes the air in contact with the surface less dense, so it rises into the atmosphere. Wind is the movement of air to replace this rising air. Since air has mass, when is passes over a surface that can move, the kinetic energy of the wind (1/2mv2) can push a wing. Two or more wings working together will rotate a shaft that can be connected to a generator (Direct current, DC) or an alternator (alternating current, AC). Turbines can be horizontal axis (HAWT) or vertical axis (VAWT), which are less popular. Horizontal axis turbines can be leading or trailing, meaning the blades are in front of or behind the tower. Most large turbines are leading, because of the turbulence from the mast.


Storage:

Hot water: the cheapest energy storage method is hot water, usually from solar thermal panels, but can also be from PV panels running a traditional electric hot water heater, just like a coffee maker. Insulation is a key aspect to hot water storage, as heat travels from hot to cold through conduction (contact) radiation (radiation) or convection (hot air rising). Most hot water heaters are insulated (conduction), reflective (radiation) and covered (convection).


Batteries: These can be old style lead acid batteries like those in a car or golf cart, or newer lithium batteries like those in electric vehicles or in our IT and student union setups. Batteries only store Direct Current (DC), so they must go through an inverter to supply the grid, which is alternating current (AC). Energy stored in a battery can be as cheap as $100 per kWh stored for lead acid batteries, or up to $500 per kWh for lithium batteries, which charge much faster, last longer, and are much better for the environment than lead acid batteries.


Hydrogen: Passing direct current energy through water splits the water in to its components, Hydrogen and Oxygen. If the Hydrogen is captured and compressed, it can be used to burn for heating, cooking or in vehicles, or if passed through a special Fuel Cell membrane into direct current electricity, just like a battery as well as hot water. This is not as efficient as a battery, but can be used for long term storage.


Conservation:

Every dollar spent on conservation is worth 8 dollars in new renewable energy systems. Some key places to conserve energy:

Hot water insulation and timers

Passive ventilation vs. air conditioning

Lighting LED and passive

Vampire load reduction

Smart use of resources, occupancy based energy use


Energy units:

1 Joule is the basic unit of work or energy

1 Joule used or produced every second is called a Watt, so 1 Watt = 1 joule/sec

1000 Watts is 1 kiloWatt or kW

1 kW used or produced for one hour equals one kiloWatt-hour or kWh. A truly goofy term, but something easy to measure:


1000 Watt coffee pot running for 1 hour: 1 kW x 1 hour = 1 kWh

This is attached to cost, so the electric utility may charge you 2 cents for a kWh in Oregon, or 45 cents per kWh here in Hawaii-why?

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quiz 1.17.20

1.17.20

  1. Compare the non-renewable energy sources we covered based on their pollution potential
  2. Explain the chain reaction process in fission
  3. Why is steam such a key part of our energy grid?
  4. How are natural gas turbine power plants enabling renewable energy sources?

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Mod 36 Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Energy

Recall that since the beginning of steam driven electrical power generation, all we needed was something hot (wood, coal, oil) to boil steam and push a fan (turbine) which turned a generator. Nuclear power uses heat from a nuclear reaction.

Basics:

Fission is the splitting of heavy atoms into lighter ones. Note heavy atoms (e.g. Uranium, Plutonium, Thorium) split into lighter ones (Krypton-kills Superman, Barium-what they do with dead people):


This happens quickly in an atomic bomb, slower in a nuclear power plant.

If you are into physics, the energy comes from the binding energy of the heavy nucleus, so we call it “nuclear energy”, E = mc2 is the famous formula for this energy released from the loss of mass (the mass of the smaller ones combined is less than the mass of the original atom, this missing mass is released as energy).

Important: count the number of neutrons in (1) and the number out (3). A nuclear chain reaction happens like this:


See how the number of neutrons increases with each collision? This happens in a fraction of a second, which is useful in a bomb, but hard to control with human reaction times in a reactor.

For this to be effective in a power plant, the neutrons need to be going slowly: (“thermal” neutrons).

In a nuclear power plant, to keep this reaction going, and control the speed (slow), we need to absorb some of the neutrons, (“criticality”, one neutron in, one out), and slow these down to make their collision with the next Uranium atom effective.

Moderators are how these neutrons are slowed and controlled, usually water in the reactor, graphite control rods or other materials.

Big picture:

Good: lowers carbon emissions (none), air pollution (mercury, sulfur, other heavy metals from coal or oil)

Bad: nuclear waste, accidents (“China Syndrome”), terrorism (dirty bombs)

Three critical (public) nuclear reactor accidents:

Background:

Fission reactors were first used to power stuff in submarines (lots of cooling water). This design was not changed much when it was adapted to land-based power plants, usually situated near rivers or oceans for access to lots of cooling water. They were also made much larger using the same design, which makes for trouble.

We need to understand two main types of nuclear reactor:

PWR: Pressurized water reactor (most common)

BWR: Boiling water reactor (e.g. Fukushima)

PWR reactor diagrams:

Click for full-size image


Click for full-size image
This looks complex, here are the steps:

Fission happens when the neutrons from the fuel, slowed by the control rods and water, heat the water in the primary loop.

This hot, radioactive pressurized water passes through another secondary water loop, heating that water to make steam, which drives the turbine.

The “dead steam” is then condensed in cooling towers if on land, or using cooling river or ocean water to go back into the secondary loop.

Plus: Safer because the radioactive primary loop is contained in a containment shell

Minus: more complex, if the water boils out, the plant can meltdown, causing the China Syndrome, where the molten fuel would melt through the crust, supposedly “to China”. Some people never studied Geology.

This has happened several times: Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania, Chernobyl in the Ukraine, and Fukushima in Japan, which was a BWR reactor.

The spent fuel from both of these reactors, which is replaced every few years can also melt down if not cooled. This is still an issue in Fukushima where the cooling ponds are leaking into the ocean.

You might find it useful to think of a pressure cooker, which keeps water in a liquid state by being under PRESSSURE, so PWR, Pressurized water reactor

BWR Reactors: (boiling water reactors)

n.b. one loop, everything else is similar.

Neutrons are slowed by the water flowing through, so as the water boils, the gaseous steam slows the neutrons less effectively, so the reaction slows down. This sounds more automatic, but this can go crazy if the water pumping system fails, as it did in the tsunami that flooded the Fukushima plant in Japan after an earthquake.

Plus: simpler, somewhat self regulating

Minus: lots of radioactive stuff to dispose of, e.g. everything (pumps, turbines, condensers, pipes, water, tools, equipment)

USSR tried using molten sodium as the coolant, the plant exploded taking a town with it. This was discovered by satellite photos when the town disappeared.

Other types:

Breeder reactor: creates energy, but main purpose is to produce Plutonium for bombs by enriching other heavy elements with neutrons.

Gas reactor: also known as a VHTR or very high temperature reactor. These can either be next-generation pebble bed reactors like in the e2 video, or very high temperature reactors that skip the turbine step and instead use heat to split water (pyrolysis) into hydrogen and oxygen, which can be used as fuel. They often use carbon dioxide as the moderator, so as it heats up, it becomes less efficient, so is largely self-regulating.

Fusion energy (the other nuclear energy):

If fission is splitting heavy atoms into smaller ones, if you can push two light elements (Hydrogen, Helium) together, you can FUSE them, releasing huge amounts of energy:

This happens at high temperatures and pressures, like in the core of our sun or other stars.

H2/1 is an isotope of hydrogen, called Deuterium. H3/1 is another isotope called Tritium. Both have extra neutrons, but the same number of protons (recall that protons define the identity of the atom).

You may also see the notation n1/0, which means neutron, one thing in the nucleus, no protons.

To do this here on earth, we can do one of two things:

  1. Heat and pressure from lasers aimed at a drop of Deuterium (H2/1) can fuse at a temperature of 1,000,000°C (SHIVA, TOKOMAK)
  2. Use atom bombs (fission) around deuterium (H2/1) or Tritium (H3/1) to make a “hydrogen bomb” or "thermonuclear weapon" (thermo=heat).

The bombs you have heard of at Trinity (first atomic bomb test), Hiroshima and Nagasaki were all fission “A-bombs”. Nagasaki used Plutonium (easy to produce, hard to explode), the others used Uranium (hard to produce, easy to explode). We only had enough Uranium for two tests, we had lots of Plutonium.

Both of these released huge amounts of radioactive fallout, covered below.

Fusion “Hydrogen bombs" or "H-bombs” are hundreds of times more powerful and destructive "thermonuclear" weapons.

The ones you see in tests on the ocean are H-bombs.

Present use of A-bombs is only in small cases, or in “neutron bombs” which are designed to release neutron radiation, killing people, leaving buildings intact (banned in the 1970's as inhumane, developed to defend Europe if the USSR invaded).

Fusion power would be great, as the oceans have lots of Deuterium. It is also much cleaner. Ignition is the toughest part, check this out:

National Ignition Facility-SHIVA

----------1.17.20----------------------

quiz:

Radiation and Fallout:

Recall four main types of nuclear radiation:

Alpha particle/rays: slow, heavy Helium nucleus (He), charged, stopped by your skin, but if it gets inside (lungs or blood) they are fatal.

Beta particle/rays: faster (137,000 mph), lighter, charged electrons, stopped by metal foil, can knock electrons off of DNA, so these are called “ionizing radiation”.

Gamma particle/rays: speed of light (675,000,000 mph), no charge, no mass, ionizes DNA, stopped by lots of lead or concrete. Very dangerous.

Neutron radiation: heavy, uncharged particles destroy cell membranes, make steel brittle, passes through many meters of lead of concrete.

Radiation comes from anything radioactive. Fallout is the name for dust or particles of this radioactive material.

Two main cases:

  1. Bombs: release radioactive materials from the bomb, but mainly lots of dust from vaporized islands/desert/other stuff. “Dirty bombs” are just explosives with lots of radioactive stuff wrapped around them (e.g. plutonium, cobalt, cesium, radioactive waste)
  2. Reactor accidents: usually much more radioactive material involved (1000 kg vs. 10 kg), less of an explosion vaporizing stuff, more a matter of radioactive fuel exploding and going into the atmosphere.

Hiroshima, Nagasaki: radioactive dust, Plutonium (Nagasaki), many mutations from radiation: direct (alpha, beta, gamma, neutron) and fallout (usually alpha, beta, gamma).

Pacific bomb tests: US tests obliterated some of the Marshall islands. The French tests near Tahiti released lots of radioactive Strontium 90, which radiated dairy products in NZ (look up Strontium and Calcium on the periodic table). The French are not popular in that region. Side note: the French later bombed a Greenpeace ship, the Rainbow Warrior in Auckland Harbor in 1985 which was protesting these French bomb tests. Again, not very popular.

Three mile island: 1979: A water valve malfunctioned, due to human error the core was uncovered, the core then melted down, radioactive gas was released from the containment dome, no deaths, but a 5/7 on the total nuclear disaster scale. This happened the same weekend a movie about the same accident opened: The China Syndrome

Chernobyl: 1986: During a rogue test (more human error), the graphite/uranium core exploded, radioactive core materials, Iodine 131 and other radioactive isotopes were released, many tons of highly radioactive dust were released all over Europe (detected even here in Hawaii). Toll: 28 dead on scene, 200,000 estimated cancer deaths all over Europe. The USSR hid the disaster for days, which was finally detected at a nuclear facility in Sweden.

Click for full-size image


Fukushima: 2011: The 9.0 Tohoku earthquake offshore caused a tsunami that flooded and disabled the power plant pumping the BWR reactor cooling water, the core melted down, then exploded, the core is still molten today, TEPCO (Tokyo electric power company, the power utility) continuously lied about the accident, and is still trying to contain the leakage into the ocean and groundwater. All fish and produce from the area is still banned.

Click for full-size image


Smaller accidents: Sweden: Forsmark, Japan: Tokaimura, SL-1 Reactor Idaho Falls (three victims were buried in lead coffins they were so radioactive)

Make sure you understand half life:

At = A0 (1/2)n or At = A0/2n

At is the amount later at some time t

A0 is the amount at time zero

n is the number of half lives

Common misconception about half life: 2x half-life does not make zero

Can also use population formula if you want to show off:

At = A0e-kt if you know k (the decay rate)

k = 0.693/t1/2 n.b. as t1/2 is larger, k is smaller (slower decay)

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Non-renewable energy: ch. 12, mods 34, 35

Energy plan:
1. Energy units, measurement, terms: Watt, Ampere, Volt, kW, kWh
2. Non-renewable energy: oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear
3. Renewable energy: solar thermal, photovoltaic, wind, geothermal, tidal, hydro, biomass (e.g. wood)
4. Energy conservation
5. Global sustainability options

List all energy sources you can think of in two columns: renewable and non-renewable

Mod 34-Patterns of energy use
Non-renewable: not in your lifetime (argument made by one senator that nuclear power was renewable every billion years)
Examples: fossil fuel (from fossils), nuclear energy
Energy units: Joules, BTU (British thermal unit), quad = 1 ee 15 BTU or 1.055 EJ (etta Joules)
Worldwide energy use (2015):
Note about even split of coal, natural gas and oil, depending on location, economy, development. Which of these do you think is changing, how and why?
China leads in overall consumption, US in consumption per person (China has 1300 million people, we have about 320 million)
LDC (lesser developed countries) use subsistence energy sources: dung, wood, peat (one reason women in LDC have high cancer rates)
US use (again, this is 5 years ago):

n.b. coal is on the decline, nat gas is increasing ("fracking" or hydraulic fracturing of underground formations)
Almost even 1/4 splits for transport, industrial, commercial and residential-which do you think is changing, how and why?
James Woolsey on Salt 2010: https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=128127191
Transportation use: 70% oil
Electrical grid: 50% coal, also nat gas, hydro, nuclear (this is rapidly shifting)
-these two are not connected-
Electric vehicles will change these HOW?
(OPEC means Oil producing/exporting countries)
"We have to destroy oil as a strategic commodity" (btw, data exceeded oil in value last year)
Plug in hybrids, efficiency in fossil fuel cars, encourage biofuels (flex fuel, remember Brazil?)
PM particulates, aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene), $100 million in US health costs
point source pollution exemption-crazy!
fossil fuels are portable, potent and there is infrastructure to support it (oil dominance in transportation)
think also of Tesla charging stations-a new infrastructure is emerging
Salt-why Austria/Hungary was so wealthy, one reason we had World War one...

New term: EROEI: energy return on energy investment, e.g. 100 J of coal from 5 J of work would be 20/1 EROEI
Corn ethanol is around one, or slightly less than one, since we use petrochemicals (fertilizers, pesticides) to grow it...

Comparison of all nonrenewable energy sources:


mJ per passenger kilometer: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_efficiency_in_transport
Where would bicycle show up on here?

Electricity is an energy CARRIER not a source.
Here is a typical steam powered electrical plant. You will need to know all these bits and how they work together:

The only thing changed for nuclear, oil, or natural gas NON-TURBINE plants is the heat source...

Module 35: Fossil fuels
Coal:
From dead plants 280-360 million years ago
Evolution: Peat->lignite->bituminous coal->anthracite
Coal formation:

Click for full-size image
n.b. as moisture is reduced, coal is cleaner, hotter burning (more carbon, less water)
Know the formation of coal, and the stages: (see above)
Peat: burns barely, Scotland is made of it, more like compacted wood and plants (Heathcliff! Heathcliff! Where are you?)
Lignite: poor quality, usually high sulfur content (see London fog of 1952)
Sub bituminous: better, less sulfur (bitumen = tar)
bituminous: more energy per kg, a bit cleaner, but still lots of heavy metals
anthracite: cleanest, most energy content, lowest sulfur of the bunch

Cool fact: after WWII, Britain was so poor from the war they could only burn lignite, which caused London smog deaths in 1952 with 4,000 dead
Another cool fact: Alaska exports anthracite to Korea and China for steel production since it produces clean, intense heat
Coal is very nasty:
Dangerous mining (look up coal mining deaths in China per year), shaft mining, open pit mining ruins ecosystems
Mining tailings are toxic and lead to dam failures: Video
https://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2019/feb/01/terrifying-dam-collapsed-in-brazil-caught-on-camera-video
Burning coal releases heavy metals (e.g. mercury, cadmium, zinc), sulfur (e.g. acid rain) and particulates (PM 10, 5 and 2.5, the most toxic)
Coal fly ash (after burning) is toxic (e.g. heavy metals) and is banned for use in construction in EU
Know about the various mining techniques: open pit, shaft, strip and mountaintop removal

Coal to electricity: pay attention to the use of steam:
Click for full-size image
Many folks associate the cooling towers (see above) with nuclear power. This is wrong, it is simply how steam is recycled into clean water for the boilers...

Petroleum
Cleaner than coal (lower sulfur, depending on where it comes from-why is some crude oil called "sweet"?)
Drilling for it is hazardous, and hugely damaging to the environment, e.g. ANWR
Some of it is located in toxic geopolitical areas, like the Middle East Video: opening credits of The Kingdom
n.b.
Wahabbis: see Lawrence of Arabia 1918
Ibn Saud: Saudi Arabia 1932
1933 oil discovered
1938 ARAMCO
1945 divided Arabia, palestine with British
1973 arab israeli war, embargo, 4x oil price
1974 embargo ends
1990 Kuwait war
Osama bin laden-formed the Mujahaddeen in Afghanistan (see film: Charlie Wilson's war)
We supported them against the Soviets in 78, boycotted the Olympics that year, then Reagan moved to outspend them after their defeat there
We sold lots of weapons in 1980, trying to outspend the Soviets, who dumped oil on the market
1990+ terrorist attacks Nairobi, Tanzania, USS Cole
2001-World Trade Center 15/19 were Saudis
Al Quada took credit, then took over Euphrates valley
Back to the Wahabbis....
---------1.14.20---------------
Why oil?
Easy to transport
Can be refined into many products from plastic to tar to nat gas, gasoline and kerosene
Basic to agriculture (e.g. nitrogen based fertilizers, pesticides, tractor fuel)
Transportation, military, heating, industrial, electrical
Yikes.
Very important geopolitical implications
Note comparison between diamonds and oil: both are the result of heat and pressure on an organic precursor.
Now think of the salt interview with diamonds instead.
What are "proven reserves"?
primary and secondary extraction (latter uses steam, e.g. tar sands)

Refining oil: also known as "cracking"

Click for full-size image

Natural Gas:
Cleanest hydrocarbon fuel so far: low sulfur, no heavy metals, simple CH4 and others:
Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane
Natural gas: surface decomposition (swamp gas) or subsurface (thermogenic)
Kerogen = source for nat gas and oil
swamp gas = biogenic, also in landfills
Good stuff: cleaner to burn, usually found underground, so less ecosystem damage than coal, does not spill in the ocean
Bad stuff: very flammable, leakage contributes to global warming (methane, CH4 is a very potent greenhouse gas), harder to store and transport, must be kept under pressure and cool



Other stuff
Tar sands: lately in Alberta, Canada, use steam to melt the tar out of sand, almost energy 1:1 (bad), depending on the price of oil
Liquid coal: CTL developed by the Nazis in WWII, as they had coal in Silesia (Eastern Germany, Poland) but not much oil, until they could get to the oil fields in North Africa and the Caspian Sea (after fighting the Russians)
Methane Hydrate: deep oceans, large patch in the Eastern Pacific ocean:
https://www.washington.edu/news/2014/12/09/warmer-pacific-ocean-could-release-millions-of-tons-of-seafloor-methane/
Very dangerous for global warming...
Here's why:
As the ocean warms, these will no longer be "frozen" much like the permafrost, which will cause huge global warming impact...
More on this: https://geology.com/articles/methane-hydrates/

Carbon capture: not yet, see HEAT movie later on

Hubbert curve: The supply of oil is finite, and those with it don't want to admit how little is left
Look up ARAMCO, and why the Saudi Kingdom is selling all of their oil fields in a huge IPO this week
Peak Oil has already passed, we are now on the back side of this (see poster in the elab):
This has to do with proven reserves and possible reserves...
2004 graph:
Directional drilling: developed and used in Palestine...
Geopolitical trends:


Note peaks and dips, some are due to supply, others to demand (recession)
See also USSR flood of cheap oil to counter Reagan's military spending 1980-88
Key dates in the price of oil globally:
73 oil embargo
78 Iranian revolution (hostages 668 days-Argo)
80-88 Reagan vs. USSR
89 USSR folds
90 Gulf war #1 (Kuwait)
99 recession #1 (dot com bust)
2001 Gulf war #2 (Iraq)
2004 hurricanes
2010 speculation crisis, economic crisis, recession #2

What's with Venezuela?
Click for full-size image


Click for full-size image
















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Frog ch. 17 review-energy

energy -frog book notes

chemical energy-all about losing or gaining electrons, breaking bonds (e.g. sugar, octane in gasoline, etc.)

nuclear energy-breaking apart or joining nuclei (protons, neutrons): joining is fusion (newer), breaking is fission

Easy way to remember these: fusion is usually lighter elements like Hydrogen or Helium joining, while fission is usually heavy elements like Uranium or Plutonium splitting into smaller bits

Combustion-combining with an oxidizer, usually oxygen, but any oxidizer (chlorine etc.) as well

Hydrocarbons: usually CnHx + O2 -> CO2 and H2O (you may see these in chem with suffixes like -ane: octane, butane, propane)

Incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons => CO

Food is CHO (also N), when burned by body (using oxygen), creates CO2 and H2O, stores energy as ATP, and others

Energy efficiency: (energy out/energy in)x 100 (always a percentage)




Evolution of fuels:

Wood: renewable, hard to find, limited growth rate, but fine for small populations

Coal: non-renewable, stored energy from fossil plants, more concentrated energy, easier to transport, hotter burning (to create steam, melt iron)

various grades based on source and degree of decomposition/reduction (peat,lignite, bituminous(tar), anthracite)

Oil/natural gas: non-renewable, stored energy from swamps and marine organisms, discovered in Pennsylvania in 1870, we used whale blubber before this.

both of these can be distilled into smaller/larger fractions, and these fractions can be later combined to make heavier compounds:

Oil-> naptha, kerosene, diesel, gasoline, tar (bitumen), plastics, etc. <question: why is gasoline more expensive here in Hawaii?>

Natural gas -> methane->butane->pentane-> denser HC, fertilizers, plastics, etc.

See also LNG (liquified nat gas)

<question: look up the price of crude oil. notice the names and the trends. what is “sweet” oil?>

Electricity generation: coal (steam), diesel (only in Hawaii, direct or steam), nat gas (steam or direct turbine), nuclear (steam)

Think of ships, this is where most of our electrical generation technology was developed

Hubbert Peak, Saud (see opening credits to “The Kingdom”), Saudi Arabia, geopolitical implications

Fracking: Nat gas game changer: water impact, price of oil, change in electrical grid (smarter, faster, more nimble)

others: oil shale, oil sands (Alberta), methane hydrates

ERoEI: Energy Return on Energy Invested

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/ERoEI.mov

Salt Audio clip: James Woolsey

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=128127191

17.3-Fossil fuel hazards

Look up how many mine deaths per day in China

greenhouse gases-CO2 and methane (CH4)

air pollution: SOx, NOx, Pb, heavy metals (worst with coal, lowest with nat gas)

water pollution: esp. with fracking

oil spills, coal ash accidents (Kingston)

Fly ash illegal in Europe (why?)

Acid drainage-mines (see also metal mining, Butte, MT)

Geopolitical issues-imagine if we did not care about oil countries since 1930…

Energy Conservation

e2 car segment

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/e2_videos/e2%20energy/3%20paving%20the%20way.mp4

17.4 Nuclear power

Chemical energy: electrons and bonds

Nuclear energy: protons and neutrons

Fission: heavy stuff (Uranium, Plutonium) to smaller stuff (Kr, Ba, etc.)

Fusion: light stuff (Hydrogen, Helium) to heavier stuff (Lithium, etc.)

Discovered by enrico Fermi (Chicago) around 1940, first used for heat, then bombs (WWII)

Next, used in nuclear subs (why?)

Electrical power on land copied from subs (why is this crazy?)

Fission: U235 + 1 neutron -> 3 neutrons, Ba 141 and Kr 92

Note: 1 neutron in, 3 neutrons out

If we capture 2 out of 3, this is sustaining reaction (factor 1.0)

If we capture 3, then it stops

If we capture 1, the reaction will increase

Moderators capture extra neutrons and slow them into “thermal neutrons” (control rods also)

Bomb: make it all happen really, really fast

Power plant: make it slow down, capture the neutrons into thermal neutrons, make steam, then electricity

***make sure you can draw ALL of the parts of a nuclear power plant***

Good stuff: few greenhouse gases

Bad stuff: waste, pollution, fallout, limited supply of Uranium (Thorium possible)


Bad ones: 99 so far since 1945:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_and_radiation_accidents_and_incidents

Kyshtym/Chelyabinsk disaster 1957 Plutonium (level 6 disaster)

Windscale fire (GB level 5, 1957)

Navy reactor accident Idaho SL-1 (1961)

Various Russian submarine accidents (secret) K-19, K-11, K-27, K-140, K-429, K-222, K-314, K-431

Three Mile Island (1979) see video clip from film China Syndrome

Goiania accident 1987 (Cobalt) also Mexico city, Zaragoza, Morocco, Costa Rica

Chernobyl 1986 (level 7)

Fukushima Daiichi 2010 (level 7)

You might also want to look up "Broken Arrows"-very scary

What common theme, how dangerous, how could we avoid these in the future?

***be prepared to cite at least three of these, and explain what happened and why****

Fusion: LLL (look this up)

***Make sure you understand and can replicate the Coal energy graphic at the end of ch. 17***

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kWh homework problems

Homework:

kWh problems:

  1. Tanya Lightov has a tea maker that boils water using 1500W.
    1. what is the current if the voltage is 120 V?
    2. what is the power in kW?
    3. how many kWh would this take if it heated the water for 10 minutes?
    4. how many hours is this?
    5. how much would it cost at $0.40/kWh?



  1. Husband and wife Mort & Fay Tality have a water heater that consumes energy at a rate of 4500 Watts.
    1. How many kW is this?
    2. If the heater is on for 2 hours in the morning, and 2 hours in the afternoon, how many kWh does this use?
    3. If the system runs at 220 Volts, how many Amperes would this take?
    4. What is the resistance of the heater?
    5. How much would this cost at $0.40/kWh?
    6. If your solar thermal system captured 3/4 of this energy, how much money would it save?
    7. If the solar thermal system cost $2000 to install, how long would it take to pay it off?
    8. If the system lasted for 30 years, what would be the total cost of ownership?


  1. Ella Fynoe lives with her husband, Bud Tuggly in beautiful downtown Fremont (of AP exam fame) where electricity costs a mere $0.10 per kWh. Ella is considering installing a PV system on her roof, where she gets a solar average of 4 hours of sunshine each day.
    1. If her system captures 10 kW of power at peak, how many kWh could she expect each day?
    2. How much money would this save Ella each year?
    3. If the system cost Ella $12,000, how long would it take her to pay it off?
    4. If the system lasted 30 years, what would be her total cost of ownership?
    5. Why would Ella and Bud not be a good target for a PPA company?


  1. Airline seat tester Wilma Butfit drives 40 miles each way from Waimea to the Kona airport every day in her Tesla, which has a 30 kWh battery, which she charges at home and at the FREE parking at the airport.
    1. Using the HELCO numbers of $0.40 per kWh, how much does it cost her to drive from Waimea to Kona one way if she only uses 25% of the battery?
    2. If her air traffic controller friend Ulanda U. Lucky drives her gas powered car, which gets 20 miles per gallon the same distance, how many gallons would this take?
    3. How much would this cost Ulanda if gas costs $4.50 per gallon?
    4. If Wilma wanted to install PV on her home, where she gets about 5 solar hours per day, how many kW would she need at least?


From Past AP exams:

  1. The Cobb family of Fremont is looking at ways to decrease their home water and energy usage. Their current electric hot-water heater raises the water temperature to 140°F, which requires 0.20 kWh/gallon at a cost of $0.10/kWh. Each person in the family of four showers once a day for an average of 10 minutes per shower. The shower has a flow rate of 5.0 gallons per minute.
    • (a) Calculate the following. Be sure to show all your work and include units with your answers.
    • (i) The total amount of water that the family uses per year for taking showers
      (ii)The annual cost of the electricity for the family showers, assuming that 2.5 gallons per minute of the water used is from the hot-water heater
    • (b) The family is considering replacing their current hot-water heater with a new energy-efficient hot-water heater that costs $1,000 and uses half the energy that their current hot-water heater uses. How many days would it take for the new hot-water heater to recover the $1,000 initial cost?
    • (c) Describe TWO practical measures that the family could take that would reduce their overall water use at home.
    • (d) Describe TWO conservation measures (other than reducing hot water use) that the family could take to reduce the total amount of energy that they use at home.


  1. West Fremont is a community consisting of 3,000 homes. A small coal-burning power plant currently supplies electricity for the town. The capacity of the power plant is 12 megawatts (MW) and the average household consumes 8,000 kilowatt hours (kWh) of electrical energy each year. The price paid to the electric utility by West Fremont residents for this energy is $0.10 per kWh. The town leaders are considering a plan, the West Fremont Wind Project (WFWP), to generate their own electricity using 10 wind turbines that would be located on the wooded ridges surrounding the town. Each wind turbine would have a capacity of 1.2 MW and each would cost the town $3 million to purchase, finance, and operate for 25 years.
    • (a) Assuming that the existing power plant can operate at full capacity for 8,000 hrs/yr, how many kWh of electricity can be produced by the plant in a year?
    • (b) At the current rate of electrical energy use per household, how many kWh of electrical energy does the community consume in one year?
    • (c) Compare your answers in (a) and (b) and explain why you would or would not expect the numbers to be the same.
    • (d) Assuming that the electrical energy needs of the community do not change during the 25-year lifetime of the wind turbines, what would be the cost to the community of the electricity supplied by the WFWP over 25 years? Express your answer in dollars/kWh.
    • (e) Identify and explain TWO environmental benefits to West Fremont of switching from coal to wind power and TWO environmental costs to West Fremont of switching from coal to wind power.



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Hot water lab

Hot water quiz

  1. Secret agent Donatello Nobatti has a hot water heater that uses 1400W at 120 Volts. What is the current?
  2. What would be the resistance for your heater?
  3. If it ran for 15 minutes, how many kWh would this be?
  4. If electricity costs $0.35 per kWh, how much would this cost to heat water?

Your turn: measure the time it takes to boil some water in the hot water makers. Note the Watts for each, as well as the time it takes to do this work.
This is a kill-a-watt meter (funny joke there, ha ha ha):



On the Kill-a-Watt meters, note the following:
1. Volts: this is like the water pressure in our water example
2. Amps: this will only read once you have turned on the water heater, since it measures the current or flow of current, measured in Amperes ("amps")
3. Watts: a measure of how fast energy (joules) are added to the water heater water every second (1 joule each second is one Watt)
4. Hz is a measure of the frequency of the alternating current from the outlet, usually 60 cycles per second here in the US, 50 Hz everywhere else.
5. kWh or kiloWatt-hours. You can use this with your timer to verify that the power used x time = energy used (kWh).

What you are measuring is Watts, convert them to kiloWatts by dividing by 1000.
If you have a 1200 W heater this is 1.2 kW.
Now for the time. You have to convert time into hours, so if you measured time in seconds, divide seconds by 60, then again by 60 to get hours, or you can divide seconds by 3600, which is the same thing.
Multiply kiloWatts x hours to get kWh, or kiloWatt-hours.

1. Fill each hot water heater with cool tap water, note the readings and time, then turn on and run until it nearly boils (it will turn off automatically).
2. Use the power you measured (Watts, convert to kiloWatts) times time (seconds, then into hours, see above) to get kWh.
3. Compare with what you noted on the meter.
4. Multiply Volts x Amperes, how does this compare with the Watts you measured?

So far, we've measured the power in Watts of several hot water heaters.
We are also able to calculate power in Watts by multiplying Volts (electric potential energy) by Amperes (electric current, also known as "amps"):

Power (Watts) = Volts x Amps

This only works for devices that just create heat, like ovens, hot water heaters and non-induction stoves.
These are known as "ohmic loads", since they don't have any magnetic fields or other complexities, like motors or power supplies.

Another way to calculate power is by using an Ohmmeter, which measures resistance to electric current in Ohms (another dead dude, so we use capital letters).
Here is a digital meter, called a "Fluke 114":




Try this:
Use the ohmmeter (symbol looks like a horseshoe) to measure electrical resistance across your hands by holding one lead in each hand.
Try again after making your fingers wet. What do you notice?
Try it with more than one person, holding hands in a chain.
Questions: Why does it fluctuate? Why does it not hurt? How does this thing work? Why do they use this as a lie detector?

Back to the hot water tea maker:
Unplug the tea maker from the wall and the kill-a-Watt unit.
Measure and record the resistance of the tea maker in Ohms (you may have to turn it on, although it will not heat water)
Power can also be calculated by:
volts x volts/R where R is resistance in Ohms, or V^2/R

Connect your hot water tea maker through the little Kill-a-Watt meter we used before to measure power, current and voltage.
How close was your calculated value for power to the one measured?
What was the current you measured in Amps?

Another fun way to calculate power is this:
Power (Watts) = current x current x resistance, or i^2R
Calculate the predicted power of the tea maker using both of these formulas, and compare to the measured values on the little grey meter.
---------true power part----involves water----
Next, let's see how much power in Watts the hot water tea maker actually produces.

Measure out 1000 ml of cool water in each tea maker (you can see the amounts on the side of each unit).
This is one liter, and has a mass of 1000 grams.
To heat one gram of water one degree C, you would need one calorie (this is the definition of a calorie).

Measure the temperature of your cool water, and turn on the heater, recording the start and ending time, when the water boils. We can assume this happens at 100 °C.

The change in time is in seconds
The change in temperature is ∆t and should be in °C

Calculate the amount of joules of electrical energy you added to the water like this:

Energy (joules) = Watts (joules/second) x seconds (use the values for Watts on the grey meter)

Now it takes 4.18 joules to equal one calorie, so convert your joule number into calories. This is your electrical energy conversion number.
Record this:

From the hot water measurements, heat energy (calories) = mass (grams) x 1.00 (water number) x ∆t (degrees C), or:

Q = mc∆t

(you may be seeing this in chem class this week)
Calculate how many heat calories your hot water heater delivered to the cool water.
m = mass (should be around 1000 grams for your test)
c = 1.00 (definition of water specific heat)
∆t = change in temperature, from starting temp (around 20 °C) to boiling (100 °C)
How many heat calories did the water absorb?

Divide the heat energy number by the electrical energy number. Is this greater than one? Why/why not? What does this number represent?

Now, take this to a bigger scale:
Your home hot water heater has a capacity of about 50 gallons, or 200 liters.
How many grams of water is this?
If the water comes in at 20°C and you want hot water at 70°C, how many degrees warmer is this?
How many calories is this?
How many joules is this?
If your hot water heater is 4500 W (this is 4500 joules/second), how long will this take? (divide the joules by 4500j/s)
How many kW is this?
How many kWh is this?
How much will it cost if HELLCO charges us $0.35/kWh?
How much per month is this, if it happens twice a day?

How could solar thermal panels change this?

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Energy

Energy!
Chapter 17 in the Frog book has a nice intro to energy, some of it old, some new, all of it totally frog-like.
Let's dive in:

Energy=the ability to do work
Heat=lowest form of energy-can only move molecules around
Primitive societies: fire from wood
Wood is scarce, hard to carry, and hard to light when wet or green, so...
Coal!
What is coal?
Millions of years ago, living things decomposed, some around oxygen, some without oxygen.
If a living thing is made of C H and O, and the water leaves, what is left?
Carbon (coal)
This enabled the industrial revolution to happen: burn coal, make steam, make stuff move around.
Up to this point, you had to be near a river to have a mill. With coal, you could do this anywhere you could drag a humongous pile of coal with you...(Egypt, India, Hawaii for the British Navy "coaling stations")
Steam can also move fans, or special fans called turbines, so you can make electric generators (these convert rotation into electrical current) move.
You can also do this with moving water, which is what hydroelectric power is all about.
Notice: folks use technology they understand when new stuff comes out, blending the two (e.g. waterwheel->hydropower)
One reason most of our coal fired power plants still use steam technology, only recently being replaced by natural gas turbines (like jet engines) that can respond to energy shifts, like wind and solar renewable energy.

Back to Energy...
It is measured in some pretty inventive names: Joules ("jowles" if you are British), ergs, calories (like in chemistry, or food, where 1000 cal = 1 Cal), or kWh (this one is really goofy).
Now, what is the difference between energy (the ability to do work) and power?
Power is how FAST you can do the same work.
Imagine two students climbing a ladder to the roof of the elab, 10 meters high. Both have mass 100 kg (big folks, around 220 lbs.).
One climbs up and does this in 10 seconds.
The second one takes his/her time, taking 100 seconds.
Here is how a physicist would calculate this:
Work = energy = mgh = 100 kg x 9.8m/ss x 10 meters = 9800 joules (same work for both)
Power is work/time, so one does it with 9800/10 or 980 Watts (this is over 1 hp, 1 hp = 747 Watts)
The second does it in ten times the time (say that fast), or 98 Watts, about enough to keep a fan running...
Check this out:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S4O5voOCqAQ

Your turn: measure the time it takes to boil some water in the hot water makers. Note the Watts for each, as well as the time it takes to do this work.

What you are measuring is Watts, convert them to kiloWatts by dividing by 1000.
If you have a 1200 W heater this is 1.2 kW.
Now for the time. You have to convert time into hours, so divide seconds if you measured these by 60, then again by 60 to get hours, or you can divide seconds by 3600, which is the same thing.
Multiply kiloWatts x hours to get kWh, or kiloWatt-hours.

This unit is a goofy one, created so we could measure electrical energy consumption.
Quick: which one is power and which one is energy? Watts or kWh?

Here is something interesting to ponder:
HELCO (Hawaii Electric Light Company) charges us about $0.35 per kWh.
You can estimate this as about 50 cents for most uses, since this is often the value.

So, if your roommate leaves her 1000W curling iron on 24 hours a day for 180 days of school here, how much would this cost the school? (yes, this really happened).

Back to power:
This we know is measured in Watts (named after some dead British dude).
It can also be measured in horsepower, where about 747 Watts = one horsepower (yes, that means equivalent to the power of one horse, so our climber was stronger than a horse, so was Robert Forstemann, which is CRAZY).
Look up the guy who pedaled the first self powered airplane over the English Channel in 1979-how many HP did he create, for how long?

The electric company, natural gas company, gasoline company and water company don't care how FAST you use their stuff (electricity, gas, gasoline or water), they just care how MUCH you used, so:
Electricity = kWh
Gas = liters or gallons
Gasoline or diesel = liters or gallons
Water = gallons
BUT
If you have a really powerful car (lots of horsepower) you will likely use your gallons of gasoline faster.
Make sense?

Our goal in conservation is to use as few joules, calories or kWh as we can.
How?
Next: Conservation.

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e2: growing energy

APES questions e2 growing energy

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/e2_videos/e2%20energy/

  1. What is the basic difference between biofuels and fossil fuels?
  2. What is the time frame for collection of solar energy for fossil fuels vs. biofuels?
  3. Brazil has a unique climate, and uses a crop that is native to the area. Compare this with corn ethanol in the Midwest US
  4. Why is corn ethanol so popular in the farm states, and why is there national policy around it?
  5. Steven Chu: look this guy up. Where did he used to work in 2007, on what, and what was his job in Obama’s administration?
  6. Compare cellulosic ethanol with sugar cane or corn ethanol
  7. What is the energy balance of corn ethanol as grown in the US? Does this make sense? Why/why not?
  8. Harbors provide ethanol free gasoline. Why?
  9. What caused the 1973 oil crisis?
  10. PETROBRAS is the national oil company of Brazil. How does this change the rate of progress in their ethanol solution? What kind of government did Brazil have then?
  11. What is the population curve of Brazil?
  12. Why did VW move to biofuels instead of hybrids? What has happened since then?
  13. What is a CAFE standard, and what what was made exempt from these standards in 1995? Why?
  14. Does ethanol provide the same mileage as gasoline? Why?
  15. Imagine a developing country with no fossil fuel resources. How could biofuels impact their development?
  16. Dan Kammen of UC Berkeley describes a repetitive trend in renewable energy. What is the trend?
  17. Where is the first caucus of the US election held? What is their main industry? Why is this important?
  18. When corn ethanol use was legislated, the price of tortillas in Mexico went up tremendously. Why?
  19. How can cows derive energy from grass? How many stomachs do they have?
  20. Look up the FAME biofuel process. What impact could this have?

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e2: Portland-sense of place

quiz 11.25.19------

11.25.19

  1. In the e2 video a case is made for organic and local foods. Which is more important and why according to them?
  2. What is the difference between a solar and fossil fuel food supply?
  3. Why are the Amish a good model for sustainable food production?
  4. Only 7 cents of every food dollar goes to the farmer. Where does the rest go, and why?
e2: Portland-sense of place
  1. Portland was on the path of suburban sprawl in the 1960's. What happened?
  2. 1973 was a pivotal year there, what happened?
  3. What was the initial reason for the mandate?
  4. Explain a UGB.
  5. Accessibility vs. mobility is the choice they made, like in Switzerland, as well as other European cities. What do you see in the video that you might also see in Europe?
  6. Who is the first class passenger in Portland?
  7. Cities in Europe have vibrant city centers, and are great cities to walk around. How is this done in Portland?
  8. Explain "trip behavior".
  9. How much did property values increase in the Pearl district after the trolley went in? Why? (note the amount of glass in each trolley). http://www.explorethepearl.com/
  10. For what reasons would an electric tram or trolley be greener than a fossil fuel car?
  11. Portland required that every building have street level shops, and limited parking-why?
  12. Why would people want to live along a trolley line? Why is quiet key to this?
  13. Where in Europe do they also have aerial trams? Notice a trend?
  14. How does an aerial tram enable different growth trends?
  15. The young mom says “we did not want to spend all that time in the car”. What is she talking about?
  16. Explain "lifestyle migrants".
  17. What is "gentrification"? Where else have you seen this? (hint: look up the term "landed gentry") https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentrification
  18. What things in the video do you recognize that show a bike friendly city?
  19. What does the man mean about a "burlap future"? What is the difference between aspiration and acquisition?
  20. How does the concept of choice resonate with values in this country? What do you think?
  21. Bring this home: what would you do at HPA to make it more sustainable? What about Waimea? Hawaii in general? Your home?

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e2: Food miles

e2: Food miles:

http://physics.local/physics/apenvsci/videos/e2_videos/e2%20transport/3%20Food%20miles.m4v

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/e2_videos/e2%20transport/3%20Food%20miles.m4v

  1. Look up Michael Pollan: what books has he written?
  2. What is the fossil fuel to food ratio he cites?
  3. Why is this so high?
  4. What did it used to be?
  5. What does he mean by “sustainable agriculture”?
  6. Why did WWII give us a new form of agriculture?
  7. Look this up: in 1895, what portion of our workforce in our country was farmers? What is it today?
  8. Look up Lancaster PA, and who lives there?
  9. Local farmers may not be able to sell to Foodland and other grocery stores because of guarantees of supply. Where can the farmers then sell their produce, and what does this imply?
  10. When you go into Foodland and see the sandwiches and other wrapped foods, where were these prepared? Why? Why is this so nasty?
  11. Starbucks baked goods used to be baked here in Waimea (Mamane Bakery, behind the Montessori school). They are now baked on the mainland and shipped here frozen. Why does this make sense for Starbucks, and what impact does this have on you?
  12. McDonalds gets their food products from the mainland in huge truck and air shipments. Why do they do this?
  13. In the video, why is a restaurant that buys local food better than the examples above?
  14. Do you know of a restaurant here in Waimea that does this? What about our cafeteria?
  15. Why would Amish farmers be more sustainable farmers than other modern farmers?
  16. How many miles does the average food item travel in the video? Add 2500 miles for us, what is the new total?
  17. Why would they fly salmon to China and back?
  18. Local farmers can supply “food baskets” also known as a “CSA”. What are these and why are they more sustainable? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community-supported_agriculture
  19. Is “eating local” always a good thing? What are these folks known as?
  20. What is the difference between a solar and a fossil fuel food supply?
  21. What percentage of our income do we spend on our food? Is this the same in Hawaii? In Waimea? Why?
  22. Where does most of the cost of food go?
  23. Why do you think folks do not cook the way Pollan suggests?
  24. Contrast the amount of each dollar going to a farmer in the past and now. How does localization change this?
  25. Ok, now think of your home. What could you do differently?

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Food: Modules 31-33

11.21.19

  1. Give an example of an externalized cost
  2. Why do we have national parks?
  3. Pick one of these folks: Thoreau, Emerson, Leopold or Roosevelt and describe their role in land management
  4. Why was Silent Spring Silent, and who wrote it?

Notes:
Mod 31
Undernutrition: lack of calories
Malnutrition: lack of critical part of diet, usually protein (Kwashiorkor)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwashiorkor

Famine: one of these impacting a large group, often from crop failure, drought or war/displacement

Agribusiness: just what it sounds like, the larger conglomerates taking over instead of smaller privately owned family farms. Often use monoculture crops to increase profits, as well as patented seeds and herbicides (e.g. "roundup ready corn")
n.b. roundup has recently been linked to cancer in humans, look up glyphosate...
See: Monsanto and Cargill
Food Inc. minutes 1:06-1:13


GMO crops: in the beginning were just to withstand frost, now into a larger patent issue with GMO seeds and "round up ready crops"
What is the impact on lesser developed countries of this business model?

Mod 32:
Food energy subsidy (cost factor):
20 kg of grain to produce 1 kg of beef (20:1 factor, or subsidy factor 20x)
2.8 kg of grain to produce 1 kg of chicken (2.8:1 factor, or subsidy factor of 2.8)

Better to eat beef, chicken, fish or tofu? (you need protein in some form)

See also Food Inc about corn and HFCS (High fructose corn syrup): minutes 17:00-22:00
See also DIRT! minutes 0-8:00
----------------------------------------11.21.19

11.22.19

  1. What is the difference between malnutrition and undernutrition?
  2. How does roundup ready corn work?
  3. What is the subsidy difference between beef and chicken?
  4. What is the deal with HFCS?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcendentalism
Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the late 1820s and 1830s in the eastern United States.[1][2][3] It arose as a reaction, to protest against the general state of intellectualism and spirituality at the time.[4] The doctrine of the Unitarian church as taught at Harvard Divinity School was of particular interest.
Transcendentalism emphasizes subjective intuition over objective empiricism. Adherents believe that individuals are capable of generating completely original insights with little attention and deference to past masters.

Food miles:
Average 1240 miles from farm to table (more here, unless you shop at the farmer's market)

Started as a good thing:
Green Revolution, Norman Borlaug-Mexican famine averted by development of hybrid (not GMO) wheat, called dwarf wheat (large kernel, short stalk).

Waterlogging: too much water in the soil, roots die (see hydroponics demo at elab)
Salinization/desertification: using well water for irrigation, salts build up in the soil, infertile soil results

Pesticides and herbicides: can be persistent or not (DDT, round up)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane



Mod 33:
Desertification (see above)
intercropping vs. monocropping, see "the three sisters"

Contour cropping: saves space, reduces runoff, preserves top soil (e.g. our garden, most of Asia)
No-till ag: same idea, retains organic material in topsoil, reduces erosion by wind and water

IPM: integrated pest management (see Lalamilo Farmers)
Organic agriculture (also mentioned in Portlandia and Colin the Chicken)

More than just N-P-K, also micronutrients, slower release time, low salinity

CAFO: concentrated animal feed operation (e.g. chickens, pigs, cattle)

Fishery collapse: see cod crisis in N. Atlantic
Bycatch: killed while harvesting other fish

Methyl xanthines: caffeine, theobromine, theophylline
evolved plant poisons for insects:
Actually, almost anything that ends in -ine is usually a plant poison evolved to kill insects:
nicotine, caffeine, cocaine, etc.

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e2: portland-sense of place

e2 Transport episode 5


  1. Portland was on the path of suburban sprawl in the 1960's. What happened?
  2. 1973 was a pivotal year there, what happened?
  3. What was the initial reason for the mandate?
  4. Explain a UGB.
  5. Accessibility vs. mobility is the choice they made, like in Switzerland, as well as other European cities. What do you see in the video that you might also see in Europe?
  6. Who is the first class passenger in Portland?
  7. Cities in Europe have vibrant city centers, and are great cities to walk around. How is this done in Portland?
  8. Explain "trip behavior".
  9. How much did property values increase in the Pearl district after the trolley went in? Why? (note the amount of glass in each trolley). http://www.explorethepearl.com/
  10. For what reasons would an electric tram or trolley be greener than a fossil fuel car?
  11. Portland required that every building have street level shops, and limited parking-why?
  12. Why would people want to live along a trolley line? Why is quiet key to this?
  13. Where in Europe do they also have aerial trams? Notice a trend?
  14. How does an aerial tram enable different growth trends?
  15. The young mom says “we did not want to spend all that time in the car”. What is she talking about?
  16. Explain "lifestyle migrants".
  17. What is "gentrification"? Where else have you seen this? (hint: look up the term "landed gentry") https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentrification
  18. What things in the video do you recognize that show a bike friendly city?
  19. What does the man mean about a "burlap future"? What is the difference between aspiration and acquisition?
  20. How does the concept of choice resonate with values in this country? What do you think?
  21. Bring this home: what would you do at HPA to make it more sustainable? What about Waimea? Hawaii in general? Your home?

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Land use: Modules 29-30

11.14.19

  1. Irving boils his aquarium water to sterilize it, then lets it cool then drops in his fish. What happens, and why?
  2. Explain the connection between temperature and DO in water systems
  3. How could you tell a water sample from the Mississippi river vs. Chesapeake bay?
  4. Your job is to monitor a river for mine runoff. What would you look for?

Quiz 11.19.1911.19.19
  1. You had three samples to identify. What were your clues for the first sample?
  2. The second sample?
  3. The third sample?
  4. Which of these would have the greatest impact on an ecosystem and why?
Big picture: recall
Soil
Water
Lands
Farming
AP simulation exam December (week before semester exams)

Three main points: Living together, thinking of forever...
1. Tragedy of the Commons
2. Conservation movement
3. Urban Sprawl

Tragedy of the commons (old idea, new article) 1968 Garret Harding KNOW THIS...
An old 1833 concept from farming villages, article updated in 1968 this to include rivers, streams, ocean, air...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tragedy_of_the_commons

Externalized costs, externality: shedding financial responsibility for your impact the the whole
e.g. Minamata: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minamata_disease

Conservation movement: Important peeps
Ralph Waldo Emerson-"Nature" "behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_Waldo_Emerson

Henry David Thoreau-Walden "truth in nature and wilderness over the deceits of urban civilization"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_David_Thoreau

Ansel Adams: Photographer championed the National Parks:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/ansel_adams.mp4
0:00-8:00

"it's a place that you step into, and you don't know what's going to happen, a place that can surprise you, it's a place where you are small, where being small is not a bad thing, where being small is actually a wonderful thing"
-Carl Pope, Sierra Club

"...the world is beautiful, that humanity is part of this larger world, that the concerns of the moment are part but not separate from a larger system of forces that that connect us to all creation"
Jonathan Spaulding, Biographer
-----
MSY: maximum sustainable yield: max renewable output without compromising future
See: native peoples: seventh son of seventh sone

Public lands: often victim of economic predation (Burma lumber)
Other side: NRDC and others, purchase lands to protect them from predatory practices (e.g. Amazon basin)
In the US: National Parks are one example of a national recognition of several things:
1. spiritual/psychological benefit to nature
2. preservation of resources for future generations
3. recreation
4. habitat preservation for species (can be land, ocean, islands, etc.)

See also Amboseli in Kenya, Serengeti in Tanzania (Tanganyika+Zanzibar), Kruger park in S. Africa (Afrikaans)

In the US, we classify public lands as
rangelands-open range, enables some ranching with leases
national forests-old growth and new growth, limited forestry
national parks-national treasures, limits on visitors, infrastructure (e.g. Denali)
national wildlife refuges-usually associated with an endangered species or transit/migration path (e.g. wolves)
wilderness areas-no development, often noise abatement as well (think of helicopters in Waipio or Haleakala)

We have several of these here in Hawaii:
Kilauea Volcano
Haleakala
Honokohau
Pearl Harbor
Pu'u Kohola
papa hanau moku a kea-NWHI

Two ethics in competition:
resource conservation ethic-maximum use based on greatest good for everyone, usually preservation
multiple use lands-designated lands for grazing, timber, minerals

These guys again:
Conservation movement: Important peeps
Ralph Waldo Emerson-"Nature" "behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_Waldo_Emerson

Henry David Thoreau-Walden "truth in nature and wilderness over the deceits of urban civilization"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_David_Thoreau

Teddy Roosevelt- ca. 1900, National Parks
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Roosevelt
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/national%20parks/
first two minutes, start again at 7:00-10:00
Note influence of railroads in parks as well as all lands in the west (Leland Stanford, for example)
"Americans think 100 years is a long time, and Europeans think 100 miles is a long distance..."

Aldo Leopold-environmental ethics, wildlife management, conservation, Sand County Almanac (Wisconsin)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldo_Leopold

John Muir-started the Sierra Club: "wilderness mirrors divinity, nourishes humanity and vivifies the spirit"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Muir

Rachel Carson-silent spring DDT (persistent pesticide, weakens bird egg shells), 1963:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rachel_Carson
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

Management in the US:
BLM: Bureau of land management
Grazing, ranching, monitors rangeland health, erosion

USFS: Us Forest Service
Manges timber harvesting, where, how, what trees
Old growth vs. new growth, replanting, clear cut?

Also know about FSC: Forest stewardship council:
FSC certification: no clear cut, no damage to land, replanting, selective cutting, underbrush considerations
HUGE debate over underbrush, USFS believes in regular forest fires to deplete the amount of underbrush (as in nature)
See also California and Australia wildfires: drought, no regular fires, buildup of underbrush
See Yellowstone fire of 1988-result of overgrowth of underbrush

Forests: clear cut vs. selective cut
FSC wood-how different?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forest_Stewardship_Council
Fire management: Yellowstone fire 1988
https://www.northcountrypublicradio.org/news/npr/94114095/series-overview-yellowstone-s-evolution
USFS prefers many small fires, removing flammable underbrush

NPS: National park service
Manages parks for recreation, multiple use ethic, preservation of timber, minerals and "natural curiosities"
Also significant native peoples monuments (see above)

FWS: Fish and wildlife service
Manages fishing and hunting on all public lands

Know these:
BLM: Bureau of Land Management
USFS: US Forest Service
NPS: National Park Service
FWS: Fish and Wildlife Service

NEPA: National Environmental Policy Act 1969 (why then?) mandates an EIS for all development
EIS (environmental impact statements) are new standard for any project
ESA endangered species act-often brought in where development could impact ES

UGB (Urban Growth Boundary)-see Portland
Prevents Urban Sprawl (richer folks move to the suburbs, commute, need parking, city dies from the inside, food deserts, etc.)
Portland Example of urban planning:
Tom McCall Governor of Oregon, 1967-1975
Charlie Hales Mayor of Portland 2013-2017
E2 video: Portland: Sense of Place....listen for Brad Pitt:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/e2_videos/e2%20transport/5%20Portland-sense%20of%20place.m4v

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Water Part 2: notes and WQI

quiz 11.12.19

  1. If you became a vegetarian, how would this preserve water?
  2. What two things are happening to the Ogallala aquifer and why?
  3. As the Himalayan ice pack disappears, what will be the impact on Asia?
  4. How would a sewage discharge in a river impact the DO?
Notes:
Climate change will raise sea levels
Even a rise in ocean levels of a few meters will mean saltwater intrusion into the Pearl River delta, where most of the rice for Asia is grown:
Same for Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, parts of the Amazon, Bangladesh, and any area where there is a delta like the Nile River Delta in Egypt.

Recall: Energy->Water->Food-> Culture?
Here's how you create potable (drinkable) water from seawater:


Note how much energy is needed. Some countries are considering nuclear power for this.
Conservation:
You may see a question very much like this on the AP exam in May:

You will see these calculations again soon with energy.
TCO is total cost of ownership, and should be negative
ROI is your return on investment, the amount of time until your invested money is paid off, the shorter the better
Lifetime: the lifespan of the project (washing machine, solar panels, etc.)

Whitewater, greywater, blackwater...

Section three: Water Quality Index:

http://www.water-research.net/index.php/water-treatment/water-monitoring/monitoring-the-quality-of-surfacewaters

http://www.water-research.net/watrqualindex/index.htm

http://www.pathfinderscience.net/stream/cproto4.cfm
Calculation worksheet:
http://www.pathfinderscience.net/stream/forms/WQI_worksheet.pdf


See also point source and non-point source pollution (from Poisoned Waters video, remember the Deer?)

Important: cooler water holds dissolved oxygen better (fishermen know this, so do the fish).

Clues:

High turbidity decreases DO, as does high temperature

Metals increase conductivity and are usually acidic

Nitrates and phosphates lead to dead zones

Water Quality Lab:

Lab samples

  1. Post waterfall
  2. Post power plant
  3. Everglades close to ocean
  4. Post sewage plant
  5. Best fishing spot
  6. Mine tailings runoff
  7. Snow melt river
  8. Mississippi river
  9. Chesapeake river
  10. Flood after monsoon rains
  11. Golf course runoff
  12. Eutrophied lake

Metrics:
  • DO
  • BOD
  • pH
  • temperature
  • turbidity
  • conductivity
  • nitrates
  • phosphates
Simulated locations:
Samples:
Sample A
  • DO:1.5
  • BOD:low
  • pH:7
  • temperature:30°C
  • turbidity:high
  • conductivity:low
  • nitrates:high
  • phosphates:high

Sample B
  • DO:6
  • BOD:low
  • pH:7
  • temperature:10°C
  • turbidity-low
  • conductivity-low
  • nitrates-low
  • phosphates-low

Sample C
  • DO: 4
  • BOD:low
  • pH:8
  • temperature:25°C
  • turbidity: high
  • conductivity: high
  • nitrates: high
  • phosphates: high

Sample D-
  • DO: 2
  • BOD: high
  • pH:5
  • temperature: 28°C
  • turbidity:high
  • conductivity: low
  • nitrates: low
  • phosphates: high

Sample E
  • DO: 2
  • BOD:low
  • pH:2
  • temperature:20°C
  • turbidity:high
  • conductivity: high
  • nitrates: low
  • phosphates: low

Sample F
  • DO: 1
  • BOD: high
  • pH: 4
  • temperature: 30°C
  • turbidity: high
  • conductivity: high
  • nitrates: high
  • phosphates: high

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Soils lab

APES soils lab


Soil sample location:

Soil sample depth:

Soil team members:


Overall observations:

    1. what color is the soil?
    2. is it clumped or dusty?
    3. when you grab in your fist, does it stay together?


  1. Sifting test:
    1. Mass each section of the strainer empty
    2. pour your sample into the strainer
    3. shake well
    4. mass each section
    5. subtract empty mass
    6. determine % for each level (mass/total mass)
  2. Percolation test:
    1. pour your complete sample into a massed paper cup
    2. mass the cup and sample
    3. punch a small hole in the bottom of the cup
    4. measure the depth of the soil in the sample (cm)
    5. pour water into the cup, while timing until water drips from the hole
    6. calculate cm/second for your sample
  3. Moisture content test:
    1. pour water over the sample in the percolation test until it is completely covered
    2. let the sample rest overnight
    3. mass the cup and moist soil
    4. subtract cup and dry soil to measure amount of water content
    5. calculate % water (mass of water/mass of soil)
  4. Chemical tests:
    1. mix some of your soil with water (one part soil to 5 parts water)
    2. filter through a coffee filter to get a clear liquid
    3. add the clear liquid to both sides of the soil test unit
    4. add the color capsule matching the test you are doing (green->green) to the smaller chamber
    5. shake well
    6. wait 10 minutes
    7. view in sunlight and record the color you see


Pre-lab questions:

Sifting test:

In your sifting test, you record the following masses for the empty containers:

    1. A level (top) 174 grams
    2. B level 166 grams
    3. C level 152 grams
    4. D level 140 grams
    5. E level (bottom) 126 grams

Your sample has the following masses:

A 180 grams

B 170 grams

C 160 grams

D 160 grams

E 130 grams


  1. What is the total mass for your sample?
  2. What is the % for each layer?
  3. Which layer predominates?
  4. looking at the triangle chart, where would you classify this soil?
  5. In your percolation test, you measure 23 seconds for the water to travel 5.2 cm. What is the percolation rate for this soil? How would this compare to sand or clay?
  6. In your moisture content test, you measure 120 grams of dry soil that has mass 144 grams the next day. What is the moisture content %?

Quiz 11.6.19
  1. Explain why clay soils hold water more effectively than sandy soils
  2. Which of the three key nutrients is critical for roots and fruits?
  3. Explain the 5 soil layers
  4. What is the perfect soil type, and why?

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Modules 26-28: Water

11.4.19 quiz

  1. Explain why clay soils hold water more effectively than sandy soils
  2. Which of the three key nutrients is critical for roots and fruits?
  3. Explain the 5 soil layers
  4. What is the perfect soil type, and why?

Recall:
Energy->Water->Food->Culture

Water: key points

Section one: What is it, where is it: freshwater, saltwater, how it moves, aquifers and reservoirs, impact of climate change, water wars

Section two: Pollution:

Often human driven (anthropogenic): Nutrient, thermal, BOD, sediment

Almost always human driven: Pathogens, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals, radioactive chemicals

Section three: Water Quality index:

DO, BOD, pH, temp, turbidity, conductivity, nitrates (NO3), phosphates (PO4)


Section one: What is it, where is it?

Where is the water?
How does it get there?

Click for full-size image
Click for full-size image


Aquifers:


Click for full-size image

Huge aquifer-note recharge time is in centuries, pesticides in NE

Click for full-size image
Water diversion (e.g. rivers)

Two critical issues for China:
Pearl river delta and salt intrusion (sea level rise)
Vanishing Himalayan Glaciers (no farming in western China):
Glaciers
Glaciers are the water towers for Asia...
Rivers impacted:
Ganges, Yangtze, Yellow, Mekong, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Indu, Salween,




Aral Sea (asia minor)

Click for full-size image
Water disputes:

Click for full-size image

Section two: Pollution
Big ideas:
1. Rivers are continuous, so easier to find sources along the route (continuity analysis: all sources add to total)
2. Groundwater is harder to determine point sources, as flow is over larger area (not confined by river banks) and there is no continuity analysis possible (we don't know sources and sinks)
3. Oceans are the hardest to trace, and impact everyone eventually, just like the atmosphere, only without the rain, and it is wetter. And full of fish.
Water Pollution categories:







Pollutant list:

Click for full-size image



Nitrate levels (note farming regions):

Why is there a hypoxic zone there?

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD):
Better diagram:

Click for full-size image


Note that temperature changes DO (dissolved oxygen) content, so does physical agitation (aeration).
Section three: Water Quality Index:

http://www.water-research.net/index.php/water-treatment/water-monitoring/monitoring-the-quality-of-surfacewaters

http://www.water-research.net/watrqualindex/index.htm

http://www.pathfinderscience.net/stream/cproto4.cfm
Calculation worksheet:
http://www.pathfinderscience.net/stream/forms/WQI_worksheet.pdf


See also point source and non-point source pollution (from Poisoned Waters video, remember the Deer?)

Important: cooler water holds dissolved oxygen better (fishermen know this, so do the fish).

Water Quality Lab:

Lab samples

  1. Post waterfall
  2. Post power plant
  3. Everglades close to ocean
  4. Post sewage plant
  5. Best fishing spot
  6. Mine tailings runoff
  7. Snow melt river
  8. Mississippi river
  9. Chesapeake river
  10. Flood after monsoon rains
  11. Golf course runoff
  12. Eutrophied lake

Metrics:
  • DO
  • BOD
  • pH
  • temperature
  • turbidity
  • conductivity
  • nitrates
  • phosphates
Simulated locations:
Samples:
Sample A
  • DO:1.5
  • BOD:low
  • pH:7
  • temperature:30°C
  • turbidity:high
  • conductivity:low
  • nitrates:high
  • phosphates:high

Sample B
  • DO:6
  • BOD:low
  • pH:7
  • temperature:10°C
  • turbidity-low
  • conductivity-low
  • nitrates-low
  • phosphates-low

Sample C
  • DO: 4
  • BOD:low
  • pH:8
  • temperature:25°C
  • turbidity: high
  • conductivity: high
  • nitrates: high
  • phosphates: high

Sample D-
  • DO: 2
  • BOD: high
  • pH:5
  • temperature: 28°C
  • turbidity:high
  • conductivity: low
  • nitrates: low
  • phosphates: high

Sample E
  • DO: 2
  • BOD:low
  • pH:2
  • temperature:20°C
  • turbidity:high
  • conductivity: high
  • nitrates: low
  • phosphates: low

Sample F
  • DO: 1
  • BOD: high
  • pH: 4
  • temperature: 30°C
  • turbidity: high
  • conductivity: high
  • nitrates: high
  • phosphates: high

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Module 25 Soils

10.31.19 quiz

  1. What rocks would you commonly find here on the island of Hawai’i?
  2. Which of the three types of rock are these?
  3. Why would a house near the epicenter see more damage than one a few miles away (hint: the energy is not that different, it is about the waves)
  4. Explain the formation of the Hawaiian island chain
Next: Rocks Module 25
Igneous (fire)
Sedimentary (layers)
Metamorphic (Kafka rocks, just kidding: changed by heat and pressure)
Click for full-size image




Igneous= directly from magma, can be either basalt (low melting point, like our island or oceanic plates) or granite (lighter, what continents are made of)
Granite breaks down into light colored sand, makes for fertile soil. Basalt (like us) can make sand too, but less fertile (e.g. black sand beach).

Sedimentary= just like it sounds, from mud, sand or dust, usually in layers.

Metamorphic= changed by heat and/or pressure (slate, marble or coal)

Soil-formed by weathering (chemical or physical) of parent rock
Erosion can be by water or air (wind)

Click for full-size image


These used to be just A, B, C layers
E layer was added (eluviated layer-where water washes out nutrients)
O layer was added (overlayer-detritus)

Latest version:



Soil structure (physical analysis)


Click for full-size image
n.b. the trick to reading the lines is always look clockwise...

Finer soils drain slowly (capillary action), hold nutrients (because of reduced water flow), and settle last in rivers
Coarse soils (e.g. sand) drain quickly, are nutrient poor (water washed the nutrients away) and settle first in rivers
Loam is the term for a perfect balance of these inorganic soil types
Farmers refer to "tilth" of a soil, which includes ability to hold water, organic content and more:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tilth

Organic matter is not included here: it holds water and decomposes, releasing nutrients
For healthy soil, we need both the physical (above), organic and chemical systems to balance.

Chemical analysis:
N=nitrogen: critical for plant growth
P=phosphorus: roots and fruits
K= Kalium=Potasssium=potash: plant immunity

pH is the Hydrogen ion content: pH of 7 is neutral water, others may have other values
Hydroponics use a term EC for Electrical conductivity, which is a measure of dissolved ions in solution.
1.5-2.5 is ideal for most hydroponic systems, depending on plant types

See also CEC: Cation exchange capacity

Lab:
Physical tests----
  • Gross analysis: how does the soil feel in your hands: like clay or sand? Does it have organic matter? Can you squeeze it and have it hold shape (tilth)? What color do you see?
  • Percolation test: time it takes water to move through a soil sample, measured in cm/second. Measure the seconds, and the cm depth of your soil, divide.
  • Sedimentation test: settled layers after mixing with water, measure total thickness, then layer thickness, present at percentage of total
  • Dry sifting test: drop your sample into the sifter column, measure mass of each layer
Chemical tests----
  • Decant (pour off) liquid from the sedimentation test above, use for the pH test kit
  • N test: same with the N soil test kit
  • P test: same with the P soil test kit
  • K test: same with the K soil test kit
  • (optional) organic matter test: bake the sample, mass before and after, difference is organic matter

Desertification:
Usually from removal of native plants, overgrazing and/or over-irrigation with well water (salinization)
Solutions:

Click for full-size image

Click for full-size image

See also chapter 12 in the Froggie book...

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Modules 24-25 Earth and soils

10.28.19 quiz

  1. Caitlinland is a magical kingdom with a high degree of civilization, a low constant birth rate, a low death rate, and a high degree of female reproductive rights. What stage of the demographic model is Catilinland?
  2. Syriana is a poor nation with limited access to clean water, and firmly in stage one of the demographic model. What else would we see if we visited there?
  3. As Syriana increased its access to clean water, what would change and why?
  4. What is common demographically with Germany, Italy and Japan, and what will this cause?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xzAOhyOtfqc

Big picture: 15 by ago...
Big bang, then stars which live for about 10 BY, then...
Nova, supernova, neutron stars


4.5 by ago-solar system (including bits from supernovae)
When first stars die as supernovae (about 10 BY into their life), the heat and pressure created all elements beyond Iron on the periodic table
so...
Anything on our planet that is lower than Iron on the periodic table, came from the explosion of an older star, including stuff inside YOU.
Earth forms from molten elements as our solar system is formed, (called an accretion disc) including Uranium
(reason for heat still in the core-see the minister estimate of Sunday afternoon creation date)

Geo time: ("deep time")


Click for full-size image
You can look up the K-T extinction online, it happened 65MY ago. Look up the dude that discovered it...


See videos: How the earth was made...
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/how%20the%20earth%20was%20made/

Layers: (onion boy)
Core-Mantle-Crust-think of an apple



Core is actually two bits: solid inner iron and nickel, liquid outside that bit. It spins, giving us a weak magnetic field
How do we know this? Nuclear bomb testing and our global seismic sensor network
Hint: the inner part spins around in the opposite direction every 60-80 MY, so the earth's magnetic field actually FLIPS (this is important for later-or sooner)


10.29.19 quiz

  1. How do we know about the core of the earth?
  2. Why are our Hawaiian volcanoes different from those in Seattle?
  3. How do we know about the drift of the continents?
  4. Near a subduction zone, what type of volcanoes would form, and why?
Plate Tectonics-look up this guy: Wegener. Meteorologist (weather guy), so the geo folks laughed at him...
The players:
Magma-(Dr. Evil voice here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVo1S52xdpI)
Asthenosphere-"sticky rock" (from Greek ἀσθενής asthenḗs 'weak' + "sphere")
Lithosphere-floating rock (litho = stone) (Ancient Greek: λίθος [lithos] for "rocky", and σφαίρα [sphaira] for "sphere")
Continents-even more floaty, made of lighter rock (granite) that formed from interaction of magma with oceans

Plates are large, float on the Asthenosphere
Continents are like rafts on the Asthenosphere, more buoyant than the plates
The plates can slide under each other (subduction zones), crash into each other (Himalayas), next to each other (transform faults), and are formed at spreading zones (divergent boundaries)
Click for full-size image

Check out this diagram: note the red (spreading) and the blue (subducting), esp. look at Chile---->

Click for full-size image
What mountains are in Chile?
Volcanoes are the key:
Two kinds of volcanoes: Andesitic (pointy), Basaltic (runny, look out your window)
Andesite-from pressure and heat as plates subduct (sticky, high silica content, e.g. Andes mountains)
Basalt-from ocean crust, lots of water, makes for weak, runny magma, formed as magma pushes through watery ocean plates
Subduction zones:



Note the sticky stuff boiling up in red-this is why the Andesitic volcanoes are sticky, and always found near subduction zones (Andes, Cascades, Japan, Italy, etc.)
Note also the trench where the subduction zone goes down: this is the origin of the Chilean/Peruvian trench we covered in the El Nino notes, as well as the deepest part of the ocean: the Marianas Trench, which is 7 MILES deep. Whoa!

Click for full-size image
Historic data shows subduction zone quakes that would create a tsunami 1000' high or more on the pacific northwest coast, flooding everything west of I-5.

Click for full-size image
Look at all of the earthquakes (red dots) as the plate subducts

Two things to take-away about subduction zones:
1. subduction zones create ANDESITIC (pointy) volcanoes, which are high in silica, and sticky like thick pancake batter.
2. subduction zones create lots of deep focus earthquakes.


Spreading zones:
--See the submarine notes
What the heck is this?

This might help:


Ok, now look at the Oregon coastline:




Note the symmetry along the ridge crest. This was mapped in WWII in an attempt to detect metallic submarines using magnetic sensors on ships. Later on airplanes like this:

Click for full-size image


You will see these practicing at the Kona airport, look out for them. They are spying on submarines. Not ours.




Click for full-size image

Remember the earth magnetic field changing?


Hot spots:
Usually in the middle of an oceanic plate, but can also be mid continent (e.g. Yellowstone supervolcano caldera)
Hot spots-basalt-low silica content, melts easier (e.g. look out the window)
Look at the Hawaii island chain on google earth (underwater version)
While you are at it, look for the Nuuanu landslide that created a 4000' tsunami
You can also look at the Mauna Loa simulated tsunami on youtube...
Click for full-size image

Note the tracking of the pacific plate:

This is what happens to a shield volcano when it "calves" one side, in this case the north east side, in the Nuuanu landslide, one of the largest landslides on earth, causing a tsunami that deposited coral on the top of Mt. Kaala, 4055 ft. high...







Earthquakes:

Click for full-size image
then there's the famous "notmy" fault...

Epicenter is the place ON THE SURFACE above the hypocenter (true origin) or earthquake FOCUS. Deeper hypocentric quakes often feel "longer", while shallow hypocentric quakes feel "sharp".



How do we find these?
Seismographs:
P waves travel by compression (comPression). These are longitudinal waves, like sound. They can travel through liquid or solid.
S waves travel by shear (Shear). These are transverse waves, like a slinky. They can only travel through solids.

This is how we know what the inside of the earth looks like:
This data was found by spying on atomic bomb tests in the 1950's, not because we wanted to know about the guts of our planet...

Ok, back to earthquakes.
Suppose you have a house on posts (called "post and pier" construction). An earthquake happens some distance away. First your house moves back and forth (P wave, much faster at 8 km/sec). After a time, your house bounces up and down from the S waves (slower at 3 km/second).
If you are far away, these are separated by different arrival times.
If you are near the epicenter, they hit at the same time...up, over, down=your house is demolished

We use this difference to calculate distance from the epicenter (and hypocenter if you are interested) using delay times on the seismograph
Click for full-size image


Look at the HPA seismograph here:
http://www.fdsn.org/networks/detail/PT/
and our Hawaii quakes here:
https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo/hvo_earthquakes.html
Click on some earthquakes and note the depth and the seismic image.

Next: Rocks Module 25
Igneous (fire)
Sedimentary (layers)
Metamorphic (Kafka rocks, just kidding: changed by heat and pressure)

Click for full-size image

Igneous= directly from magma, can be either basalt (low melting point, like our island or oceanic plates) or granite (lighter, what continents are made of)
Granite breaks down into light colored sand, makes for fertile soil. Basalt (like us) can make sand too, but less fertile (e.g. black sand beach).

Sedimentary= just like it sounds, from mud, sand or dust, usually in layers.

Metamorphic= changed by heat and/or pressure (slate, marble or coal)

Soil-formed by weathering (chemical or physical) of parent rock
Erosion can be by water or air (wind)

Soil Horizons:
Click for full-size image


Click for full-size image

Our Soil Sieve has 4 filters, with 5 layers:
mesh 5 = 4 mm
mesh 10 = 2 mm
mesh 60 = .25 mm
mesh 230 = 0.063 mm

Basically, most of what you find is silt and clay...

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Module 23, 24: Human Populations

10.18.19 quiz

  1. Describe the community succession from the coast to Waimea, uphill.
  2. Describe the 4 survivorship curves
  3. Compare parasitism with predation
  4. Compare mutualism with commensalism
Extra credit: which one is more gross: a lamprey or a remora?
----------------------------------------

10.22.19 quiz

  1. When your rabbit population peaked, what was the rabbit and lynx population?
  2. When the lynx population peaked, what was your rabbit and lynx population?
  3. How would the graphs look if the predator were cold blooded?
  4. How could this model be used to map the spread of a disease?
----------------------------------------
First of all a flow diagram:
Click for full-size image
Note that this is for a country, not the planet, since people (so far) are not leaving the planet...or arriving from elsewhere.
National version as a formula:


If you look at the planet as a whole (sans aliens or Elon Musk):


so, there is a neat shorthand formula for this:

Which is an estimate, the real number is 69.3 (why? look below if you want to know)
Here is an example:


Note that as the growth rate increases, the doubling time decreases.
Look for this on the AP as multiples/fractions of 70: 14, 28, 35, and so on...

Now, to babies: TFR is the total number of babies a woman will have in her lifetime.
Replacement level fertility (RLF) is just above 2.0, (usually 2.1, as some babies don't reproduce or make it to reproductive age).
What does this mean in Japan, where young people are not having babies?

RLF depends on developed/developing nations as well (clean water, medical care, access to food, war)
Life expectancy: depends on these as well...
Infant mortality: under age 1 (reason for big Hawaiian one year birthdays)
child mortality: under 5

Look up life expectancy in 1900...
Look up the average family size and how many made it to age of 5 in 1900
What portion of the US population was farmers then?


Age structure diagrams/population pyramids-check these out: UAE, Japan, Sudan, Iraq/Iran, Russia----WHY?
See also baby boom and boom echoes...
Check this out:
https://www.populationpyramid.net/world/2018/
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10.25.19 quiz

  1. Give an example of how you might see the baby boom and boom echo on your population diagrams.
  2. You work for the UN tracking two nations: Kaimania and Ansonia. Kaimania has a growth rate of 14% and Ansonia has a growth rate of 3.5%. What are the doubling times for each?
  3. Kaimania has an immigration rate of 4%, a CDR of 2%, a CBR of 8% and an emigration rate of 2%. What is the growth rate for Kaimania?
  4. Why are first year birthdays such a big deal in some cultures?
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...and look these up:
  1. Go to 1950 and look at the US population. Look again in 1960. Where is the baby boom? Why were there so few babies born during 1940-45?
  2. If you were a 42 year old American in 2000, when were you born? How old are your kids? Find the "boom echo".
  3. Find the impact of the Iran/Iraq war of 1980-89, which side had the biggest impact? If you were a 35 year old Iraqi man in 1995, how old were you during this war?
  4. If you are a 30 year old German man in 1950, when were you born? How old were you in WWII (1936-1945)?
  5. If you were a 35 year old woman in Japan in 1960, why are there so few men to choose from?
  6. Look at the UK in 1960. Where are the casualties of WWII, and are they both male and female? Explain.
  7. What the heck is going on in UAE?
  8. Look at Russia in 1960. What gaps do you see? Why?
  9. Information about China is very spotty-why would this be? See if you can find the impact of the one-child policy from 1979-2016.
  10. Compare present day Japan to Africa. What issues will they need to address?
  11. Look at present day Italy, Japan and Germany. What is common?
  12. Compare present day India and China. What do you see?

Terms:

Fecundity: ability to reproduce

Fertility: production of offspring

CBR: crude birth rate: births per 1000 people

TFR: total fertility rate: total kids per woman in her lifetime (25-30!)

ZPG: zero population growth: 5+ where infant mortality is high, 2.1 is normal

China: was 6 -> 1.8 (below replacement level since 1979, one child policy)

140/100 male to female ratio: why?

Global TFR is 2.6

CDR: crude death rate: deaths per 1000

Why a life span? mitochondrial DNA...

1900 Indian man had life expectancy of 23!

Not now, reasons: nutrition CLEAN WATER, sanitation, education

75 men, 85 women (testosterone, war, "hold my beer and watch this!")

Dependency ratio; baby boomers and your future: how many workers to retirees

imagine your life at your age in other countries...

Russia low TFR: alcoholism and antibiotic resistant Tuberculosis


https://www.gapminder.org/tools/#_chart-type=bubbles

https://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_on_global_population_growth

Module 23 Demographic Transition

Better diagram:

Another possible version:
Click for full-size image



IPAT formula:


GDP vs. GNP (nationalism, global economy)

Urban areas, UGB (Portland)


See also Ecological Footprint Calculator:


http://www.footprintnetwork.org/resources/footprint-calculator/

https://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_shows_the_best_stats_you_ve_ever_seen

Rule of 70, er 69.3...The TRUTH!
We know that Nt =Noe^rt
When Nt/No = 2, this is the doubling time
ln (Nt/No) = ln (e^rt)
ln(e^x) = x just like square root of x squared is x. They are reverse of each other...
ln (2) = 0.693 = rt
So...
0.693/r = t2, the "doubling time"
But wait! we saw 70, not .693...
Growth rates are in percent (part/100) so the percents cancel out, meaning you can just use percent as a number, like 14%.
You will certainly see this on an AP exam, usually as a multiple or fraction of 70: 14, 28, 35, 7, 3.5...
Rule of 70 rules! (or actually the rule of 69.3)....

See Predator Prey lab below for Population simulation worksheets

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