AP EnvSci archive 2007-2010

Team,
Nice work on the last exam. Here is a link to some background on the coal/nuclear video you are working on now:
http://www.pbs.org/e2/teachers/pdfs/206_coal_and_nuclear_edu.pdf
Please remember to email your answers to me before class Tuesday.

Chapter 9:Energy

From the lab:
kWh is a unit of energy, bc Watts are a unit of power (work/time), so need to multiply kW by time (hours) to get energy

we found: you can measure current (i) with a clamp on meter
most applicances are either 120 Vac or 220 Vac, 60 Hz (cycles per second)

ohms law: V=iR volts = current(amps) x resistance (ohms)
Using ohmmeters, we can measure resistance, and calculate current.

Also useful: Power = V2/R

Joule's law: P = iV (also known as "pie" formula: P=iE)

Again, power is in watts, i is in amperes (amps) and voltage is in volts.

we calculated power of the hot water heater/coffee maker, about 900 watts
we could calculate the power of a 220 Vac air conditioner to be 8.8 amps at 220 volts, or 2000 watts. Units like these are found all over the campus. Note where you see a fatter than usual cord plugged into a special looking outlet, these are 220 volt outlets.

biggest expenses in homes are "vampire loads", on 24/7
not large, but the time factor makes them costly

cost: electrical energy in Hawaii is about $0.35/kWh, highest in the nation
CA is about 7, Oregon is about 5.

To calculate cost, multiply amount of kW by number of hours (recall that 720 hours are in a month)
so, kWh x $0.35/kWh gives you dollars

We can measure light output at 50 cm (0.5m) for a 45 watt incandescent light bulb and a compact fluorescent bulb (CFL)
The incand. bulb emitted 220 lux at 50 cm, and consumes 45 watts
the cfl emitted 450 lux at 50 cm and consumes 13 watts

recall the lux per watt of power numbers, the cfl comes out about 6x more efficient.

This demonstration needs to be done in a dark room, such as the electrical room.

--------
Textbook chapter 9 notes:

Between 1900-2007:
world energy changed 16x, economy 70x, population only 4x
why?
80% fossil fuels: all ultimately stored solar energy
fossil: nonrenewable
renewable: in this lifetime, perpetual
resources: all that is out there
reserves: all that can be extracted economically
resources-stay constant
reserves-increase as technology enables access, decreases with use.
Q infinity
Pennsylvania in 1859: oil discovered in PA
Coal: from freshwater swamps 300 my ago, covered with water, so anaerobic decay (e.g. peat bogs)
sediment wt. compressed to peat, then to lignite, then sub-bituminous coal, bituminous and anthracite (lowest water content).
n.b. relative carbon content increases as organics decompose, lose H and O molecules (plants were CHO, coal is just C)
US and china have lots of coal reserves...
global warming issues, railroads as transport,
question: what did Warren Buffet buy on Friday, 11.6.2009? Why?

Oil/natural gas:
marine organisms, ocean bottom, decay released oils into muddy sediments->shale (see oil shales in Canada)
IFF sandstone on top of shale, (oil sands, see Colorado), oil will pass through sands.
IFF cap rock, it will trap oil in domes:
gas-oil-water
"gushers" are not the real way, usually gas first-very dangerous, some emit H2S gas-very toxic (indonesia)
middle east has 60% of oil reserves, but they have reached "peak oil"
We need to discuss this-it is very important-----

80% world energy is non-renewable-heading for a crash
80% = coal 25%, oil 36%, gas 21%
n.b. could trains transport natural gas? what method is used in the US to move most of our coal? why? notice any connections?

Coal: more
lignite-brown coal, all that is left in UK, lots of water, low energy content, usually burned near the mine for energy
Sub-Bituminous coal-used for power plants
Bituminous coal-used for power, cement, steel
Anthracite-bldg heating (cleanest)

surface mining-strip mining, leaves tailings (see mine disaster of 2008 in US)
IFF overburden too thick (>100m) then mining needed
drift or vertical shaft mines
silicosis-black lung disease: external cost of mining (we pay the health care of miners)

Issues: land damage, toxic runoff (see butte, MT), dust, acid deposition, CO2 (coal is worst of oil/gas/coal for CO2 per kWh gained)

Oil: benefits: easier to extract, more concentrated energy, burns cleaner, can be moved through pipes (no trucks or trains needed).
found: land or ocean floor, harder to find today
primary recovery vs. secondary recovery (water injection), tertiary (steam)-see tar sands and oil shale issues
Processing: see 9.14

transport issues: exxon valdez, others (France:amoco cadiz, santa barbara)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_spills

p.195: ANWR-which option is sustainable?

Natural Gas:
21% of global energy
Usually extracted like oil, uses air for secondary extraction.
transported as LNG (liquified natural gas)
cleanest burning, least env impact, safest, cleanest burning, most kWh per CO2
Also: CH4 used to form NH4 fertilizers (thanks again, Dr. Haber and Dr. Bosch)

Renewable energy---------
fossil fuels: 80% global use
nuclear: 6%
energy use: 2% per year, present doubling time is 20 years, as supplies are constant or decrease as demand increases, renewables become more profitable
(n.b. if you use the rule of 70 on this 2% you get 35 years. Why do I then say 20 years?)

12% of global energy:
biomass, hydro, wind, solar, geothermal, tidal
biomass (e.g. wood) mostly in Under Developed countries
biomass: fuel wood, solid waste (Hpower plant)
bagasse (Maui land and sugar), and ethanol (e.g. corn, or sugar cane-Brazil)

energy from biomass:
burning; wood stoves, co-gen (combined heat and electricity generation system)
biofuels: ethanol, biodiesel
E85 is 85% ethanol

biodiesel: palm, rapeseed, soy, jetropha, 36% of global BD produced in DDR

biogas: anaerobic bacterial digestion-methane and CO2
see also landfills (e.g. kailua, oahu)

pyrolysis: fischer-tropsch process-syngas process

issues: competition with food crops, habitat loss,biodiversity loss, global warming, air pollution (leading cause of lung cancers in LD countries)

hydropower:
high "head" means deep dam, with thermoclines, habitat disruption (cool water pollution), sedimentation, limited dam lifespan. See logarithmic backflow curve.

low "head" systems like Aswan dam in Egypt, three gorges dam in China (look this up) 22,500 mW !
minihydro: less than 10 mW
microhydro: less than 1 mW
can be diverse, lower impact, decrease transit losses

issues: flooding of back lands (see china)
The construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China inundated 153 towns and 4500 villages and caused the displacement of over a million people. In addition, numerous archeological sites were submerged and the nature of the scenic canyons of the Three Gorges was changed.

fish ladders, silt fertilization, inorganic mercury -> organic mercury, bioaccumulation.

Solar energy--------
ultimate answer-
issues: only available in daytime-so must store energy
intermittent and diffuse (e.g. oceans)
ocean thermal energy conversion: OTEC Keahole
1. passive solar/solar thermal
2. active solar-pumped solar thermal
3. PV

passive: trombe walls: energy lab is essentially a liquid trombe wall in reverse
sunspaces are like the spaces in the ladakh school (see e2 video on this)

design of windows and floors to absorb heat from day to warm in night is another
see "daylighting" or smart skylights...
n.b. passive systems require no external energy to collect
another example: solahart passive convective solar thermal energy collector systems

Active solar: contrast this with solahart-need a pump (can be PV powered) to run solar thermal system
can be simple or complex (varied pump speeds with radiation, optimized ∆t, etc.)

coolant can be the substance used (e.g. hot water) or something else (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol)-these are also used for geothermal well cooling heating systems.

some systems are testing hot oil to 300°C, stored for later use, e.g. spain project, Keahole project, mojave desert project.

Solar Electric plants
two types: PV (direct) and solar thermal to steam (STS)

PV systems: crystalline silicon is expensive (see solar film video), but direct kWh from sunlight, no moving parts, 30 year lifespan, no maintenance (cleaning only)

Solar furnace: heats oil or other storage medium to 390°C (e.g. SEGS and Segovia plant in Spain)

see also solar stills for water desalinization and purification in LD countries

PV now at $0.20 per kWh (more than US, less than Hawaii-we are past the profit point on this)
efficiency: now at 14%, soon to be 40% (sanyo bifacials are 22% at elab)

18x increase in 20 years

Wind-----essentially solar energy working through convection
Hadley, Ferrel, and polar cells-see the weather this week
cell circulation allows for the transfer of heat from hot earth to cool space
Issues: variable, site specific, usually far from urban centers (high demand)-if there were a means to transfer the energy without loss...
Hydrogen power?
Europe leads wind power
concerns: birds (myth, except at Altamont pass), unsightly (true) latest plan: site them offshore cape cod in Mass.
people are NOT happy about it
map 9.29 is bogus, we are class 7 in Waimea
two types of turbines, VAWT and HAWT-why is each suited for specific uses?
noise, pressure waves also...


Geothermal---
What is it? heat close to the surface: hot rocks, or steam from water percolating down into hot rocks. MAG-MA (important: say in voice of Doctor Evil)
CA leads in geothermal, HI also (here on BI, puna geothermal ventures)
see also NZ (Rotorua) and iceland (everywhere) 50% for heating, 50% for electricity-also being seen as hydrogen fuel site-see car talk video:

Who else do you know who has "vast energy resources and a very small population"?
Ring any bells?

see also closed loop systems: uses a coolant solution, very hot pipes, but no toxic gases released (an issue in Puna)
Hydrogen sulfide gas is very nasty-turns to sulfuric acid in the lungs, toxic to fish, etc. etc.
See also pyrolysis of water at high temperatures, perhaps even on your roof (one future elab project)

Tidal/current---
Solar energy of another sort: the sun's gravity allows us to orbit, with the momentum from our initial explosion that formed the solar system ca. 5 by ago. Moon is also orbiting-us. As the moon passes overhead, its gravity attracts everything (very small rocks, cider, mud, churches, a duck) including MAG-MA, continental plates, you, and the oceans.
As these bulges in water recede, they form currents and tides (not the same: tides ebb and flow, currents are relatively constant-see the Alenuihaha channel between Maui and Hawai'i)
One can harness these currents and tides for power, as they are essentially very small head (∆h) hydroelectric projects, except current energy, which has less to do with relative height than with global movement of water.
5 meters of ∆h needed to make tidal worthwhile. About 5 mph (2 m/s) needed to make current profitable, Hawaii has 12-20 mph current in the channel (google the UH ship Holo Holo, lost at sea, about 1977. issues: technical-biofouling, damage, corrosion.

Conservation---
Not sexy, but dollar for dollar, 4x more efficient than installing new wind or PV.
Like filling a bathtub while leaving the drain open.
idea: find out what energy-star means on an appliance
CFL bulbs-issues: mercury
see also small scale cogen plants (lichtblick)
http://www.reuters.com/article/GCA-GreenBusiness/idUSTRE5883E520090909

Storage methods:
Fuel cells-just like in Apollo 13
+ no pollution
- 40% efficient, 90% if you capture the waste heat for heating water, buildings, etc. Recall your first weeks here, and the idea of entropy-see how it fits now?
Can one make hydrogen non-flammable? No, but we can make it less explosive (lithium hydride canisters)

PSH pumped storage hydro (one reason the energy lab is sited where it is)

ASSIGNMENTS:
View these videos, questions follow:
About the School in Ladakh:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/e2_videos/e2%20design%202/1%20druk%20white%20lotus%20school-ladakh.m4v

Hydrogen Power:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/car/program.html
or here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/media/e2/nova_new_cars/nova_cars.mov
or Here if you are on the HPA network:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/media/e2/web_movies/nova.mp4

Read chapter 9, short quizzes this section instead of larger ones, be prepared each day.

Next assignment: Read this weblog on biofuels:
http://xserve.hpa.edu:80/groups/apes/wiki/2d15f/biofuel_articles.html

Mr. Emmons' moonshine page:
http://www.ehow.com/how_6042008_make-biofuel-potatoes.html

Let us know how we can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please watch this video, questions are below.

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/E2/e2%20energy/E2_ENERGY-12.mp4


Friday:
We will review 20 questions before the exam on chapter 8. Choose your questions wisely, perhaps ones that you may not be certain of.
Test to follow the review session, homework due at the beginning of class, so make a note of the questions you want to review before you turn in your work.

Below is a summary of notes from chapter 8 that might help you review.

Let us know if you have questions.
aloha
b

Video questions:
Please complete these over the weekend, and email your answers as well as the questions to me at bill@hpa.edu:

What is the "perfect storm" referred to in the video?

Trace the evolution of coal from a 19th century fuel to a 21st century fuel

What are the two biggest fuels for electrical power in the US? Compare this to the audio about the two energy systems in the US. What is the connection?

China starts a coal fired power plant every 6 days. How long will each plant be emitting CO2?

What are the big issues with coal?

"Clean coal" is now (2010) thought to be a myth. The video was done five years ago. Discuss both sides of this issue, including research on recent data (wikipedia might help).

How many years could coal provide energy is the issues were resolved?

Why would a politician from Montana want a carbon sequestration plant there? Where is the powder river basin? What comes from there?

The Coal Lady describes sequestration like a sponge-a better analogy might be CO2 into carbonated water, like we did in class. Why would they be concerned about faults? Why has no one tested CO2 sequestration, even the progressive test plant in Florida?

Su-bituminous coal is one type. What are the others, and why are they different?

Why does Dan Kammen think CO2 sequestration is a bad idea, or bad science? Is he wrong? What do you think? Why is he against the IGCC plant?

Coal power costs about $2 per kWh. Solar is about $5 per kWh, but may soon be as cheap as $0.50 per kWh. What would this do to the coal industry?

Coal lady says that we now release 100% of the CO2. How is she manipulating you?

IGCC stands for what, and why is it different from traditional plants? Why is the government helping fund this test? What do they do with the CO2?

Are you starting to see why to understand global climate change you first have to grasp the coal issue? Why?

We studied the cyclic nature of renewable energy development. Why is the fossil fuel cycle making this problematic?

Why is nuclear desirable over coal? Nuclear guy compares wind to nuclear, but he fudges the numbers-how is he lying?

What are the challenges to using nuclear power? Are these social or scientific?

Explain what happened at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl.

What is a pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR), and how is it different from traditional nuclear plants?

The Germans keep coming up in our discussions of energy. Why? In Victorian England of 1850, a gentleman was taught Latin instead of Chemistry, which was thought of a subject for menials. How did this differ from the German system?

Explain the Lego model for a PBMR, and why it changes the return on investment (ROI) and the net present value (NPV) for a nuclear plant.

The video does not mention it, but we are now (2010) reaching peak cheap uranium as well as peak cheap oil. How would this change the tone of the solutions presented?

Vijay is optimistic-why?


Notes from Chapter 8 in the textbook
ch 8 notes-energy patterns of consumption

sun->photosynthesis is main course of terrestrial energy
civilization: agriculture, domesticated animals, wood for cooking/shelter
industrial revolution: coal (was for heating, hard to mine)
Ind. rev: more coal (mining devices), steam heat/power-began in UK
good points: portable, can be industrially concentrated (e.g. mined), used for many purposes (heat, steam-> kWh, syngas, plastics)

n.b. fig 8.4-note trends from renewable (wood) to limited (fossil fuels)
natural gas-easy to gather (surface wells), easy to process, store
nat gas 23% of US energy
n.b. T. Boone Pickens' energy plan (look up on wikipedia)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T_boone_pickens#The_Pickens_Plan

biomass: renewable, but low energy density
How to concentrate? See BTL, Fischer-Tropsch process:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomass_to_liquid
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fischer_Tropsch
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel
Portals:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Energy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Ecology
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Sustainable_development
http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Category:Renewable_energy

See fig 8.6-why is Canada so high? Why is Bengaladesh so low?
n.b. heating water-greatest energy use for lowest quality energy-crazy!
See fig 8.8-why are we so high? why again is B so low?

Electricity: both a means for consumption and a means of transport (e.g. wires)
Primary electircal sources: burning fossil fuels, nuclear, hydro, geothermal, wind, tidal, solar
n.b. Norway and Canada hydro-why?
n.b. Iceland all geothermal-why?
n.b. France-nuclear-why? recall Mururoa atoll
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_nuclear_testing#Atmospheric_tests_at_Mururoa_.26_Fangataufa

50% of power in Korea for industry!

Governmental influence on energy use: OPEC 1973, CAFE standards, coal subsidies, interstate system vs. rail and bus systems
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Oil_Embargo
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CAFE_standards

electrical energy pricing-we will soon see a film on Enron-yikes!

OPEC-July 2008: $149/bbl

n.b. fig 8.14-what is the fastest growing region? why should this worry us?

see fig 8.15-notice OPEC countries, and regions of political instability
Is renewable energy our best means of national defense?




Posted by:

Team,
Remember in the beginning of our time together we discussed the four critical issues that you will have to navigate, cope with and/or solve: water, energy, food and culture.
This chapter is about energy, but not in the way usually covered in science textbooks, yet more in depth than you may have covered in any social studies textbook. This is such an important issue, yet it goes unmentioned in most of your classes.
It is vital that you understand not only the chain of energy use in our society and that of others, but the changes and vulnerabilities in these chains.

Some basic concepts:
1. All energy ultimately comes from the sun, either long ago as fossil fuels or biomass, as precipitation turning into hydroelectric power, convection driving wind, uranium deep in the core from the formation of the earth for geothermal, or the motion of the moon for tidal energy. It all comes from the sun in one way or another, renewably or stored from events long ago.

2. Before plants evolved on this planet, it looked a lot like Mars: red atmosphere, very hot, very high carbon dioxide levels. You saw this in the video. Plants converted this atmospheric carbon into plant structures like wood, which then either decomposed back into atmospheric carbon, or if it were covered, into fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas, depending on what covered it up (swamps, oceans or land).

3. When we dig up this stored carbon and combine it with oxygen in the atmosphere, a process we call "burning", it releases that stored carbon back into the atmosphere. Why should we care about this? Remember Mars? Radiation from the sun passes through our atmosphere. Some of it is trapped by layers in the atmosphere on the way down, this is necessary for life. I'm talking about the ozone layer and ultraviolet light. Visible light passes relatively easily to the ground, where it heats the ground, turning visible light into heat (longer wavelength, lower energy). This heat radiates back to space, but is trapped by several gases: among these are water vapor (one reason IR telescopes are located on the top of Mauna Kea, above the water vapor in the atmosphere), and carbon dioxide, which is dispersed through the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide does not allow infrared (heat) radiation to pass very well, effectively bouncing it back to the surface. Think of the black dashboard of your car in the sun: visible light passes through the windshield, hits the black plastic, then re-radiates back as heat, which cannot pass through the glass. Result: your car gets very hot. This is called the greenhouse effect, because since Roman times, it has been used to grow warm plants in cold environments, using glass houses called greenhouses. Clever, eh?
So, here's your question: if we continue digging up and burning fossil fuels stored eons ago when the atmosphere was full of carbon dioxide, and use this stored energy to run our civilization, what will happen to the temperature of the atmosphere?
This is one reason this chapter is much more important than you might sense at first reading.

4. Fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal have other elements stored with them that are released when burned. One example is the heavy metals and sulfur stored in coal: when it burns, it releases these elements into either the air (sulfur dioxide which then becomes acid rain) or in the toxic ash left behind (fly ash). So, beyond the greenhouse effect, fossil fuels make our life harder in other ways.

5. The control of fossil fuels begins with the industrial revolution, when coal was the big fuel, because it could be mined from the ground at rates higher and cheaper than one could harvest and transport wood. It is all about "intensity". Wood is a great, renewable biomass, but if you are lazy, or you run out of forest, you can dig up coal, which has much more energy stored in it per kg. Until about 1870, all oil came from whales (the reason that Lahaina developed over on Maui back then). After 1870, oil was discovered in Pennsylvania (you may have seen cans of oil labeled Pennzoil, this is why), which at first replaced whale oil for lamps and lubrication for machines, then was distilled or "cracked" into it's constituents: kerosene, diesel, gasoline, tar, asphalt, and others. Natural gas usually came along with oil, and the methods for collecting and compressing this into a usable fuel came along as well (you may have heard of gaslight in older literature-this was usually methane from these wells, captured and stored in large urban areas, then piped into houses and streets for lighting, heating and cooking).
The big concept again is intensity: wood is renewable, but coal, oil and gas are more concentrated, can be stored without rotting, and can be more easily transported and concentrated for industrial use. If we were still an agrarian (farming) society alone, we would not find fossil fuels so critical-unless…

6. Fertilizers are made up of three elements: N-P-K, which stand oddly for nitrogen, phosphorus and potash or potassium (kalium). The more critical of these for agriculture are the N and P parts. Through history, P was so critical that they actually dug up the bones of dead soldiers after major battles (such as Waterloo) to use as fertilizer, since bones are where we store phosphorus in our bodies. Nations sent ships all over the world looking for islands populated by birds and caves of bats because the bat guano (poop) was so high in phosphorous as well as nitrogen. Sailing ships would fill their holds with bird and bat poop and sail back to England to maintain their agricultural economy. Gunpowder (potassium nitrate, sulfur and charcoal) is made from nitrogen as well, in the form of nitrates. Most of this came from Chile, or from these poop ships.
Until…
Late in the 1800's, a German chemist named Haber found a way to extract the nitrogen in the air to form three chemicals: aniline, used to dye wool and cotton (recall the term "dyed in the wool"), make nitrogen based fertilizers, and to make gunpowder. You may know that a big thing happened in Germany around this time, with a dude named Bismarck (later to have a battleship and a town in the Dakotas named after him). Bismarck united the various city-states of Germany into one country. Ok, now put these together:
a. large country, lots of land
b. fertilizer, to make lots of crops on that land
c. food from these crops to increase the health and number of the population
d. new permanent chemical dyes that break the British monopoly on dying wool and cotton from their plantation countries of India and Egypt, among others. Think: loads of money.
e. gunpowder so you can go to war to get more land for (a) above using the soldiers from c above, fed by crops from (b) above, with weapons bought with money from (d) above.
The Germans invaded France, among other places. This was called World War I.

7. Later on, in 1932 King Ibn Saud formed the country of Saudi Arabia (see the word Saud in there?). Shortly thereafter, while drilling wells for water, they discovered oil. They then worked with an American company (Standard Oil) to collect and refine this oil, called ARAMCO, the Arab American Oil Company in 1933. All was just dandy until 1973, when the Arabs in Egypt, Syria and other places tried to attack Israel, our ally in the Yom Kippur War, to whom we gave weapons, and more importantly, satellite photos of the attacking Arabs, who were then defeated by the Israelis. Do you imagine the Arabs were happy about this? They were not. As major players in OPEC (the organization of petroleum exporting countries, controlling 78% of the world oil supply) they embargoed oil from any country friendly to Israel, including the US.
Check it out:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_oil_embargo

The result? All oil products increased in price, our economy faltered (we were just then finishing up a nasty, long war in Asia), and our country realized that energy was a critical issue. Conservation became important, our approach to cars, buildings and electricity changed, and it seemed like we were moving towards renewable energy sources.

Then, in 1978, Russia invaded Afghanistan. We pulled out of the olympics in 1980, Reagan came to power, devoted to crushing the Soviets by outspending them on the military. The Soviets needed cash, so they sold as much oil and natural gas as they could. The result? The price of oil dropped, renewable energy went to sleep, and Reagan took off the solar panels President Carter had installed on the white house. So it goes.

But wait! There's more! In 1990, Iraq, a major oil country, invaded Kuwait, our pal and an even more major oil country. Though small, these guys were loaded with cash, so we offered to help them kick Saddam Hussein out of Kuwait, which we did in the first gulf war. Oil, politics and the economy are never far from each other through history. Fast forward to 2008, when oil went from around $20 per barrel to $149 per barrel. This was like the 1973 Arab Oil Embargo, renewable energy once again became popular, conservation and smaller cars were in vogue, you get the picture. Do you notice a cycle here? Can you see a solution to this problem that will only get worse as you get older?

Well you need to know something else: the supply is running out. This is called "Peak oil" and it is even scarier than the last few oil shocks, because it is not so much political as it is a physical reality:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peak_oil

The point is, we are running out of what is known as "cheap oil". Think of this: why was BP drilling in water 5 thousand feet deep off the coast of Louisiana? There will always be oil in some places, but the cost of recovering it (either money or environmental or political) will exceed the market value. Notice I say market value here, if a country goes to war, this is no longer market driven.

Does this mean all we have to do is conserve energy, develop alternate renewable energy sources and we are all set?
Not quite.
Remember the Haber process? Sometime after oil became cheap, folks found a way to create fertilizers economically using petrochemicals. These replaced the less intense fertilizers (like bat and bird poop) that one had to gather, and enabled farmers to have access to cheap, effective fertilizers, raising yields and lowering the cost of food. Now think of peak oil. What will this mean for farmers, food supplies and political stability?
Throw into this mix a relatively recent development: using petrochemicals to grow corn in a monoculture that is then used not for food but for ethanol. The carbon balance on this is not only ugly, it is not sustainable. More than 1 liter of petroleum is used to create 1 liter of ethanol, while also diverting food crops to fuel.
There is another recent development related to crops and energy: Back in the 1930's, Germany (again) had limited access to petroleum, but ready access to coal. They needed petroleum for their economy, and two German scientists Fischer and Tropsh devised a process for turning coal into liquid fuel, called CTL (coal to liquid).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fischer-Tropsch_process
Recently, this process has been updated to enable biomass to liquid (BTL) to be economically viable. This is key, because it (a) does not use food crops, instead focusing on grasses and fast growing trees, (b) is sustainable, as the biomass grows naturally, captures carbon from the atmosphere, then carries this carbon as an energy vehicle where needed, then releases the carbon as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and c) enables countries with low intensity energy (e.g. agrarian or farming nations) to be energy self sufficient, or even energy exporters, enabling them to trade for other things, or to fend off predatory investment that might otherwise threaten their people, their environment, or their future.

So, we come full circle: Forests were sustainable, yet not concentrated enough for the wasteful industrial revolution of the 1850's. It was replaced by coal, then by oil, which has now reached peak production. We are now at a place in history where we can once again harvest sustainable biomass, use it wisely, and reach a sustainable energy future, while not threatening food supplies, political boundaries or cultures. Biomass is a part of the solution, that fits our current energy use, storage and distribution system. One reason we are studying electricity in class is that you may have heard of the "smart grid". One key to the adoption of renewable energy will be the storage and distribution of this energy from places where it is harvested (sunny, windy, geothermal or hydroelectric areas) to the places where the users are (urban areas formed in the fossil fuel era). Will these areas shift to be closer to the sources of the power? Perhaps. Some very wise, very wealthy folks are on to this: T. Boone Pickens made his billions on oil. He has now sold all of that, and is installing wind farms all over Texas.
Warren Buffet, another billionaire just bought the Southern Pacific Railroad, on which most of the coal in our country is delivered, usually from the Powder River Basin in Utah and nearby to power what? The coal fired electric plants around the country. Notice where these guys, who are experts at looking around the next corner are positioning themselves.
LIsten:
Two energy Systems in the US
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=128127191

T.Boone Pickens: "we don't get on our own resource when we have the opportunity to do it, this generation could go down as probably the dumbest crowd that ever came down the street."
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125533464&sc=emaf

Electricity in America:
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=103417561

Framing climate change
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=123950399


Please review these questions, and turn in for credit Wednesday:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/Chap008-blind.pdf

Our first energy exam will be on Friday, 10.29.

Let us know how we can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
First of all, each and every one of you did better than you think on this test. It was our first example of what Mr. Emmons and I have been describing in the AP exam: some questions are easy, some are so so, and some are really brutal. You all did surprisingly well in the toughest parts of this, and I've created a review sheet of the most commonly missed questions here:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/chapter7_pmr.pdf

What might be a nice idea would be for us to re-test you on these questions soon, so you can get some of those precious points. Let us know how you think about this idea.

Second point: the question on parallel growth was poorly worded, so I threw it out. You will all notice that your grade on the gradebook for the test is 2 points higher than that listed on the test site. It's because we are such nice guys.

Speaking of nice guys, Mr. Emmons and I care deeply about your experience here, and how we can both prepare you for a tough exam in May, while also engaging you as creative, whole, contributing beings with a great deal to share.

We are working on finding the best ways to do this, and each class is different, just as each of you learns in your own unique way. We are trying to find that way for each of you, and support you. You may have noticed we tried multiple choice, true false and short answer questions on this last test. You all rocked on the multi-part matching question, which should have been one of the toughest-great work folks.
As for the short answer questions, many of you had great answers, others had just enough to get the point across, and others tried valiantly to snow us. We have seen more snow than Antarctica, so don't go that route next time. The best answers came from those who took notes in class, reviewed the notes, and read the text before class. This is not magic, but you may find it makes the difference in college between those who survive and those who thrive.

Next class: Wednesday we'll go over the exam, then prepare for chapter 8 on energy. We will have a hands-on workshop for you, so make sure you bring your calculator to class.

As always, please let us know how we can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Monday we will begin with an exam. We'll be including both true/false and short answer questions this time, to help prepare you for the AP exam.
Make sure you read the following topics on wikipedia:
BOD
Dissolved Oxygen
Water quality index
capillary action
biodiversity

Please also listen to this short clip on population:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/media/20101017_wesun_15.mp3

We appreciate that you need to plan out your week, so please read chapter 8 for class this week, which will prepare you for our discussion of energy. Please make sure you bring your calculator to class on Wednesday.

Let us know if there is any way we can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Let's move the test for chapter 7 to Monday, and go over population some more on Thursday. There was a great deal of material, and we went over it very, very fast.
Here's what you are responsible for:
Thursday: turn in your chapter outline to Mr. Emmons
Weekend: Finish your questions, and do the online practice quiz (see previous post)
Monday: HW and online practice quiz due, test on chapter 7, finish up soils lab.
Wednesday: Begin chapter 8 on energy, lab on energy audits
Thursday: Show your parents how smart you are with the energy meters

We hope this is better and more humane, let us know if we can help further. Please view these videos for class Thursday:
http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/hans_rosling_on_global_population_growth.html
http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/hans_rosling_the_good_news_of_the_decade.html
http://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_reveals_new_insights_on_poverty.html

If you have time, this is another very cool one where Ted Rosling predicts what day, month and year that Asia will overtake the world:

http://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_asia_s_rise_how_and_when.html

aloha
b

Posted by:

Chapter 7 population questions Due Thursday 10.14.10

What factors impact a population?

What are the three survivorship curves for sheep, birds and plants?

Describe the population curves for + growth, neutral growth and - growth

Explain "biotic potential"

What are the 4 parts of a population curve, including overshoot

In the Denali wolf/moose example, explain the overshoot and phase shift

Explain the K and r tragegies, including the formula for growth rate

What is the extinction rate?

Explain the rule of 70, and give three examples

What was Malthus' proposal, and why has it not come true (so far)

Explain the IPAT formula, and give an example (be creative)

TFR means what?

What TFR is belived to be stable equilibrium?

What was the TFR for women in China in the 1980's? Why?

Explain why the literacy of women is related to fertility and sustainability?

Explain the trophic level pyramids, and why vegetarians are more sustainable than carnivores (e.g. humans)

Explain and graph the four stages in the demographic transition model

If you look at the population curves for the US (figure 7.18), you will see the WW I baby boom and the WW II baby boom. Explain the "boom echo".

Chapter 7 population notes

n.b. c/c means cunningham text, see the AP env sci folder on this server, here:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/cunningham_text/



population: same species, same location

Factors: birthrate (natality), death rate (mortality), sex ratio, age distribution, growth rate (r), density, spatial distribution

birthrate is per 1000 people, so 20/2000 is 10/k per year

mortality is same

survivorship curves (see fig 7.2) sheep-long life, birds-predators, non specific, plants-lots of offspring don't survive

population growth rate = Brate - Drate

See Fig 7.1, see also 6.6 in c/c page 123

Sex ratio: women always on the right

age distribution curves: pyramid is + growth, parallel is stable growth, inverted pyramid is - growth

repro years = 15-40 for female humans

see figure 7.3

spatial distribution: flowers

emigration: out, immigration:in

biotic potential: inherent repro capacity: geese=10/year, elephants=0.5/year

population curves: see figure 7.5
lag section: lots of food, takes time to reproduce
exponential section: grows according to At = A0 e kt
deceleration: food supply outstripped by population
stable: balance
overshoot: too many for food supply

see figure 6.3 and 6.4 in c/c chapter 6, page 119
see also figure 6.8 in c/c on overshoot

limiting factors: environmental resistance
extrinsic: predators, food source
intrinsic: self controlled, mice fertility drops in overpopulation (negative feedback)

see figure 6.10 in c/c, extinction rate

density dependent: predators, food
density independent: frost, flood, fire

limiting factors: energy, waste, raw materials

CARRYING CAPACITY-always on the AP exam: stable population, renewable resources, sustainable

"stable" is really negative feedback, equilibrium

Strategies:
K: mammals, take care of young, reach stable population at carrying capacity, few offspring, density dependent, low infant mortality

r: bacteria, lots of offspring, high infant mortality, limited by density independent factors (fire, flood, etc.)

see the growth formula: N is population, t is time, r is growth rate, K is carrying capacity:

∆N/∆t = rN(1-N/K)

n.b. as N/k -> 1, ∆N/∆t -> 0

negative feedback is the key here

r: less crowded, so N/K is close to 0, so rate is rN

K: follows carrying capacity, so N/K close to 1, so rate is close to 0

Malthus: population grows exponentially, food linearly, tf crash

see fig 7.12

Impact: IPAT
Impact = population * affluence * technology (we are high on all three)

imagine a village...

Demography: birthrate vs. deathrate

TFR: total fertility rate: number of offpring in female lifetime
2.1 is stable (why not 2.0?)

first child age: 14 in LDC, 21 in DC

see population bomb, ca. 1970

see c/c 7.17

see fig 7.14

Africa vs. US (5.0 TFR vs. 1.6 TFR)

female literacy prop. to TFR, tf GFO focus, also Grameen bank

china 1980, one child policy (some of these kids go to HPA)
tf no concept of sister or brother...the term disappeared...

ChengDu earthquake-China govt. allowed parents to have another child

GNI = gross national income
PPP = purchase power parity (e.g."fair trade")
see Mexico workers

see fig. 7.15, p. 159 Grameen bank

Trophic pyramid: n = 1% for carnivore, 10% for herbivore

see fig. 7.17 Demographic transition model

1. premodern: high BR, high DR, low, stable population
2. urbanization: high BR, low DR, growing pop.
3. mature: low BR (literacy of females), low DR, slowly increasing pop.
4. post-industrial: low BR, low DR, stable pop.

see fig 7.18, pop curves
WW I baby boom, ca. 1918
WW II baby boom, 1945-65 (parents were 20-40 yrs. old)
where is the "boom echo"?

What happened to the pop curves of Iran and Iraq following 1980-1990 period?
To what gender?
Why?

See c/c 7.11 and 7.14

Posted by:

Team,
Nice work on the last quarter, our next section will begin with population, then spend a few chapters on Energy.
Let's begin this week with Chapter 7 in the text, which you should read before class. We'll go over notes on chapter 7 Monday in class, then test on it when we meet on Thursday. Since this is being posted on Sunday afternoon, instead of Friday afternoon, let's make the chapter outline due to Mr. Emmons on Thursday, unless we have any schedule changes.
Here's an outline of the next two weeks:

Monday, 10.11: Chapter 7-Population notes in class (check here for video updates as well)
Thursday, 10.14: Chapter 7 test: population

Monday, 10.18: Begin Chapter 8 on energy, begin our first energy lab
Wednesday, 10.20: Chapter 8 on energy, more hands-on labs
Thursday, 10.21 (parent's day): short class on energy audits, you get to show your parents how smart you are...

Please complete the practice quiz for chapter 7 by Thursday, here is the link:

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/chapter7/practice_quiz_.html

One last thing: Here is a question from the AP exam last year. Make sure you know the answer before class tomorrow:

If you were to look at a map of the world biomes, what five-step pattern would you generally see as your eyes move from the regions at the equator to the regions at the poles (put these in correct order):

deciduous forest, tropical forest, ice and snow, taiga, tundra



As always, let us know how can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
This week (Tuesday and Thursday), we'll be going over chapter 6 (see notes below), reviewing your answers to the Earth video, and wrapping up our soils lab. As you may already know, Friday is the end of the quarter, so all work must be turned in for credit before then.
We'll plan on a chapter 6 test Thursday, along with all of the other test in every other class you are taking.

Here are some helpful links from past entries:

Study questions online:
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/

Remember to select the chapter on the left, then look for practice quiz below that:

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/chapter6/practice_quiz_.html

Test link:
https://www.eztestonline.com/207829/index1.tpx

Online grades:
http://physics.hpa.edu/~admin/grades/apes/

Let us know if you have any questions.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please check out the notes below, and the earth videos assignment:

Addition: here are Mr. Emmons' notes from last class:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/Presentationch5.pdf

apes reading notes 
ch 5
apes reading notes
ch 5 environments and organisms
codes:
n.b. means nota bene, in latin, "note well"
esp. = especially
w/o = without
bc = because
wrt= with respect to
iff=if and only if
e.g.=for example
Op cit= Opus Citera, cited in the work
btw=by the way
ttfn=ta ta for now
pos=parent over shoulder


Notes
energy and matter flow is critical
everything that affects an organism=environment
abiotic=not living, biotic=living
limiting factor-see also rate limiting factor-recall cafeteria line, create your own image
range of tolerance-critical to adaptability (not mentioned in the book)
habitat-place, niche-role
adaptation-change in organism to meet surroundings and survive/thrive
genes-DNA determining characteristics
you=25% mom, 25% dad
population=same kind, same place
species=population concept: all organisms capable of reproduction with that gene set
natural selection: process, close fit between demands of environment and organism
NS over time=evolution
Natural Selection:
1. genetic variation (if none, then there is no outstanding survivor possible)
2. plenty of offspring, leading to…
3. stress on the system resources (food, water, land etc.)
4. outstanding survivors reproduce
5. incremental changes over generations improve adaptation (could be fast, like bacteria or fruit flies)

Speciation=like specialization in medicine: general doctors become radiologists
Often caused by splits in populations (sub populations) like the bunnies and the river…
diploid=you, 2 sets of chromosomes (colored bodies)
ployploidy=many chromosomes (e.g. plants)
Extinction=not enough of a species to effectively reproduce. Effective is the key word, genetic variation diminishes way before extinction occurs.
background rate: 10 species per year
present rate: many times this
co-evolution: two species change together, often in symbiosis

Interactions:
Predator-prey
Competition: interspecies (hawks, owls, foxes hunting the same mice), intraspecies (fastest wins in similar plants)
Symbiosis (see below)

Competitive Exclusion Principle (CEP): no 2 species can occupy the same niche in the same place (habitat) at the same time.

Symbiotic relationships:
Parasitism: B (parasite) feeds on A (host), A suffers for this
Vectors may be involved that carry the parasite (e.g. mosquitoes)
ectoparasites-outside endoparasites-inside

Commensalism: B benefits from A, A does not suffer
"opportunistic"

Mutualism: A benefits, B benefits
e.g. nitrogen fixing bacteria: mycorrhizae

Others: nest parasitism (cow bird), blood parasites

Community: different species in same area (ecosystem)
Ecosystems:
Producers: turn inorganic sources into organic sources, e.g. plants (sun energy) or sulfur plants (Sulfur oxidation and heat from deep sea volcanic vents)
consumers: Primary (eat the plants, e.g. herbivores) or secondary (carnivores, they eat the herbivores)
Omnivores: eat everything
Decomposers: decay everything back to organic and inorganic materials

Keystone species: critical role in balance of the ecosystem: remove them and the ecosystem cannot function
e.g. bison, sea otter
n.b. energy flow through the ecosystem

Trophic levels (very important)
producers: level 1
primary consumers: level 2
secondary consumers: level 3
meat eating carnivores: level 4

90% energy is lost in every transition (recall our talk on energy tax)
Low trophic level is sustainable
Can also be demonstrated by comparing biomass pyramid

Food chains, food webs (both were on the AP exam last year btw)
Food chain: series of organisms at ascending trophic levels, energy flows up
see also bio-accumulation of Hg (mercury)
detritus-decaying matter from living things
good web-intersection of several food chains, mutual interdependence, biodiversity, all good things...

Biochemical cycles (n.b. chemical)
Many chemical cycles, three are critical: carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus
Carbon-stored in atmosphere as CO2, then in bones and organic matter (e.g. wood)
Nitrogen-stored in atmosphere as N2 (gas), used as NO3 and NH4 by primary producers, basis for protein (CHON)
Phosphorus-from rocks, stored in bones-see Waterloo diggers…yuk

photosynthesis-50% occurs in the oceans
light converted to sugar (recall Maui onions)
can track carbon as C14/6 through atmosphere, to CHO (plant) to CHON(protein) to CO2 or oil
All Americans over 50 have traces of C14 from atomic bomb testing in our bones…radioactive phosphorus as well…more yuk
green manure-sacrificial bean crops
crop rotation-n.b.
Question: why was Nauru so high in PO4? Hint: it is an island
fossil fuels burned-how does this change the Carbon cycle balance?

n.b. erg runoff: recall the video on Chesapeake R. eutrophication, algal blooms and red tides (we did not cover these, look them up on wikipedia)

Chapter 6 notes
Chapter 6 notes: Ecosystems and communities
Succession-communites proceed through series of recognizable, predicatable changes in structure over time
long lasting and stable
factors: climate, food, invasion etc.
climax comm. stable, long lasting result of succession
determined by climate, water, substrate and org. type

primary succession-no existing organisms
secondary succession-destruction of existing ecosystem

Primary succession-terrestrial-
factors: substrate (e.g. soil), climate, repro structures, rate of growth, organic matter, water
pioneer comm.- first to colonize bare rock (e.g. lichen)
later comm.-soil available, holds water (life)
1 pioneer stage
lichen: mutualistic: algae/bacteria(photosynthesis) + fungi to hold on
2 secondary stage: soil: retains water, structural support
(succession: plants shade lichens)
3 climax community-stable, diverse, interconnected, interdependent, many niches, recycle biomass (constant)

process of succession is called a sere, stages are seral stages
see fig 6.3-imagine driving from puako to waimea

Primary succession-aquatic
oceanic-stable
limnotic/riparian-transitional, fills with sediment
stages:
1. aquatic vegetation-e.g. aquarium, leads to wet soil and terrestrial networks (roots, wet meadow)
2. transitional: biomass of trees creates top layers of soil, transition to terrestrial climax comm.

imagine trip from middle of lake to shore-see all transitions
bogs=transitional stage from shore to dry land (Ireland, Scotland)

Secondary Succession-terrestrial
recall: existing comm. is replaced
e.g. pond fills to become a meadow, then climax forest
can reverse: beaver dams: land to aquatic
see also human dams, exponential decay curve

Biomes-------
determined by climate, altitude, water (precipitation), temperature
similar niches and habitats in each biome

Earth Questions
earth questions

How old is the earth? How old did early church leaders think it was?

Hutton found what rock formation in Scotland was the clue to the real age of the earth?

Kelvin used thermal cooling calculations to determine the age for the earth-how long was this?
Why was he wrong?

What is "deep time"?

What is so special about "pillow lavas"? What is the Hawaiian name for these?

What does Zircon have to do with aging the planet? What do they tell us about the source of water?

Water is neat stuff. Why would the temperature of the earth 4 bY ago accelerate changes?

3.4 bY ago a new type of rock was formed-what is this rock, and how does it fit into the asthenosphere picture of plate tectonics?

South Africa hosts the CapeVal Cretins: what are these? Why are these important? What did these have to do with the beginning of life? Where was life limited to before these?

What are stromatolites, and what did they produce? From what?

Playford found what? What is the impact of what he found?

What caused the change in the color of the oceans? What then happened to the atmosphere? What color was the planet after this?

What is a trilobite, and where are they found? Why are they significant? What did they prove?

What did Wegener believe? How easy was this to prove? When and how was it finally proven?

What does convection have to do with plate tectonics?

Why is Iceland such an ideal place to study plate tectonics?

What was Rodinia? Why did it cause climate change about 700 mY ago? Why is this so critical to understand today?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rodinia

What was the Cambrian Explosion? Why is it important? What did Walcott discover? Where? What is the Burgess Shale Quarry? Why is shale so special in this process?

When did carnivores show up? Why? How did their presence change the evolution of creatures?

What did the ozone shield enable the growth of? Where did the ozone come from?

What formed the carbon in the carboniferous era? What did life look like 60 mY ago? What does this carbon look like today?

What does the freshwater in a swamp enable? Why is this important?

What did dead marine organisms transform into? Why is this important to us?

What caused the first mass extinction? What is a mantle flume eruption?

What was the name of the next supercontinent?

What were the predominant survivors of the first mass extinction?

Why would Utah be a good place to find these survivors?

What would be the advantage of being "luke-warm" blooded?

How did the first global warming trend change the dinosaurs? Why did this eventually become their downfall?

The Kimberly "stove pipe" means what? How are diamonds formed?

Who discovered the CT (KT) boundary, and what does it signify? When was this? When was it discovered, and how?

How big was the Yucutan meteor? How was it found (look this up on wikipedia)

50 mY ago, the mammals evolved. How did the demise of the dinosaurs make this possible? Science fiction movies often show cavemen fighting dinosaurs-why is this totally bogus?

What is similar about the Alps and the Himalayas, apart from them being mountains? What limits their ultimate altitude?

Mauna Loa is the largest landmass in the world. From the base of Mauna Loa on the 20,000 ft. deep ocean floor to it's top 13,500 ft. above sea level is much higher than Everest (29,000 ft.). How is this possible?

2 mY ago, an ice age again struck. What triggered this? How long did it last?

What makes glaciers flow? Do they flow faster or slower when they are thicker? Why?

Explain the balance between temperature and the progress of glaciers.

Glaciers often leave "unsorted" rocks, called glacial "till". What does this mean? Why would this differ from normal sedimentary sorting?

It is said that our civilization has been a brief, stable warm period. What does this predict for global warming/cooling?

What two oceans/seas will disappear when pangea ultima forms?


Where are the videos?
Here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/media/earth/

We'd like you to view this video (broken into pieces for downloading) this week, so we can discuss it in class. The earth questions above will be due Tuesday, 10.5.10.
Please prepare for a quiz on chapter 5 Thursday, 9.30.10. We'll be going over notes on chapter 6 Tuesday and Thursday, as we have time, and you can plan for a chapter 6 test 10.5.10.

Let us know if we can help, we hope chapter 6 articulates well with chapter 5. Chapter 7 will be on Populations, which is extremely interesting for you, we hope.
aloha
b

Posted by:

e2 questions
Gray to Green
1. What is the gray in gray to green?
2. What were the challenges for the architects in the story?
3. What is the Bauhaus, and why was it key in the success of the story?
4. Can you imagine a similar recycling solution in your home town? How?
5. What is the final message of this story?

Green Machine
1. Why is the title of this piece ironic (hint: it has to do with Chicago politics)
2. What is the "heat island effect" and why is it so key in this case?
3. How did they address this heat island effect?
4. As a botanist, why would you think this is important?
5. There is a proposal floating around to restore the prairie to native prairie grasses, which could then be used as biofuels. From an ecological perspective, why would this be a good step? Why from an energy standpoint? How would this compare to planting the same areas with corn for bio-ethanol?
6. Sadhu Johnston mentions that Chicago is in a unique position to effect change. Why?
7. What were the main industries in Chicago, and how could these moves change that direction?
8. Sustainability is seen as finding new solutions to age old problems. Is this a social, education or technical issue?
9. The lady mentions that quality of life does not need to diminish, why?
10. What is the impact of LEED on green building? Short term and long term. 11. Describe the Factor 10 house.
12. Describe the McDonald's green roof, and why it is bogus
13. Looking around the energy lab, what ideas are shared in this story?

Posted by:

Team,
We hope you have a great weekend, full of glee and bliss, while Mr. Emmons and I are shackled to our desks Monday.
That said, to even out the burden of pain, we'd like you to read chapter 5, which is full of all sorts of goodies, including but not limited to:
"Help! I've lost my niche!
Who is that predator predating me and why?
Keystone species exposed in building fraud!
I'm a prisoner of a food web chain gang!
My boyfriend and I have a symbiotic relationship..."

As our resident biologist, Mr. Emmons will be leading the charge on these scintillating (good SAT word) goings-on, so make sure you bring lots of paper for notes, and kleenex for the weepy bits.

We'll also be going into our soils lab, so you would be wise little grasshoppers if you read chapter 13 as preparation. Make sure you bring along your lab handouts. And your shovels. And your tractors. And any earth moving equipment you might own. We'd like to take you to the flume to see the double-secret ash deposits.

Our next unit will be on biomes and ecosystems, which we will follow with chapter 7, on populations, which will be a real barn burner, particularly if your name is Malthus.

For this weekend, please view the two videos, and check here for questions on them. I should have them up by Saturday.
UPDATE--Team, let's move the e2 video assignment to Friday, ok?
Notes and questions will be up tonight.
b


Let us know how we can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please remember to bring in your chapter 4 outlines for HW. We'll have a test on chapter 4 in class, then begin our soils lab (weather permitting). Let us know if you have any questions. Please bring in a flash drive so we can give you the movies for the weekend:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/e2_videos/web/3%20green%20machine/
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/e2_videos/web/4%20gray%20to%20green/

Check here for questions on these videos, due next week.

Test link:
https://www.eztestonline.com/207829/index1.tpx


aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Wednesday we'll begin with a quick quiz on atoms, elements and pH, then we'll begin our soils lab. It would be a good idea to review thermodynamics as we'll have a piece on this in our Friday quiz, and we want you to be prepared.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please bring in a flash drive of your choice so we can pass on videos for questions this week.
aloha
b

Posted by:

APES cycle 3
3.1:
Monday 9.13
W 9.15
F 9.17
-
W 9.22
F 9.24

This weekend, chapter 4 is the reading assignment. Here are some notes:
Please look these up on wikipedia for our discussion in class Monday:
Cold fusion
Cargo cult science

Monday, we'll continue our discussion on the scientific method, then get into some basic notes on matter and chemistry. These are all in chapter 4.
We'll be meeting in the whiteboard rooms so make sure you bring your notebooks.

Wednesday, we'll begin our soils lab, which will use some of the concepts we discuss on Monday, such as pH, compounds and elements

Friday, we'll have a test on chapter 4, then begin a discussion of chapter 5: the predator chapter…

Wednesday 9.22 we'll continue the soil lab and chapter 5 notes, with the soil lab completed by Friday 9.24.

Please let me know by email if you are still having issues viewing the e2 video.

Jhernie found this cool 4 minute video on graphs:
http://www.gapminder.org/videos/gapcasts/gapcast-10-energy/
Check it out

Check here for notes and updates

Posted by:

Folks,
After viewing the two TED videos on sustainability, we'd like you to move on to the first in a series of videos from a program called "e2: the economies of being environmentally conscious"

The first series is on Design I, and the first episodes are "The Green Apple" and "Green for All". Please watch these so we can discuss in class Friday.
We'll have three more in this series, then we'll move on to the others:

Design I
Design II
Design III
Energy
Transport

Each season has 5 episodes, with each episode focusing on an aspect of what we are studying together. We hope you find these as compelling as we do, and that they might inspire you to be change agents...

"Green Apple"
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/e2_videos/web/1%20green%20apple/1%20green%20apple.mov
"Green for all"
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/e2_videos/web/2%20green%20for%20all/2%20green%20for%20all.mov

Questions Due Friday:

design: e2 The Green Apple
1. Why is Manhattan considered greener than most cities?
2. Newer cities like LA have created automobile accessible designs. How does this directly tie to health and energy consumption for those working in that city compared to NYC?
3. Describe 4TimesSquare in NYC as a green skyscraper. Discuss “frit” (sunlight) and “slag” (CO2).
4. Describe how the “cost of people” living in a large city building affects the sustainability of that building.
5. The Solaire is located in Downtown Manhattan's most desirable waterfront neighborhood - Battery Park City. Describe why it has become a marketing trend for culture change and eventually sustainability.

design: e2 Green for All
1. One in seven homes in the world are deemed inadequate. What is predicted in 30 years?
2. Describe the Mexican government’s attempt to provide “modern” housing for the Yaqui Indians.
3. The University of Texas graduate students devised a different design. Describe it.
4. Step one of the Guadalupe Project in Austin Texas was The Alley Project? Describe the Alley project and what it was intended to do.
5. New homes create a level of ownership in a community fueling sustainability that in turn develops political and social rights in the world. How can homes essentially reflect how a person lives?

Let us know how we can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Folks,
Just released in Germany, this article in Der Spiegel is perfect timing for our discussion of peak oil and of supply and demand. Be sure to read the points in the middle:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/'Peak_Oil'_and_the_German_Government.pdf


ALSO:
Please have a look at this cool link that Mr. DK found for you:

http://www.uwgb.edu/watershed/data/monitoring/

way cool...
aloha
b

Posted by:

APES cycle 2 plan
8.30 Monday
9.1 Wednesday
9.3 Friday
----
9.8 Wednesday
9.10 Friday

UPDATE: study questions online:
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/

In your readings for chapter 3, you may notice that the chart in figure 3.3 is whacky beyond belief.
Here is a link to a much more clear explanation of supply and demand, pay attention to the graphs in blue and red:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply_and_demand

If you've already had Economics, then you probably know this...

Lab folder:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/wqi_lab/
----

--updated link to Poisoned Waters Video:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/poisoned_waters/POISONED_WATERS.mp4

Weekend: view Poisoned waters on water quality issues, questions due Monday at beginning of class
If you want to get ahead: read chapter 3 (see links below for chapter locations)
8.30 Monday
Poisoned Waters questions due at beginning of class
Review chapters 1 and 2, quiz on chapters 1 and 2
Water Quality Lab discussion
Chapter 3 introduction

9.1 Wednesday
Chapter 3 discussion, more shorter videos online
Water Quality Lab beginning
Reminder: X period open for questions
Please watch this video online: 


http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/william_mcdonough_on_cradle_to_cradle_design.html

and this one on sustainability: 


http://www.ted.com/talks/alex_steffen_sees_a_sustainable_future.html

These are the first of many TED talks I'll be passing on to you. I hope these are enlightening for you. 
I'd like to move from economics and environmental science to design, in other words, how you would use the wisdom you are now developing to change the design of our buildings, our cities and our world.
You will find some things in the readings that would be very helpful to look up on wikipedia. I trust all of you have seen wikipedia athttp://www.wikipedia.org

The list from Chapter 3: 

risk assessment 

ASTM

ISO

LD50 

IPCC

clean air act 

safe drinking water act

BPA 

Eutrophication

cradle to cradle 

RfD 

DfE 

dioxin 

seventh son of the seventh son

indoor air pollution 

dead zones in gulf of Mexico

supply and demand (study the three curves) 

contingent valuation method 

deferred costs 

external costs 

pollution

biodegradable 

pollution-prevention costs

cost benefit analysis 

Environmental impact statement 

NEPA act of 1969

tragedy of the commons
1968 

command and control approach 

cap and trade

brownfields

SBLRBRA 

CERCLA/Superfund

RoHS 

sustainable development

debt for nature swap 

methyl mercury 

Responsible Care

9.3 Friday
Water Quality Lab
Check here for more details
Weekend:
Lab work
Videos (check here for update)
Read chapter 4
9.8 Wednesday
Chapter 3 wrap-up, quiz
Begin work on chapter 4
9.10 Friday Chapter 4 notes, class discussion

UPDATE----
Test link for Monday's class, chapter one test:
https://www.eztestonline.com/207829/index1.tpx

Questions for Water Quality Index, due Wednesday:

Water Quality Index questions

Look up WQI in wikipedia and answer the following:

What is the WQI

What metrics are part of the WQI

Why is it called an index instead of something else?

Why are each category weighted differently?

After viewing the Polluted Waters video, how effective is the WQI in measuring water quality in each of the cases presented? Why? What is missing? How would you detect these?

What would be the impact financially, socially, and environmentally, and in what time frame?

In your opinion, do you think water quality is getting better, worse or staying the same:
In Hawaii
In the Mainland US
In your home town (if you live in Waimea, then in Honolulu)

Posted by:

Hi folks,
I hope this helps you now and in the future:
Here is the folder with all of the chapters from the text:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/enger/

You might find some interesting things hidden in there.

Likewise, there is a folder for all of our videos here:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos

The main folder for all of our resources is here:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/

Here is a link to the phone version of the video:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/poisoned_waters/poisoned_waters/poisoned_waters%20-%20iPhone%20(Cellular).3gp

I hope this helps.
aloha
b

Posted by:

---UPDATE---
Text link:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/enger/ch02/enger_ch2.PDF

Please see me Wednesday if you are having issues with the video.
------------------
Meeting dates this week:
Tuesday 8.24
Thursday 8.26

Readings:
Text chapter two: Environmental Ethics
Outline for homework, due Thursday
Review Questions, due Thursday

Video: Frontline: Poisoned Waters
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/poisonedwaters/view/
Or here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/poisoned_waters/
Watch online, answer questions here:

1 When was the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) formed? What events prompted its formation?

2 How did deregulation of industry during the Reagan years affect water quality and the overall power of the Environmental Protection Agency?
◦ What does “voluntary compliance” mean?

◦ Why do businesses favor voluntary compliance?

3 The Clean Water Act of 1972 allows citizens to sue alleged offenders if government agencies do not act. Why is that provision of the law important?

4 The expression “canary in the coal mine” means an early warning of danger. (Coal miners would carry canaries or small animals with them into mines to detect deadly but odorless and tasteless methane gas.)
◦ To what does the expression “canary in the coal mine” apply in Poisoned Waters?

5 Twenty million Americans took to the streets for the first Earth Day in 1970 as a result of pollution they could see and smell: The Cuyahoga River in Cleveland burned, with flames that towered eight stories high; the1969 oil spill in Santa Barbara closed virtually all the beaches in Southern California; people had declared Lake Erie dead.
◦ How, according to the film, have both pollution and people's reaction to Earth Day changed since 1970?

6 What do “endocrine disruptors” do? Why do genetic mutations in fish disturb scientists so much?

7 How do the products that average people use each day end up polluting the nation's and world's waterways?

8 How should we pay for environmental cleanup? Should it be the responsibility of industry? Government? Individuals? Explain your reasoning.

Please turn in our answers at the beginning of class Thursday.

In class:
Lab format:
See this link:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/lab_format_notes.pdf

Grading template:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/lab%20grading%20template.pdf

Data analysis:
Check out this page online:
http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/
Keeling curve and CO2 trends at Mauna Loa

Check this out if you have time:
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/

Let us know how we can help.
aloha
b


Posted by:

Here is a link to our online class calendar:

http://ical.mac.com/WebObjects/iCal.woa/wa/default?u=wiecking&n=Upper_School%20local.ics

I hope this helps.

Friday in class:
Vernier Probeware
Sample lab:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/vernier/01%20Seasons%20S.pdf
Chapter one outline due
Discussion of videos

aloha
b

Posted by:

Welcome folks, to AP Environmental Science.
The link to the first chapter of the text is here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/enger/ch01/enger_ch1.PDF
and the contents page is here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/enger/chapter%20index.pdf
If you have time, please watch this 22 minute video on wind:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/media/e2/web_movies/e2_1_harvesting_wind.mp4
and this one on the Grameen Bank
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/media/e2/web_movies/e2_2_energy_for_a_developing_world.mp4

Here are some thoughts:
The wind video demonstrates how many decisions can be made that are harmonious with both business, consumers and the environment.
The second video is very compelling about the impact of even small changes in society.

We will spend more time on these in the future, this should serve as a teaser to give you a sense of the media we will be covering.

As we mentioned in class, we recommend getting a textbook as soon as possible. If the bookstore is out, you can look on Amazon (used for about $96) or some of the other online textbook sources. Be careful to get the 12th edition, ISBN 0073383201

We'll have a chance to discuss more in class Wednesday.
Let us know if we can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

All you need to know...
1)Water
2)Energy
3)Pollution
a)LD50/ED50
4)Population
a)Habitat
b)bioaccumulation/biomagnification
c)food webs
d)endangered species
Possibly...
-soils

Posted by:

Team,
Please bring at least ten interesting questions for our discussion on Sunday, and think up at least two very clever free response questions, with increasing depth as one goes through the question.
See you all Sunday!
aloha
b

Posted by:

First of all, from Ms. Mitchell:
Please inform your AP Environmental Science students to report to Castle Lecture Hall at 7:30 a.m. on Tuesday, May 11 for their exam. Rob Engel will proctor the exam.

Updated review sheet:
APES notes updated 5.6.2010

Keystone species: influence greater than relative abundance
ex: predator keeps herbivore pop down, preserves rare grass

Biomes:
terrestrial, freshwater, marine
latitude, humidity, elevation-terrestrial
freshwater:
rivers, wetlands and basins (deeper than what they serve)
marine:
neritic -close to shelf
benthic-deep, sloping away from con shelf
pelagic-open sea
abyssal-very deep
hadal-trenches

food webs:
connections of energy from producer to consumer
trophic pyramid (see plankton to ahi, bioaccumulation)
primary producers: autotrophs-photosynthetic plants, chemotrophic (sulfur)-inorganic sources (also foundation species)
heterotrophs-get energy from organic sources:
herbivores, carnivores, scavengers
lots of energy lost between trophic levels (thermodynamics)

ecosystems-
abiotic environment
producers-autotrophs, e.g. plants
consumers-heterotrophs, e.g. herbivores, canrivores
decomposers-detritovores

photosynthesis-
CO2, water, light into organic compounds (e.g. sugars)
photoautotrophs-plants
carbon fixation (redox rx) reduction is CO2 to CHO
chlorophyll, carotenes and xanthophylls

cellular respiration-
conversion of energy to ATP (phosphate bonds)
glucose, amino acids and fatty acids with O2 as an oxidizer (accepts electrons) OIL RIG
aerobic and anaerobic metabolysis (aerobic is 19x more efficient)
TCA cycle, mitochondria

biodiversity-
variation of life forms within a biome or ecosystem
genetic
species
ecosystem
creates stability and robustness in ecosystems

biogeochemical cycles (nutrient cycles)
how an element or molecule travels through biotic (living things) and abiotic (earth, air, water) parts of earth
reservoirs may differ: N2 in air, P in soil
closed system: C N O P
open system: energy, e.g. photosynthesis
cycles:
carbon
nitrogen
oxygen
phosphorus
water
also mercury and atrazine (herbicide)

GM crops
genetic engineering vs. selective breeding or mutation breeding
concerns: ecological, economic (LDC) and IP rights (see Monsanto)
uses restriction enzymes to ID and isolate genes
inserted using gene gun (plasmid) or agrobacterium

GMO
insertion or deletion of genes
recombinant DNA, transgenic organisms
if no DNA from other species, cisgenic (cis vs trans)
lentiviruses-can transfer genes to animal cells
Genentech-Berkeley 1978, created human insulin from E. Coli (vs. cow or pig insulin)

pesticides-
biological, chemical, antimicrobial, disinfectant
pests: pathogens, insects, weeds, mullosks, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes and microbes
any food competitor or spoiler, also disease vectors
herbicides-glyphosate (roundup)
insecticides-HCl, carbamates, pyrethrins, etc.
green fungicides-paldoxins
EPA regulates
banned: carcinogenic, mutagenic or bioaccumulators
see also NRDC

pesticide laws-
Federal insecticide act-1910
Federal insecticide, fungicide and rodenticide act (FIFRA)-1947 then 1972, 1988
1947-ag dept
1972-EPA
3 categories: antimicrobials, biopesticides, conventional

forest management-
silviculture, protection and regulation
conservation and economic concerns
watershed management included
see also FSC 1993, forest stewardship council

applied ecology-
conservation biology, ecology, habitat management
invasive species management
rangeland management
restoration ecology

land management-
habitat conservation
sustainable ag
urban planning

sustainable ag-
environmental stewardship
farm profitability
farming communities
e.g. ability to produce food indefinitely, without causing damage to ecosystem health
see also erosion, irrigation/salinization, crop rotation
see also landraces, e.g. prairie grasses

mining laws-
SMCRA
surface mining control and reclamation act (1977)
1. regulates active coal mines
2. reclamation of abandoned mines
dept of interior admin
response to strip mining (1930+)
SMCRA
regulation:
1. standards of performance
2. permitting
3. bonding
4. inspection/enforcement
5. land restrictions
compare to 1945 strip mining practices

Fisheries laws-
monitor and protect fisheries resources
overfishing conference 1936
1957: Beverton and Holt did study on fish dynamics
goals:
1. max sustainable biomass yield
2. max sust. econ yield
3. secure employment
4. secure protein supply
5. income from export
6. bio and economic yield
UNCLOS-UN convention on law of the sea
EEZ-exclusive economic zones
12 mi = coastal sovereignty
200 mi = fishing restrictions
2004-UN made stricter laws on fisheries mgt.
1995 code of conduct for responsible fisheries
quotas, taxation, enforcement (USCG)


tragedy of the commons-
1968 Science article-Garrett Hardin
individual benefit, common damage
strict management of global common goods
see also overgrazing, pollution, privatization
"a fundamental extension of morality"

ozone depletion-
stratospheric ozone depletion
4% since 1970
ozone hole over antarctica
catalytic destruction of ozone by chlorine and bromine
halogen compounds CFCs (freons) and bromofluorocarbons (halons)
ODS ozone depleting substances
ozone blocks UVB 270-315 nm
Montreal protocol 1987 banned CFCs
O + O3 --> 2O2 (transparent)
Cl + O3 -->ClO + O2
ClO + O3 -->Cl + 2O2
effects:
1. ++ carcinomas
2. melanomas
3. cataracts
4. ++ tropospheric ozone (toxic)
5. kills cyanobacteria (rice nitrogen fixers)

Water quality:
WQI is a composite of many qualities (see below)
BOD is a measure of the oxygen demand to decompose organic materials
BOD measures the rate of oxygen uptake by micro-organisms in a sample of water at a temperature of 20°C and over an elapsed period of five days in the dark.
The following is a list of indicators often measured by situational category:
Drinking water
▪ Alkalinity
▪ Color of water
▪ pH
▪ Taste and odor (geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), etc)
▪ Dissolved metals and salts (sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, manganese, magnesium)
▪ Microorganisms such as fecal coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli), Cryptosporidium, and Giardia lamblia
▪ Dissolved metals and metalloids (lead, mercury, arsenic, etc.)
▪ Dissolved organics: colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon
▪ Radon
▪ Heavy metals
▪ Pharmaceuticals
▪ Hormone analogs
Environmental
Chemical assessment
▪ Conductivity (also see salinity)
▪ Dissolved Oxygen
▪ nitrate-N
▪ orthophosphates
▪ Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
▪ Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
▪ Pesticides
Physical assessment
▪ pH
▪ Temperature
▪ Total suspended solids (TSS)
▪ Turbidity

Electrical power numbers:
1 Watt
1000 Watts = 1 kW
These measure rate of energy use (this is called power)
energy use: power x time
kW x hours or kWh
example: 1 kWh is a 500 Watt device used for 2 hours
MWh is a megawatt hour
power plants are often rated in MW rating, or GW rating (gigawatt, or 1000 MW)

LD50 is the measure of toxicity that kills 50% of the population after 2 weeks
The LD50 is usually expressed as the mass of substance administered per unit mass of test subject, such as grams of substance per kilogram of body mass.
As a measure of toxicity, LD50 is somewhat unreliable and results may vary greatly between testing facilities due to factors such as the genetic characteristics of the sample population, animal species tested, environmental factors and mode of administration.[3] Another weakness is that it measures acute toxicity only (as opposed to chronic toxicity at lower doses), and does not take into account toxic effects that do not result in death but are nonetheless serious (e.g. brain damage). There can be wide variability between species as well; what is relatively safe for rats may very well be extremely toxic for humans, and vice versa. In other words, a relatively high LD50 does not necessarily mean a substance is harmless, but a very low one is always a cause for concern.

3 laws of thermodynamics:
1. you cannot win (no process can be more than 100% efficient)
2. you cannot break even (no process can be even 100% efficient)
3. you cannot get out of the game (entropy or disorder tends to increase in spontaneous processes)
See also Gibbs free energy: ∆G = ∆H - T∆S or "goldfish are hell without tartar sauce"

ENSO: el nine southern oscillation
coriolis effect: recall hurricane iniki
aquifer: have an example ready for the depletion/pollution and describe recharge rate
main soil types, main rock types, geological basics (eras etc.)
climate shifts: how do these effect migration and location of animals? Why not plants?
fertility rates, doubling times (rule of 70), demographic transitions, age-structure diagrams
nutritional requirements
sustainable ag (see above)
urban sprawl: define. How has the auto made this possible?
urban heat island effect: define
ore concentration curves
CAFE standards-definition, impact, exceptions

Please also check out the entry from one year ago, 5.5.09 below, particularly the apx folder. We'll review in class Friday.

See you all Friday
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
We're in the home stretch and I appreciate you have lots of material to cover this week. To make this more efficient, I've collected practice materials in a folder here:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/apes_exam_prep/

Please start with the folder labeled "critical readme", which contains a summary document I'll be editing and adding to over the next few days. Check it out daily, as I'll be giving you what I think you'll need to cover or review that we might not have covered.

There are several other folders:
AP central stuff is material from the folks who created the exam

Barron's reviews includes both timed simulation exams and other more standard formats

Princeton is the Cracking the AP review folder

AP review course is a curriculum developed by an instructor. Good browsing to see if you need to review anything.

Labs AP is a folder with labs you should review, particularly if the topic in the lab is unfamiliar to you.

I'll post more here later Sunday 5.2.2010, so please check in frequently.

Here is one of your last assignments for credit:

Find and read these articles on Wikipedia:

Superfund:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superfund
RCRA:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RCRA
Clean Air Act:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clean_air_act
Federal Water Pollution Control Act:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Water_Pollution_Control_Act
National Environmental policy act:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Environmental_Policy_Act

And answer the following questions:

1. CERCLA stands for what?
2. What happened at Love canal?
3. How was CERCLA expanded in 1986?
4. How is the SuperFund funded now?
5. What two kinds of response actions are outlined in the CERCLA?
6. Who are the "potential responsible parties" under CERCLA?
7. What is the NCP revision, and how does it impact polluters?
8. What is the NPL and what is it's role?
9. What does RCRA stand for?
10. Why is it an improvement on the 1965 law on solid waste?
11. Explain "cradle to grave" requirements and give an example.
12. What is a TSDF, and how does it manage hazardous waste?
13. What is a "whistleblower" and how are they provided for in the RCRA?
14. What are the corporate arguments against the clean air act?
15. Describe the 1955, 1963, 1967, 1970, 1977 and 1990 acts and cite a common theme and opponent.
16. What was new in the 1990 law that may affect third world nations?
17. Last week the EPA made news regarding CO2 emissions and the clean air act. What happened?
18. What is the CWA, and how is it enforced?
19. What are navigable waters, and how are they defined?
20. How does the CWA treat point sources? Give at least two examples.
21. How is this different for non-point sources?
22. What is different with the WQA of 1987?
23. Explain the NEPA act of 1970, and its impact.
24. What happened off the coast of Santa Barbara in 1969 (also the year of Woodstock, and several assassinations), and how is it relevant today, March 2, 2010?
25. What is an EIS, and are they required today?
26. How does an EIS differ from an EA?

aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
We're closing in on the end of our material, and need to wrap up pollution and global climate change this week, beginning risk assessment by Friday.
Here's what we need to cover:
Monday: you read chapters 9 and 11, so we can review in class. Some questions for credit in class.
Tuesday: we finish chapter 9 on pollution in class, begin work on ch 11 (climate change)
Wednesday: short class-ch 11
Friday: chapter 11, questions for credit.
Work for the week: both AP exams in this folder:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/apes_barrons/2010_edition/

Please take your time with these, and record anything you feel we need to review.
More here soon, this is a really good finish to a strong year...
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team:
Here is our plan for the rest of the year:

4.20 T Chapters 9 and 11 in Barron's: Pollution and global climate change
4.21 W Pollution
4.23 F Climate change/Ozone issues

4.27 T Health issues/regulations
4.28 W chapter 10
4.30 F Chapter 10

5.4 T review/practice exam diagnostics
5.5 W review/diagnostics
5.7 F all-of-the-missing-pieces-that-will-get-you-a-five

5.11 Tuesday AP exam 8 AM. Be there or be flabby.

So...
For tomorrow (Tuesday) please read all of chapter 9 in the Barron's text, so we may all be experts in pollution by the end of class.

Easter Egg: Find and listen to the song "we didn't start the fire" by Billy Joel.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jR-A4QFHZBA
What is the line following "AIDS, Crack, Bernie Goetz"? Why is this important?
Hint: see the section on solid waste in chapter 9...


As always, should you or any of your IM force be caught, the secretary will disavow any knowledge of your mission...

aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please complete and email the following to me before class on Tuesday:

APES Air questions

1. Describe the major levels of the atmosphere, with a description of the temperature in each level and why the temperature profile changes with altitude.

2. Describe the four "criteria pollutants" and where you might find them, why each is hazardous, and why these stand out over the other thousands of air pollutants.

3. Describe the four major greenhouse gases, including how they are formed, how long they last, and if there is any connection between these and human activity.

4. As the climate crisis progresses, eventually the permafrost will begin to melt. Why is this an example of positive feedback?

5. PM refers to particulate matter. Why is this specification based on particle size, and which sizes are the most hazardous?

6. Describe the flow of air on the planet, including the convection zones. Explain how this creates high and low pressure areas on the surface.

7. What is the albedo of the earth, and how does this interact with climate change?

8. The Coriolis effect is often poorly understood. In your own words, explain the rotation of a hurricane approaching Hawaii from the southeast.

9. Is the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) an air event, a sea event, a global event, or all three? Explain.

10. Many people believe that the ozone layer is involved in global warming. How can you distinguish between these two? What is the main impact of a thinner ozone layer, and what might cause this?

APES Footprint questions

1. Explain why the data you were given ends several years ago

2. What is the nature of your country: industrial, rural, etc. and how developed is your country?

3. Describe the ratio of biocapacity to footprint for your country. Calculate this number for each year in your graph, and express it as a ratio: greater than 1.0 is good, less than 1.0 is not so good.

4. Create a graph of your new ratio data, in the same range as your data graph. You can use excel or any other simple graphing app.

5. How do you explain the trends in your ratio graph? What events or changes in the slope might be significant?

6. Next, look at the breakdown of farmlands, carbon and so on, and relate these changes to your ratio graph. What correlations do you notice?

7. What changes would you make in the management of this country, either in resource management or in footprint?

8. Ok, now that you have a good picture of your country, as leader, what is the ideal compromise value that would keep the ratio over 1.0?

Quote for today:

In November of 2009 it was reported that 16 ships create as much pollution as all the cars in the world.

Please read for class Tuesday (these are long, ignore the comments section on the first reading, and browse the second one):

http://energylab.hpa.edu/readings/The%20Oil%20Drum%20%7c%20Herman%20Daly:%20Towards%20A%20Steady-State%20Economy.pdf

http://energylab.hpa.edu/readings/the-emperors-new-car.pdf


Posted by:

Team,
Please check out this folder on the energylab server:

http://energylab.hpa.edu/Openhagen/assignment_2/

There are two papers in this folder you can use to prepare for our VTC on Friday

Let me know if you have any problems retrieving these.

Please also turn in any missing work by Friday, and the RQ set for chapter 16 on air by Sunday night at 9 PM.

As always, let me know if I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please check out this folder on the energylab server:

http://energylab.hpa.edu/Openhagen/assignment_2/

There are two papers in this folder you can use to prepare for our VTC on Friday

Let me know if you have any problems retrieving these.

Please also turn in any missing work by Friday, and the RQ set for chapter 16 on air by Sunday night at 9 PM.

As always, let me know if I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please listen to this interview so we can discuss Tuesday:

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125533464&sc=emaf

Please make sure you have the following emailed to me by Monday night, 9PM (2100 for our future Scots):
Barron's questions, chapter 3 on water
Textbook chapter 15 on water, RQ
Please also go to this folder:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/units/apes-unit-water/labs/

and look over the four labs there: 11, 12, 13 and 14. I'd like you to complete 11 by Monday night, and read 12 for class Tuesday. We'll make 13 and 14 due Thursday of that week, if you'd like to work ahead. This should get us up to speed on water use, while we are covering atmospheres in class.

Remember there are great resources in the folder below:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/units/apes-unit-water/

Please also make sure you have read chapter 2 in the Barron's review on atmospheres for class on Tuesday.

We should then have plenty of great scores to boost your grade by the mid quarter next week. I'll make sure you get credit for your work on the GFN as well, so don't think it's just for fun...

Speaking of GFN, here is the second assignment:

http://energylab.hpa.edu/Openhagen/Assignment%20%232.pdf

And in the same folder there is supporting data (though some of you clever grasshoppers have noticed that some of the answers are in the folder already...)

http://energylab.hpa.edu/Openhagen/?C=M;O=D

Let me know your thoughts, and if you have questions, either email me, elabassistant@hpa.edu or the folks at GFN.

Have a great time at the promenade, or at the final four games, or both.

Check here over the weeked for more updates.
As always, let me know if I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
We'll begin this week with a wrap-up of our unit on water, then begin our work on air and the atmosphere.
While we're having all of this fun, we'll be involved in a very exciting Openhagen workshop.
Here are some notes on this from our first meeting today (Tuesday) with the team on Maui and San Francisco:

As a reminder, here’s the official student assignment before the first VTC on Thursday:

Student homework before first webinar
· Watch Ecological Footprint DVD
· Read this short piece on the Ecological Footprint:
http://www.beyond-gdp.eu/download/bgdp-ve-ef.pdf
· Identify questions, issues needing clarification

Here are some links to the curriculum pieces:

http://energylab.hpa.edu/Openhagen/Footprint%20Futures%20Curriculum%20April%202010.pdf

http://energylab.hpa.edu/Openhagen/Openhagen%20Teacher%20Training%20Part%201.pdf


We'll discuss this all in class, please be sure to go over the assignment I posted over break if you have not already.
See you all Wednesday...
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please go to this folder:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/apes_barrons/practice_exams_2008/

and download the two practice tests (the file is zipped).

Please take the practice tests over break, and check here for notes on water, air and solid waste.

Let me know how I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please read chapter 3 in Barron's and chapter 15 in the textbook. Questions at the end of each chapter will be due Friday. Check here later Sunday for more notes on the chapters and resources I have put together for us this week.
---UPDATE---
Here is the folder with resources for the week:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/units/apes-unit-water/
Check here soon for assignments in this folder, for now, please read through and make yourself familiar with the contents of the wikipedia folder.

aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Here is how I see the next few months winding down to your successful AP exam May 11:
March:
Week one-Soils/Land issues---Barron's 1, 7 Text-12, 13,14
Week two-Water---B3, ES15

spring break: summary readings, some questions, notes on balance of year out

April:
Week one: Water/air, labs on BOD, pollution
Week two: Air---B2, B9, B11, B10 (text chapters as well)
Week three: Pollution, climate crisis, ozone layer, public health-B5 and text
Week four: same

May:
Week one: review
Week two: AP exam success

Let's discuss in class today.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please read chapter 3 in Barron's for Friday. I'll have questions for you by then as well.
Over the weekend, we'll complete chapter 3 on Barron's with questions, and chapter 15 in the textbook, RQ due Monday before class.
Please listen to this interview and let's discuss in class:
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=123950399
Let me know if you have any questions.
aloha
b

Posted by:

From Ms. Lay:

http://www.soe-townsville.org/schools/tshs/tlsf.html

Please read and send me your comments today.

For today, please make sure you have emailed the following to me by the end of class:
1. soil lab, including which tests you performed and why, in standard lab format (see link below for this)
2. all homework you'd like included in this quarter's grade

Reading for the weekend:
Please read chapters 12, 13 and turn in the review questions by Wednesday March 3.
Please then read chapter 14 and turn in RQs by Friday March 5.
We'll be reviewing notes in class as well. This should be a more in-depth coverage of what you just read in chapter 7 on soils.

The template for your lab is here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/labs/labs_ap/lab09_soil_analysis.pdf
please make sure you answer all of the questions.

Email/IM me if you have any questions, I'm on my way to UC Berkeley now.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Please turn these in via email before class on Wednesday:

Land/water use questions:
Agriculture:
How many kg of plant protein are needed to make 1 kg of animal protein?

Look up kwashiorkor

How is china's entry into african erg a form of plantation ag?

What was the impact of Norman Borlaug on the first green revolution?

Why is water metering so important in ag?

What are the structural, nutritional and microbial impacts of sustainable ag?

In your soil lab, you see several qualities of the soil. What is the impact of organic matter on the quality of the soil?

Lookup and compare biomagnification and bioaccumulation.

Find trade names for carbamates, chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphate pesticides, along with their major risk

Lookup the following connections:
1. PCB in salmon
2. EDB in cornmeal
3. Heptachlor in milk
4. 2,4-D in well water

Which of these happened here in Hawaii between 1980 and now?

Laws, pp. 179: compare these with the laws in India. Why was 1972 a watershed year for one of these?

Agent Orange is being stored in Kauai. What is this, and why should we be concerned?

Forestry:
Lookup FSC wood, and explain the goals of this process

Why would a pit and mound forest be good, and what impact did the Hawaiians who cultivated the land near the energy lab have on this system?

Compare crown fires with surface fires.

Who was president in 2003 when the law on pp. 182 was passed? Why is this critical?

Explain why McDonald's making deals with landowners in the 1990's caused deforestation in Brazil.

Biodiversity is a theme running through this chapter-explain why, and how hard it is to recover bd.

Explain Hubbard Brook.

Explain the impact of deforestation in the amazon rain forest.

Re: the laws on pp. 187, why was 1976 such a critical year? What was going on in the US then?

Look up and read at least parts of the tragedy of the commons essay by Garrett Hardin in Science. Why was the year it was written significant?

Rangelands:
Explain how reduced water transit time leads to desertification. What else contributes to this?

Re: laws on pp. 189, why was 1934 such a critical year?

One option in Oklahoma is to replant prairie grasses, then use these as fuel for biodiesel. Why is this a good idea, and why might it not work?

Urban development:

We watched several e2 videos, one on buildings. Tie this in with the statements on pp. 190.

Look up the following: USGBC, LEED, LBC
Explain the impact of the energy lab worldwide in light of these standards.

Look up sick building syndrome. Explain how this bears on the construction of the energy lab.

Every 6 days a city of 150,000 people is built in China, along with one coal fired power plant, which will have a 30 year lifespan. Explain how the energy lab design could impact this urbanization.

Why would urbanization have an impact on infant mortality? What impact?

Transport:
When was the FHS created, who was president, and where was he from 1944-1945? Who did we copy in the design of this system?

Re: laws pp. 193, who was president then?

Lookup a tidal estuary. Define.

Explain Gatun Lake as cited on pp. 194

Explain why roads are evil, and 4WD vehicles are even more evil

Explain the law on pp. 194, and cite the timing of this.

Public Lands:

Explain the timing of the law on pp. 195.

Recently Ken Burns produced a film on the National Parks. Explain why this could have a huge impact on the national parks, as described on pp. 195.

Explain how the FSC policy is related to point 11 on pp.198.

Mining:

Explain the connection between external costs, which we studied last fall, and the issues on pp. 199.

Explain the five types of surface mining.

Lookup the tailing pond leak in Buffalo Creek. What happened, where? Lookup a similar disaster Dec. 23, 2008. What happened, where?

Global reserves:
What portion of our oil use is used for transport?

How many years of energy can we derive from present coal reserves? What would be the impact on global CO2 levels if this happens? What do you think will happen then?

Re: laws pp. 203 why are the two dates cited important?

Fishing:
Is Kona Blue an ok operation? Why and why not?

Explain why eating farmed salmon is hazardous.

Global Economics:
Explain why the World bank is different from the UN.













Posted by:

What were the predominant survivors of the first mass extinction?

Why would Utah be a good place to find these survivors?

What would be the advantage of being "luke-warm" blooded?

How did the first global warming trend change the dinosaurs? Why did this eventually become their downfall?

The Kimberly "stove pipe" means what? How are diamonds formed?

Who discovered the CT (KT) boundary, and what does it signify? When was this? When was it discovered, and how?

How big was the Yucutan meteor? How was it found (look this up on wikipedia)

50 mY ago, the mammals evolved. How did the demise of the dinosaurs make this possible? Science fiction movies often show cavemen fighting dinosaurs-why is this totally bogus?

What is similar about the Alps and the Himalayas, apart from them being mountains? What limits their ultimate altitude?

Mauna Loa is the largest landmass in the world. From the base of Mauna Loa on the 20,000 ft. deep ocean floor to it's top 13,500 ft. above sea level is much higher than Everest (29,000 ft.). How is this possible?

2 mY ago, an ice age again struck. What triggered this? How long did it last?

What makes glaciers flow? Do they flow faster or slower when they are thicker? Why?

Explain the balance between temperature and the progress of glaciers.

Glaciers often leave "unsorted" rocks, called glacial "till". What does this mean? Why would this differ from normal sedimentary sorting?

It is said that our civilization has been a brief, stable warm period. What does this predict for global warming/cooling?

What two oceans/seas will disappear when pangea ultima forms?

Posted by:

Team,
Here's how I'd like to proceed with our study of the earth, soils, and other dirty stuff this week:

Please read chapter 13 in your textbook, on soils. I think it will mesh nicely with our little field trip to the flume, as well as your foray into melting the planet back to MAG-ma (say this like Doctor Evil).

Please also do the review questions in the Barron's text on soils, at the end of the chapter, which should complement chapter 13 in our text.

While all this fun is unfolding, please finish your viewing of the video on how the earth was made. I'll post questions on this Monday night from far, far away.

I should have more fun for you soon, please check here regularly.

Please be nice to Ms. Lay, she likes tea, so you can spoil her that way. Not sure of her position on chocolate or yummy cookies, but it's worth a try.

If you have any questions, please let me know. I'd appreciate an email each day after class to let me know what you personally accomplished (aside from buttering up Ms. Lay).

Most of all, have fun, otherwise what's the point, right?

aloha
b

Posted by:

earth questions

How old is the earth? How old did early church leaders think it was?

Hutton found what rock formation in Scotland was the clue to the real age of the earth?

Kelvin used thermal cooling calculations to determine the age for the earth-how long was this?
Why was he wrong?

What is "deep time"?

What is so special about "pillow lavas"? What is the Hawaiian name for these?

What does Zircon have to do with aging the planet? What do they tell us about the source of water?

Water is neat stuff. Why would the temperature of the earth 4 bY ago accelerate changes?

3.4 bY ago a new type of rock was formed-what is this rock, and how does it fit into the asthenosphere picture of plate tectonics?

South Africa hosts the CapeVal Cretins: what are these? Why are these important? What did these have to do with the beginning of life? Where was life limited to before these?

What are stromatolites, and what did they produce? From what?

Playford found what? What is the impact of what he found?

What caused the change in the color of the oceans? What then happened to the atmosphere? What color was the planet after this?

What is a trilobite, and where are they found? Why are they significant? What did they prove?

What did Wegener believe? How easy was this to prove? When and how was it finally proven?

What does convection have to do with plate tectonics?

Why is Iceland such an ideal place to study plate tectonics?

What was Rodinia? Why did it cause climate change about 700 mY ago? Why is this so critical to understand today?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rodinia

What was the Cambrian Explosion? Why is it important? What did Walcott discover? Where? What is the Burgess Shale Quarry? Why is shale so special in this process?

When did carnivores show up? Why? How did their presence change the evolution of creatures?

What did the ozone shield enable the growth of? Where did the ozone come from?

What formed the carbon in the carboniferous era? What did life look like 60 mY ago? What does this carbon look like today?

What does the freshwater in a swamp enable? Why is this important?

What did dead marine organisms transform into? Why is this important to us?

What caused the first mass extinction? What is a mantle flume eruption?

What was the name of the next supercontinent?







Posted by:

Please read chapter one in Barron's on the earth, and view as much of the earth videos as you can. We may not have time in class to view the entire video, and it will help you immensely in preparation for the earth science questions on the AP.

Where are the videos?
Here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/media/earth/

Let me know if I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please review the chapter 4 exam in the Barron's 2009 edition (see link below), and read the chapter 1 review section on the earth.
Friday, we can go over the biodiversity quiz and begin work on the earth, with videos.
Let me know if I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Please read chapter 4 in this link to the 2009 edition:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/apes_barrons/2009_edition/

We'll discuss in class today.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Chapter 11: Biodiversity
See wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity
Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or for the entire Earth. Biodiversity is often used as a measure of the health of biological systems. The biodiversity found on Earth today consists of many millions of distinct biological species, which is the product of nearly 3.5 billion years of evolution

Tie in wherever possible with global footprint and biocapacity...

Concepts:
extinction
genetic, species, ecosystem BD
values: biovalue, economic, ethical
threats: habitat loss, invasive species, pests/predators, climate change
Fish farm game
simulations: see globalfootprint.org
footprint calculator
trendalyzer
------------
BD: genes, species and ecosystems
lost: pop size low/extinct/modified
"background extinction rate" now 10,000x
developing countries-why? How is this capital depletion?
local vs global extinction
table 11.1
low pop density, small area, special niche, low repro rates
lookup amazon BD impact
are humans losing our BD? what color were folks in Bladerunner?
genetic diversity: mutations, migration/adaptation, reproductive genetics, population size (e.g. appalachia, whales), selective breeding.

species diversity: "richness" taxonomic and others
how diverse are insects? why?
think of eucalyptus trees on the way to Hilo: what do you see?
see fig 11.3: look familiar?
richness: geologic history, migration, size, humans

Ecosystem diversity: look up the big island: how diverse in what land area? Anyone else even close to this? why?

See table 11.3 on estimated value for "ecosystem services"
Why is farmed salmon so dangerous? monoculture?

Major human impact:
1. habitat loss
2. exploitation
3. exotic species introduction
4. predator/pest control
5. climate change

see fig 11.7. look up rate of amazon rainforest depletion in acres per hour.

see the dam article on p 244 as well...
How does FSC wood prevent clearcutting?
check them out:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forest_Stewardship_Council

rangeland to grazing: which is more diverse?
fig 11.11: look familiar?

Look up KonaBlue here in Kona. What do they do, and why are they facing some opposition? Who owns the company? Ring any bells?
You might also look up Kona Kampachi-interesting story.

look up the zebra mussel story: how did this happen?
look up cowbirds-is this a symbiotic relationship or something else?

Your generation may be the last to see Polar bears in the wild. Forever. Explain.

why do you think Oklahoma is looking into repopulating the prairie in the native prairie grass, possibly then used as a biofuel in the Fischer-Tropsch process?

Millenium declaration may be on the AP. Good idea to review it.

In the "Poisoned Waters" Frontline video we saw, they mentioned something about BD in Chesapeake bay: what was it?

What is the impact of letting a species get very low in population (like the 17 condors in 1986) on their gene pool? why?
Once you get the population to recover (if you can) what is much harder to recover? Any solution for this?

TED videos to watch:
jonathan drori
nalini nadkarni

Dudes to google:
Jorgen Randers-possible speaker at our grand opening. Very wise move to get to know him and his books...

Let me know how I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Folks,
I'd like us to follow dual paths this semester: the text and the flow of Biodiversity, land, soil, water and air issues, while keeping the global biocapacity thread active, with your participation in the global footprint work we started yesterday with Mathis.
So, while we get our ducks in a row with Mathis, let's begin with biodiversity:
First, have a look at this definition:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity
Then, read chapter 11, leading up to the online practice test for the chapter, which I'll post over the weekend.
By next week, you should have enough of an enlightenment on this that you'll understand why Eqypt has such a bad graph...
Since we have a nice, new lab to do lab experiments in, I'd like to move quickly into soils, so we can learn why the soils in the area are so special, among other things.
Let me know if you have any questions.
Due dates:
Friday 1.8.10: discuss readings on wikipedia and chapter 11, read chapter 11
Tuesday 1.12.10: finish discussion on chapter 11 in your text, some videos
Thursday, 1.14.10: quiz on chapter 11 due.

Somewhere in here I'd like to go over your midterm exam, but I'd like to get the curriculum rolling before I start doing more A.D.D. things to you folks.
aloha
b

Posted by:

http://www.theoildrum.com/node/6094?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+theoildrum+%28The+Oil+Drum%29

there is an iTunes link at the bottom:

http://itunes.apple.com/WebObjects/MZStore.woa/wa/browserRedirect?url=itms%253A%252F%252Fitunes.apple.com%252FWebObjects%252FMZStore.woa%252Fwa%252FviewPodcast%253Fid%253D336366164



This man may be our speaker at the April opening of the energy lab, which you will be part of. More soon.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Folks,
Here are the chapters I think we have covered in our class that you might want to look over in the Cracking the AP book (Prentice Hall), and the Green Barron's book:

CtAP:
4-ecosystems
5-population
7-energy
8-pollution (partial)
9-sustainability

Barron's:
4-ecosystems
5-cycles
6-populations
8-energy
9-populations (partial)
11-global warming

If I can get the AP achiever text scanned, there are 4 chapters in there that apply:
1-principles
2-population
3-biodiversity
5-issues/policy

Here is a list of the chapters in our textbook that we have covered:
1-relationships
2-ethics
3-risk assessment
4-matter and energy
5-environments
6-ecosystems
7-populations
8-energy-consumption
9-energy-sources
10-energy-nuclear

coming up next semester:
11-biodiversity
12-land use
13-soil
14-agriculture
15-water
16-air
17-solid waste
18-hazardous materials (hazmat)
19-policy and laws

You may notice that we have covered quite a bit in our first semester, and that our second semester will involve several involved labs, such as soil analysis, water analysis, BOD (biological oxygen demand), air quality analysis, solid waste decomposition, fertilizer analysis and earth systems (weather, earth science, oceanography).
Loads of fun next semester, I'm really looking forward to it. We will have readings over break to get you up to speed, keep checking here for new materials.

Check here for exam updates over the weekend...
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Several of you were gone last week, so we'll begin Tuesday with a round-up of the notes on nuclear energy. If you were absent, it is your duty to get notes from one of your classmates before we meet Tuesday.
In class, we'll continue our discussion of chapter 10, bringing to closure our study of energy. Please complete the RQ and online test for chapter 10 before class on Friday, so you can devote your weekend to studying for your other exams as well as this one.
I'll also have some questions on the first few chapters of "Our Choice" this week, so check here for updates.
We may have time in class to finish the video "Heat", if not, you should have it on your iPods, so please make a point of watching this by Wednesday, so we can discuss in class. If you have not yet turned in your questions on Heat, see my previous post on this, I'll need this by Wednesday, before class.
My goal is to have all non-exam work done by Friday, before class, so you are not juggling too many balls next weekend.
Next week, we can spend time reviewing for the semester exam. My goal is to assemble a realistic AP exam experience for you, based on the material we have covered this semester. This may involve questions from several exams, and should give you a fair assessment of how you would do on the real exam in May. The exam will be graded the same as the May exam, with your score based on:
answers correct -1/4 answers wrong = your score
I'm sure you've seen this in your other AP courses as well.
Let me know how I can help, check here for updates.
aloha
b
---UPDATE #1-----
Please check your grades online.

Posted by:

Please also see the update below on the HEAT video:

Chapter 10: Nuclear Energy
Three cases: nuclear medicine, nuclear power, nuclear weapons
review half lives-see 10.1 table
n.b. some are more dangerous (e.g. Sr90) bc absorbed into specific areas of the body (bones, thyroid for I131)
Half lives: see chart-is it ever gone?
3 decay modes, 4 types of radiation:
alpha: He nuclei, slow, big, lots of charge, stopped by skin
danger: if internal e.g. lungs

beta: fast electron, fast, small, charged, stopped by Al foil
danger: internal ingestion, or close by (goes through skin)

gamma: massless photon (this gets complicated), passes through lead, concrete, very dangerous, ionizing radiation, bad outside or inside the body

---neutron radiation---
no charge, has same mass as proton, punches holes in tissues, no charge so no ionization but very hazardous, goes through more than gammas
Often released near power plants, nuclear explosions. Causes steel embrittlement.

See Daughter element chart 10.3

n.b. absorbed dose= energy absorbed by matter (rads or grays)
alphas cause 20x damage, so new metric is dose equivalent=dosexquality factor:
rems or sieverts
beta, gamma=1.0
alpha=20
t.f. dose equivalent for alpha is 20x absorbed dose

ionizing radiation: X-rays up to cosmic rays, see table 10.3-very important
think of firemen at Chernobyl, all of them died except one-look up on WP

What is the benefit in evolution of cosmic rays?

Protection: clothes for dust, shields for alpha/beta, badges for past exposure-why?
reason: decrease future dose.

Chernobyl again: workers could run in to dump boron sand on the fire ONCE in their lifetime. Many perished later on...

We learned a great deal about nuclear exposure from this disaster. Others as well, look up Idaho nuclear accident on WP.

Fission vs. fusion: if you are dealing with heavy things splitting into smaller things, you are studying fission (uranium, plutonium etc.)
If you are dealing with H and He, you are studying fusion.

Thermonuclear weapons are fusion bombs triggered by the heat released by fission bombs wrapped around them.

Chain reaction: fission works because 1 neutron enters, 3 are released. If 2 are captured by moderator (water, graphite, Beryllium) then the reaction has a 1.0 rate and is sustainable. More than 1.0 is runaway (e.g. bomb). Less than 1.0 is decay to stop.

U235 is 0.7% of natural Uranium. The rest (99.3%) is U238, non-fissionable.
Iranians have been making gas centrifuges-YIKES! Why?
Look up maraging steel on WP. Iran has been importing it. Oh no...

Reactor types:
BWR: boiling water reactor: single loop of coolant over core, 20% of total
PWR: pressurized water reactor: two loops, one toxic, the other runs through a heat exchanger, 60% of total
HWR: heavy water reactor: uses deuterium as the coolant, absorbs neutrons better.10% of total
GCR: gas cooled reactor: pebble bed reactor, see video on e2, coal and nuclear.

Others:
Breeder reactor: takes low grade U238 and bombards it with neutrons, making Plutonium 239, a bomb fuel. Oh no...

Fusion: 1,000,000 °C, high temperatures, must be contained by a magnetic field. All of these are tough to do, except at the core of the sun.
Hydrogen turns to Helium and so on...

See the mining to tailings issue-n.b. many of these tailings were included in cinder blocks in Colorado in the 80's.

See also the cesium-137 incident in Brazil-stolen from a hospital:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goiania_incident

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radioactive_scrap_metal

Reactor safety: three mile island
March 1979, PA
No one killed, lots of people irradiated
Operator error
What we learned? Cost of nuclear plant decomissioning, dangers of scaling up a small design without changes (submarine reactors into power plants)-why are these different?

Chernobyl: 1986 Ukraine Pripyat
4.5 seconds, 2000x, explosion, never told the firemen the fire was radioactive
Russians lied about the incident, we saw it in satellite photos, radiactivity spread all over europe, eventually triggered radioactivity alarms in Sweden, 2000 miles away.
I 131 given to kids all over europe.
37 fatalities: firemen
500 hospitalized, 24,000 high radiation doses.
Many, many more will perish from long term exposure.
Top 12 feet of soil for 60 miles around was removed and buried in Siberia.

Terrorism: dirty bombs
wast disposal: Yucca flats
thermal pollution

See p 231: Pu is the most toxic substance known to man





Posted by:

Team,
Please complete chapter 9 RQ and online quiz by Friday. We'll be working on two parallel streams until our Semester one exam in December:
Our Choice (from our scanned sources), please read the intro (gore00) and the first chapter for our class next Tuesday.
Chapter 10: Nuclear Energy in the textbook.
My goal is to complete chapter 10 before exams.
I appreciate that your time will be sucked into the black hole that is review week starting after our break next week, so I'll do my best to make sure your assignments are posted far in advance.
Check here for updates.
--UPDATE--
Please view the HEAT video over the weekend, and complete these questions on global warming before Wednesday.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/teach/heat/discussion.html

I'd like to unload your Thanksgiving break as much as possible. More soon.
Let me know how I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

chapter 9 notes-energy
From the lab:
kWh is a unit of energy, bc Watts are a unit of power (work/time), so need to multiply kW by time (hours) to get energy

we found: you can measure current (i) with a clamp on meter
most applicances are either 120 Vac or 220 Vac, 60 Hz (cycles per second)

ohms law: V=iR volts = current(amps) x resistance (ohms)
Using ohmmeters, we can measure resistance, and calculate current.

Also useful: Power = V2/R

Joule's law: P = iV (also known as "pie" formula: P=iE)

Again, power is in watts, i is in amperes (amps) and voltage is in volts.

we calculated power of the hot water heater, about 900 watts
we calculated power of the 220 Vac air conditioner to be 8.8 amps at 220 volts, or 2000 watts.

biggest expenses in homes are "vampire loads", on 24/7
not large, but the time factor makes them costly

cost: electrical energy in Hawaii is about $0.35/kWh, highest in the nation
CA is about 7, Oregon is about 5.

To calculate cost, multiply amount of kW by number of hours (recall that 720 hours are in a month)
so, kWh x $0.35/kWh gives you dollars

We also measured light output at 50 cm (0.5m) for a 45 watt incandescent light bulb and a compact fluorescent bulb (CFL)
The incand. bulb emitted 220 lux at 50 cm, and consumed 45 watts
the cfl emitted 450 lux at 50 cm and consumed 13 watts

recall the lux per watt of power numbers, the cfl came out about 6x more efficient.

--------
text notes:

1900-2007:
world energy 16x, economy 70x, population only 4x
why?
80% fossil fuels: all ultimately stored solar energy
fossil: nonrenewable
renewable: in this lifetime, perpetual
resources: all that is out there
reserves: all that can be extracted economically
resources-stay constant
reserves-increase as technology enables access, decreases with use.
Q infinity
Pennsylvania in 1859: oil discovered in PA
Coal: from freshwater swamps 300 my ago, covered with water, so anaerobic decay (e.g. peat bogs)
sediment wt. compressed to peat, lignite, subbitunimous coal, bituminous and anthracite.
n.b. relative carbon content increases as organics decompose, lose H and O molecules (plants were CHO, coal is just C)
US and china have lots of coal reserves...
global warming issues, railroads as transport,
question: what did T Boone Pickens buy on Friday, 11.6.2009? Why?

Oil/natural gas:
marine organisms, ocean bottom, decay released oils into muddy sediments->shale (see oil shales in Canada)
IFF sandstone on top of shale, (oil sands, see Colorado), oil will pass through sands.
IFF cap rock, it will trap oil in domes:
gas-oil-water
"gushers" are not the real way, usually gas first-very dangerous, some emit H2S gas-very toxic (indonesia)
middle east has 60% of oil reserves, but they have reached "peak oil"
We need to discuss this-it is very important-----

80% world energy is non-renewable-heading for a crash
coal 25%, oil 36%, gas 21%
n.b. could trains transport gas? what method is used in the US to move most of our coal? why? what has been in the news in the past week? notice any connections?

Coal: more
lignite-brown coal, all that is left in UK, lots of water, low energy content, usually burned near the mine for energy
SB coal-used for power plants
BT coal-used for power, cement, steel
anthracite-bldg heating (cleanest)

surface mining-strip mining, leaves tailings (see mine disaster of 2008 in US)
IFF overburden too thick (>100m) then mining needed
drift or vertical shaft mines
silicosis-black lung disease: external cost of mining (we pay the health care of miners)

Issues: land damage, toxic runoff (see butte, MT), dust, acid deposition, CO2 (coal is worst of oil/gas/coal for CO2 per kWh gained)

Oil: benefits: easier to extract, more concentrated energy, burns cleaner, can be moved through pipes (no trucks or trains needed).
found: land or ocean floor, harder to find today
primary recovery vs. secondary recovery (water injection), tertiary (steam)-see tar sands and oil shale issues
Processing: see 9.14





transport issues: exxon valdez, others (france:amoco cadiz, santa barbara)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_spills

p.195: ANWR-which option is sustainable?

Natural Gas:
21% of global energy
extracted like oil, uses air for secondary extraction.
transported as LNG
cleanest burning, least env impact, safest, cleanest burning, most kWh per CO2
Also: CH4 used to form NH4 fertilizers (thanks again, Dr. Haber)

Renewable energy---------
fossil fuels: 80% global use
nuclear: 6%
energy use: 2% per year, present doubling time is 20 years, as supplies are constant or decrease as demand increases, renewables become more profitable
12% of global energy:
biomass, hydro, wind, solar, geothermal, tidal
biomass (e.g. wood) mostly in UD countries
biomass: fuel wood, solid waste (Hpower plant)
bagasse (Maui land and sugar), and ethanol (e.g. corn, or sugar cane-Brazil)

energy from biomass:
burning; wood stoves, co-gen (combined heat and electricity generation system)
biofuels: ethanol, biodiesel
E85 is 85% ethanol

biodiesel: palm, rapeseed, soy, jetropha, 36% of global BD produced in DDR

biogas: anaerobic bacterial digestion-methane and CO2
see also landfills (e.g. kailua, oahu)

pyrolysis: fischer-tropsch process-syngas process

issues: competition with food crops, habitat loss,biodiversity loss, global warming, air pollution (leading cause of lung cancers in LD countries)

hydropower:
high "head" means deep dam, with thermoclines, habitat disruption (cool water pollution), sedimentation, limited dam lifespan. See logarithmic backflow curve.

low "head" systems like Aswan dam in Egypt, three gorges dam in China (look this up) 22,500 mW !
minihydro: less than 10 mW
microhydro: less than 1 mW
can be diverse, lower impact, decrease transit losses

issues: flooding of back lands (see china)
The construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China inundated 153 towns and 4500 villages and caused the displacement of over a million people. In addition, numerous archeological sites were submerged and the nature of the scenic canyons of the Three Gorges was changed.

fish ladders, silt fertilization, inorganic mercury -> organic mercury, bioaccumulation.

Solar energy--------
ultimate answer-
issues: only available in daytime-so must store energy
intermittent and diffuse (e.g. oceans)
ocean thermal energy conversion: OTEC Keahole
1. passive solar/solar thermal
2. active solar-pumped solar thermal
3. PV

passive: trombe walls: energy lab is essentially a liquid trombe wall in reverse
sunspaces are like the spaces in the ladakh school (see e2 video on this)



design of windows and floors to absorb heat from day to warm in night is another
see "daylighting" or smart skylights...
n.b. passive systems require no external energy to collect
another example: solahart passive convective solar thermal energy collector systems

Active solar: contrast this with solahart-need a pump (can be PV powered) to run solar thermal system
can be simple or complex (varied pump speeds with radiation, optimized ∆t, etc.)

coolant can be the substance used (e.g. hot water) or something else (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol)-these are also used for geothermal well cooling heating systems.

some systems are testing hot oil to 300°C, stored for later use, e.g. spain project, Keahole project, mojave desert project.

Solar Electric plants
two types: PV (direct) and solar thermal to steam (STS)

PV systems: crystalline silicon is expensive (see solar film video), but direct kWh from sunlight, no moving parts, 30 year lifespan, no maintenance (cleaning only)

Solar furnace: heats oil or other storage medium to 390°C (e.g. SEGS and Segovia plant in Spain)

see also solar stills for water desalinization and purification in LD countries

PV now at $0.20 per kWh (more than US, less than Hawaii-we are past the profit point on this)
efficiency: now at 15%, soon to be 40% (sanyo bifacials are 20% at elab)

18x increase in 20 years

Wind-----essentially solar energy working through convection
Hadley, Ferrel, and polar cells-see the weather this week
cell circulation allows for the transfer of heat from hot earth to cool space
Issues: variable, site specific, usually far from urban centers (high demand)-if there were a means to transfer the energy without loss...
Hydrogen power?
Europe leads wind power
concerns: birds (myth, except at Altamont pass), unsightly (true) latest plan: site them offshore cape cod in Mass.
people are NOT happy about it
map 9.29 is bogus, we are class 7 in Waimea
two types of turbines, VAWT and HAWT-why is each suited for specific uses?
noise, pressure waves also...


Geothermal---
What is it? heat close to the surface: hot rocks, or steam from water percolating down into hot rocks. MAG-MA (important: say in voice of professor Evil)
CA leads in geothermal, HI also (here on BI, puna geothermal ventures)
see also NZ (Rotorua) and iceland (everywhere) 50% for heating, 50% for electricity-also being seen as hydrogen fuel site-see car talk video:



Who else do you know who has "vast energy resources and a very small population"?
Ring any bells?

see also closed loop systems: uses a coolant solution, very hot pipes, but no toxic gases released (an issue in Puna)
Hydrogen sulfide gas is very nasty-turns to sulfuric acid in the lungs, toxic to fish, etc. etc.
See also pyrolysis of water at high temperatures, perhaps even on your roof (one future elab project)

Tidal/current---
Solar energy of another sort: the sun's gravity allows us to orbit, with the momentum from our inital explosion that formed the solar system ca. 5 by ago. Moon is also orbiting-us. As the moon passes overhead, its gravity attracts everything (very small rocks, cider, mud, churches, a duck) including MAG-MA, continental plates, you, and the oceans.
As these bulges in water recede, they form currents and tides (not the same: tides ebb and flow, currents are relatively constant-see the alenuihaha channel between Maui and Hawai'i)
One can harness these currents and tides for power, as they are essentially very small head (∆h) hydroelectric projects, except current energy, which has less to do with relative height than with global movement of water.
5 meters of ∆h needed to make tidal worthwhile. About 5 mph (2 m/s) needed to make current profitable, Hawaii has 12-20 mph current in the channel (google the UH ship Holo Holo, lost at sea, about 1977. I knew some of these guys, the oceantech guy who visited HPA last month worked with them)
issues: technical-biofouling, damage, corrosion.

Conservation---
Not sexy, but dollar for dollar, 4x more efficient than installing new wind or PV.
Like filling a bathtub while leaving the drain open.
idea: find out what energy-star means on an appliance
CFL bulbs-issues: mercury
see also small scale cogen plants (lichtblick)
http://www.reuters.com/article/GCA-GreenBusiness/idUSTRE5883E520090909

Storage methods:
Fuel cells-just like in Apollo 13
+ no pollution
- 40% efficient
Can one make hydrogen non-flammable? No, but we can make it less explosive (lithium hydride canisters)

PSH pumped storage hydro (one reason the energy lab is sited where it is)





Posted by:

Yay! lab day!
Today: a short primer on electrical power
Things we will learn:
what is a watt?
kilo, mega, giga-what does it all mean?
which costs more: a 60 watt bulb left on for 1000 hours, or a 1000 watt iron left on for 60 hours?
how HELCO measures what they charge you
hands-on: tackling kW and kWh with meters
more hands-on: measuring the power used by a 220 v device

I'd like to include this minilab in your midquarter reports, let's see if we can do this all tomorrow with a discussion you can email me over the weekend for even more lab points.

Sound good?
See you all in the morning.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Here is our outline for this week, until Tuesday, Nov. 10:

Please complete these questions, without notes or book, and email your answers to me. I'll email back a key with answers for you, so you will know how well you did.

APES AP exam questions-population

AP exam 1:
11-15,39,49,50,51,64,68,71,77,96
AP exam 2:
1-5,32,37,38,39,40,44,50-52,59,79,81,86,96
FR 2 and FR4

Here are my notes on chapter 8, energy: patterns of consumption:

ch 8 notes-energy patterns of consumption

sun->photosynthesis is main course of terrestrial energy
civilization: agriculture, domesticated animals, wood for cooking/shelter
industrial revolution: coal (was for heating, hard to mine)
Ind. rev: more coal (mining devices), steam heat/power-began in UK
good points: portable, can be industrially concentrated (e.g. mined), used for many purposes (heat, steam-> kWh, syngas, plastics)

n.b. fig 8.4-note trends from renewable (wood) to limited (fossil fuels)
natural gas-easy to gather (surface wells), easy to process, store
nat gas 23% of US energy
n.b. T. Boone Pickens' energy plan (look up on wikipedia)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T_boone_pickens#The_Pickens_Plan

biomass: renewable, but low energy density
How to concentrate? See BTL, Fischer-Tropsch process:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomass_to_liquid
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fischer_Tropsch
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel
Portals:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Energy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Ecology
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Sustainable_development
http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Category:Renewable_energy

See fig 8.6-why is Canada so high? Why is Bengaladesh so low?
n.b. heating water-greatest energy use for lowest quality energy-crazy!
See fig 8.8-why are we so high? why again is B so low?

Electricity: both a means for consumption and a means of transport (e.g. wires)
Primary electircal sources: burning fossil fuels, nuclear, hydro, geothermal, wind, tidal, solar
n.b. Norway and Canada hydro-why?
n.b. Iceland all geothermal-why?
n.b. France-nuclear-why? recall Mururoa atoll
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_nuclear_testing#Atmospheric_tests_at_Mururoa_.26_Fangataufa

50% of power in Korea for industry!

Governmental influence on energy use: OPEC 1973, CAFE standards, coal subsidies, interstate system vs. rail and bus systems
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Oil_Embargo
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CAFE_standards

electrical energy pricing-see Enron film-yikes!

OPEC-July 2008: $149/bbl

n.b. fig 8.14-what is the fastest growing region? why should this worry us?

see fig 8.15-notice OPEC countries, and regions of political instability
Is renewable energy our best means of national defense?


Plan for the week:
Tuesday, 11.3: wrap-up chapter 7 on population, notes in class, plan out

Wednesday, 11.4: notes on chapter 8, energy: patterns of consumption, notes online

Friday: 11.6: finish chapter 8 notes, RQ and online test due Tuesday 11.10.

Due Tuesday 11.10:
RQ chapter 8
online quiz chapter 8
AP exam questions, chapter 7 (population)

I'll be loading new videos on the iPods tomorrow, in particular a film about Enron that covers how electrical power came to be traded as a commodity.

Let me know how I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Chapter 7 population questions

What factors impact a population?

What are the three survivorship curves for sheep, birds and plants?

Describe the population curves for + growth, neutral growth and - growth

Explain "biotic potential"

What are the 4 parts of a population curve, including overshoot

In the Denali wolf/moose example, explain the overshoot and phase shift

Explain the K and r tragegies, including the formula for growth rate

What is the extinction rate?

Explain the rule of 70, and give three examples

What was Malthus' proposal, and why has it not come true (so far)

Explain the IPAT formula, and give an example (be creative)

TFR means what?

What TFR is belived to be stable equilibrium?

What was the TFR for women in China in the 1980's? Why?

Explain why the literacy of women is related to fertility and sustainability?

Explain the trophic level pyramids, and why vegetarians are more sustainable than carnivores (e.g. humans)

Explain and graph the four stages in the demographic transition model

If you look at the population curves for the US (figure 7.18), you will see the WW I baby boom and the WW II baby boom. Explain the "boom echo".

Chapter 7 population notes

n.b. c/c means cunningham text, see the AP env sci folder on this server, here:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/cunningham_text/



population: same species, same location

Factors: birthrate (natality), death rate (mortality), sex ratio, age distribution, growth rate (r), density, spatial distribution

birthrate is per 1000 people, so 20/2000 is 10/k per year

mortality is same

survivorship curves (see fig 7.2) sheep-long life, birds-predators, non specific, plants-lots of offspring don't survive

population growth rate = Brate - Drate

See Fig 7.1, see also 6.6 in c/c page 123

Sex ratio: women always on the right

age distribution curves: pyramid is + growth, parallel is stable growth, inverted pyramid is - growth

repro years = 15-40 for female humans

see figure 7.3

spatial distribution: flowers

emigration: out, immigration:in

biotic potential: inherent repro capacity: geese=10/year, elephants=0.5/year

population curves: see figure 7.5
lag section: lots of food, takes time to reproduce
exponential section: grows according to At = A0 e kt
deceleration: food supply outstripped by population
stable: balance
overshoot: too many for food supply

see figure 6.3 and 6.4 in c/c chapter 6, page 119
see also figure 6.8 in c/c on overshoot

limiting factors: environmental resistance
extrinsic: predators, food source
intrinsic: self controlled, mice fertility drops in overpopulation (negative feedback)

see figure 6.10 in c/c, extinction rate

density dependent: predators, food
density independent: frost, flood, fire

limiting factors: energy, waste, raw materials

CARRYING CAPACITY-always on the AP exam: stable population, renewable resources, sustainable

"stable" is really negative feedback, equilibrium

Strategies:
K: mammals, take care of young, reach stable population at carrying capacity, few offspring, density dependent, low infant mortality

r: bacteria, lots of offspring, high infant mortality, limited by density independent factors (fire, flood, etc.)

see the growth formula: N is population, t is time, r is growth rate, K is carrying capacity:

∆N/∆t = rN(1-N/K)

n.b. as N/k -> 1, ∆N/∆t -> 0

negative feedback is the key here

r: less crowded, so N/K is close to 0, so rate is rN

K: follows carrying capacity, so N/K close to 1, so rate is close to 0

Malthus: population grows exponentially, food linearly, tf crash

see fig 7.12

Impact: IPAT
Impact = population * affluence * technology (we are high on all three)

imagine a village...

Demography: birthrate vs. deathrate

TFR: total fertility rate: number of offpring in female lifetime
2.1 is stable (why not 2.0?)

first child age: 14 in LDC, 21 in DC

see population bomb, ca. 1970

see c/c 7.17

see fig 7.14

Africa vs. US (5.0 TFR vs. 1.6 TFR)

female literacy prop. to TFR, tf GFO focus, also Grameen bank

china 1980, one child policy (some of these kids go to HPA)
tf no concept of sister or brother...the term disappeared...

ChengDu earthquake-China govt. allowed parents to have another child

GNI = gross national income
PPP = purchase power parity (e.g."fair trade")
see Mexico workers

see fig. 7.15, p. 159 Grameen bank

Trophic pyramid: n = 1% for carnivore, 10% for herbivore

see fig. 7.17 Demographic transition model

1. premodern: high BR, high DR, low, stable population
2. urbanization: high BR, low DR, growing pop.
3. mature: low BR (literacy of females), low DR, slowly increasing pop.
4. post-industrial: low BR, low DR, stable pop.

see fig 7.18, pop curves
WW I baby boom, ca. 1918
WW II baby boom, 1945-65 (parents were 20-40 yrs. old)
where is the "boom echo"?

What happened to the pop curves of Iran and Iraq following 1980-1990 period?
To what gender?
Why?

See c/c 7.11 and 7.14




Posted by:

Team:
This week---
Energy lab tour (yay! Finally!)
Design videos on e2, season one-green everything
(I'm loading this onto iPods now, I've already converted these to web enabled movies, see below) No pre or post questions, just for class discussion, and prep for our energy lab tour.
Finish our presentations on Biomes
HW from the text on biomes
Reading chapter 7 (11th edition version), questions at the end of the chapter due next Tuesday, November 3 (what? November already?)
Begin discussions of Population-this should be really, really interesting-remember the population distribution curves? We'll begin there...

With all of this fun, we will have to wait to distill your noxious moonshine brews, I may do this at X period.

Here is how you can access all of the e2 videos online:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/e2_videos/

You can also access them on the physics server, from the connect to server menu.
As I mentioned, I'm trying to blast these all onto the steaming pile of iPods here on my desk, I'll let you know Tuesday who won.

Here is how to get to chapter 7 from the 11th edition of the Enger text:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/enger/

Please read at least the first part of this by class Wednesday. We can take Friday to go up to the energy lab, last class of the day.

The questions for chapter 6 on biomes lives in the same folder, under chapter 6, at the end of the readings. Please do the review questions, page 138. Please email these to my by Wednesday.

The practice quiz for chapter 6 lives here:

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/chapter6/practice_quiz_.html

Please also finish this by Wednesday.

So, sports fans, here is the line-up:
Tuesday: finish biome reports, begin notes on population
Wednesday: we do more on chapter 7, population, you turn in the chapter 6 Review Questions and the practice test via email.
Friday: you read the rest of chapter 7, and do the review questions and test by class Tuesday, November 3.

We'll wait on the videos, unless you need a break from all of this conventional "book lernin", in which case I'll set you up with the next series, e2-Design, season one. Remember there are no pre or post questions for this season one module.

Let me know how I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

First, let's discuss the aviation video and how transport figures into our larger vision of footprint.
Second, an update on the global footprint project, including our new partner, Dresden International School.
Next, I'll give you a brief explanation of global weather, so you'll understand why deserts are where they are, and other neat things.
Last, we'll break into our groups to work on our biome projects, outlining what questions we'd like answered.
Friday, each of you should come up with at least one question for each presentation, which should last about 10-20 minutes for the pair of you. Email me the questions, and this will become your homework over the weekend, from this very weblog.
Cheers
b

Posted by:

Team,
I've discovered a goldmine:
Rather than wading through all of the (interesting) pages on the pbs site to find the videos and pre/post questions for each video, I've stumbled on a directory on the PBS server that has all of the files. Here it is:

http://www.pbs.org/e2/teachers/pdfs/

If you go there, you will find all of the pre and post questions for all of the e2 series, with the exception of series one of the design segment. These have no pre/post questions, so we'll have to come up with our own.
For next week then, please do the pre/post questions for the Seoul: stream of consciousness video, as well as the one on aviation, which I think you'll find amazing, particularly living out here in Hawai'i ne.

Aviation link:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/e2/e2_transport/

number 12 is the one you want.

I'll load the video for the Transport: aviation onto some of the iPods, if you want to use these, or I will post a link below to see them on the PBS site or on the server.
Check here soon for more info.
Quiz next week on chapter 6: biomes, probably on Friday. Wednesday of next week, you'll present your biome to us:
Robert has dibs on the aquatic biomes: marine and freshwater
This leaves 9 terrestrial biomes for the remaining 6 of you.
Let me know if this works:
Morgan and Alyssa: Desert (Ka'u), temperate rain forest (volcano) and chaparral (waikoloa)
Eaman and Katy: tropical rain forest (hamakua) tropical dry forest (waimea), taiga (hakalau)
Sam and Eunsol: temerate grassland (hawi), savanna (puako), tropical deciduous forest (waikii)

Let's do this:
Work in your group to introduce us to your biomes. Include climate, locations (including places worldwide), rainfall, plants and animals, and how they are threatened by civilization.
We should be able to begin these presentations Friday, and continue into the next week.

Let me know if your biome is a dog and you cannot find anything juicy about it, I'll help.

We can discuss this more as a group when we meet on Wednesday.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Chapter 6 notes: Ecosystems and communities
Succession-communites proceed through series of recognizable, predicatable changes in structure over time
long lasting and stable
factors: climate, food, invasion etc.
climax comm. stable, long lasting result of succession
determined by climate, water, substrate and org. type

primary succession-no existing organisms
secondary succession-destruction of existing ecosystem

Primary succession-terrestrial-
factors: substrate (e.g. soil), climate, repro structures, rate of growth, organic matter, water
pioneer comm.- first to colonize bare rock (e.g. lichen)
later comm.-soil available, holds water (life)
1 pioneer stage
lichen: mutualistic: algae/bacteria(photosynthesis) + fungi to hold on
2 secondary stage: soil: retains water, structural support
(succession: plants shade lichens)
3 climax community-stable, diverse, interconnected, interdependent, many niches, recycle biomass (constant)

process of succession is called a sere, stages are seral stages
see fig 6.3-imagine driving from puako to waimea

Primary succession-aquatic
oceanic-stable
limnotic/riparian-transitional, fills with sediment
stages:
1. aquatic vegetation-e.g. aquarium, leads to wet soil and terrestrial networks (roots, wet meadow)
2. transitional: biomass of trees creates top layers of soil, transition to terrestrial climax comm.

imagine trip from middle of lake to shore-see all transitions
bogs=transitional stage from shore to dry land (Ireland, Scotland)

Secondary Succession-terrestrial
recall: existing comm. is replaced
e.g. pond fills to become a meadow, then climax forest
can reverse: beaver dams: land to aquatic
see also human dams, exponential decay curve

Biomes-------
determined by climate, altitude, water (precipitation), temperature
similar niches and habitats in each biome











Posted by:

Student Global Footprint Network project outline

Problem:
• Modern civilizations are living beyond their means, on a non-sustainable course
• Students, concerned about this trend, are often isolated, unable to share local perspectives on global issues, to develop best practices
• Several educational programs exist to address global issues, none of which leverage students' most familiar tools: social networking


Solution:
• Leverage student social networks to connect students to each other, to authentic scientists and to resources to develop global solutions through sharing of local issues

Resources:
• Global Footprint Network, based in Alameda, CA: Access to authentic researchers in the field, as well as collected data on one metric of sustainability: the Global Footprint Index (GFI)
• HPA Energy Lab, Kamuela, Hawaii: a virtual and physical portal for student interaction, hosting video conferencing facilities to bridge student conversations, and to host a student sustainability congress each summer (http://www.hpa.edu/energylab/)
• Digital repository: cloud based access to recorded conversations, video conferences and student produced media, as well as shared digital resources and best practices


Goals:
• Establish a network of students at schools around the world, representing varied geographical, cultural and socio-economic conditions.
• Link these students with familiar tools, such as MySpace, FaceBook, and Instant Messaging
• Develop a model for exchange of ideas, using more advanced tools such as wikis, weblogs and video weblogs
• Develop online tools for calculation and dissemination of sustainability metrics, such as the Global Footprint Index, including hand-held tools such as iPhone apps to create a Google map layer of GFI
• Hold regular virtual conferences on GFI, with shared solutions, visiting speakers and shared synthesis of solutions by students
• Develop a student model for global cooperation (a la IPCC) with local dissemination of global concerns
• Establish partnerships with other global awareness programs such as project 2020 and Global Issues Network (GIN)

Timeline:
• Year one: establish trial group of schools, establish student social networking tools, share GFI metric calculators online, first virtual and physical student sustainability congress held
• Year two: establish robust, reliable communications including video teleconferencing, wikis and weblogs, building on the existing social networks, improvement of facilities, expand to second tier of schools, establish shared goals, curriculum development, second student sustainability congress, virtual and physical, web resources created (iPhone apps, google map layers)
• Year three: determine means and solutions for critical issues, global and local, tertiary school groups included, 5 year student action plan developed, student solutions shared on virtual conference site, virtual and physical congresses expand.

Questions for schools:
1. Do you have access to the internet?
2. Do you have an engaged faculty sponsor?
3. Do you have a vision for ecological footprint at your school and in your community?
4. Do you have unique local issues the team can learn from your sharing?
5. How would you benefit from joining with other global schools to share ideas and solutions?

Schools: short list:
Hawaii Preparatory Academy, Kamuela, Hawaii
International School, Hamburg
Palmer School/High Tech High, Alaska
Darrow School, NY
Berkeley High, CA/Bay Area school tbd
Boulder High, CO
Taipei International School, Taiwan
Beijing International School, China
Sydney School, Australia
Taupo School, Taupo NZ
Ghana International School, Accra Ghana
American School of Rio De Janeiro
Washington International School
Brussels American School
International School of Brussels
UAE International school
Silicon Valley school tbd
India international school. tbd



Schools:
International School of Hamburg
Andreas Klimkeit klimkeitam@arcor.de
Juliane Schweda <JSchweda@ishamburg.org>

Palmer School, north of Anchorage Alaska
Ray DePriest <Ray.DePriest@matsuk12.us>
Stephen Krueger <Stephen.Krueger@matsuk12.us>
Mark Standley akstandley@mac.com

Darrow School, NY
Mr. Jim Bennett bennettj@darrowschool.org

San Francisco Bay area school
Berkeley High

Denver/Boulder school

Taiwan
possibly working with Daniel Tsai, HPA parent, will meet with DT week of 10.15.09

Beijing
international school?

Sydney School, Australia
Michael McDowell <mikemcdowell@ozemail.com.au>

New Zealand-Taupo
Mawae Morton <mawae@hawaii.rr.com>
john.mataira@mfat.govt.nz NZ consulate in LA

Switzerland-international school?

Ghana
MS contact

Northern Brazil/Amazon basin
joao kopytowski <joaohmf@yahoo.com>

Washington International School
Clayton Lewis, clewis@wis.edu



Notes:
elab support funding (annual or endowment): connectivity, staff, material resources, virtual portal
HPA student scholarship funding (annual or endowment): enable exchange students worldwide

Posted by:

Team,
Nice work on the AP simulation exam. This week we meet twice: Tuesday and Thursday for a short time with some of your parents.
Tuesday I'd like to begin work on chapter 6: ecosystems and biomes. I've listed the readings below.

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/enger/

I'd also like to proceed with the nano videos you now all have at home.
Please watch the following:

Ideas for a small planet: Work-you should find the study of sustainability familiar, particularly the speaker in segment III

e2-Seoul river restoration-this is the first video on the e2 transport section. Note the counter view on the carbon footprint of the restoration. Something you have not heard yet: concrete is soon to be implicated as the largest greenhouse gas factor during production.

e2-green apple-pay particular attention to the innovations cited. As we move into the energy lab, you'll find some of the things they mention incorporated into our design. See if you can notice these things.

We have a short time this week, let's have some fun.
Let me know if I can help.
aloha
b


Posted by:

Here are your links to the AP tests:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/apes_apexam1.PDF

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/apes_apexam2.PDF

Posted by:

apes reading notes
ch 5 environments and organisms
codes:
n.b. means nota bene, in latin, "note well"
esp. = especially
w/o = without
bcd = because
wrt= with respect to
iff=if and only if
e.g.=for example
Op cit= Opus Citera, cited in the work
btw=by the way
ttfn=ta ta for now
pos=parent over shoulder


Notes
energy and matter flow is critical
everything that affects an organism=environment
abiotic=not living, biotic=living
limiting factor-see also rate limiting factor-recall cafeteria line, create your own image
range of tolerance-critical to adaptability (not mentioned in the book)
habitat-place, niche-role
adaptation-change in organism to meet surroundings and survive/thrive
genes-DNA determining characteristics
you=25% mom, 25% dad
population=same kind, same place
species=population concept: all organisms capable of reproduction with that gene set
natural selection: process, close fit between demands of environment and organism
NS over time=evolution
Natural Selection:
1. genetic variation (if none, then there is no outstanding survivor possible)
2. plenty of offspring, leading to…
3. stress on the system resources (food, water, land etc.)
4. outstanding survivors reproduce
5. incremental changes over generations improve adaptation (could be fast, like bacteria or fruit flies)

Speciation=like specialization in medicine: general doctors become radiologists
Often caused by splits in populations (sub populations) like the bunnies and the river…
diploid=you, 2 sets of chromosomes (colored bodies)
ployploidy=many chromosomes (e.g. plants)
Extinction=not enough of a species to effectively reproduce. Effective is the key word, genetic variation diminishes way before extinction occurs.
background rate: 10 species per year
present rate: many times this
co-evolution: two species change together, often in symbiosis

Interactions:
Predator-prey
Competition: interspecies (hawks, owls, foxes hunting the same mice), intraspecies (fastest wins in similar plants)
Symbiosis (see below)

Competitive Exclusion Principle (CEP): no 2 species can occupy the same niche in the same place (habitat) at the same time.

Symbiotic relationships:
Parasitism: B (parasite) feeds on A (host), A suffers for this
Vectors may be involved that carry the parasite (e.g. mosquitoes)
ectoparasites-outside endoparasites-inside

Commensalism: B benefits from A, A does not suffer
"opportunistic"

Mutualism: A benefits, B benefits
e.g. nitrogen fixing bacteria: mycorrhizae

Others: nest parasitism (cow bird), blood parasites

Community: different species in same area (ecosystem)
Ecosystems:
Producers: turn inorganic sources into organic sources, e.g. plants (sun energy) or sulfur plants (Sulfur oxidation and heat from deep sea volcanic vents)
consumers: Primary (eat the plants, e.g. herbivores) or secondary (carnivores, they eat the herbivores)
Omnivores: eat everything
Decomposers: decay everything back to organic and inorganic materials

Keystone species: critical role in balance of the ecosystem: remove them and the ecosystem cannot function
e.g. bison, sea otter
n.b. energy flow through the ecosystem

Trophic levels (very important)
producers: level 1
primary consumers: level 2
secondary consumers: level 3
meat eating carnivores: level 4

90% energy is lost in every transition (recall our talk on energy tax)
Low trophic level is sustainable
Can also be demonstrated by comparing biomass pyramid

Food chains, food webs (both were on the AP exam last year btw)
Food chain: series of organisms at ascending trophic levels, energy flows up
see also bio-accumulation of Hg (mercury)
detritus-decaying matter from living things
good web-intersection of several food chains, mutual interdependence, biodiversity, all good things...

Biochemical cycles (n.b. chemical)
Many chemical cycles, three are critical: carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus
Carbon-stored in atmosphere as CO2, then in bones and organic matter (e.g. wood)
Nitrogen-stored in atmosphere as N2 (gas), used as NO3 and NH4 by primary producers, basis for protein (CHON)
Phosphorus-from rocks, stored in bones-see Waterloo diggers…yuk

photosynthesis-50% occurs in the oceans
light converted to sugar (recall Maui onions)
can track carbon as C14/6 through atmosphere, to CHO (plant) to CHON(protein) to CO2 or oil
All Americans over 50 have traces of C14 from atomic bomb testing in our bones…radioactive phosphorus as well…more yuk
green manure-sacrificial bean crops
crop rotation-n.b.
Question: why was Nauru so high in PO4? Hint: it is an island
fossil fuels burned-how does this change the Carbon cycle balance?

n.b. erg runoff: recall the video on Chesapeake R. eutrophication, algal blooms and red tides (we did not cover these, look them up on wikipedia)

Check these out while reading the chapter, and bring your notes along to Starbuck's tomorrow.
aloha
b
















Posted by:

Team,
Please do the review questions page 77 of Enger, chapter 4, from 1-11. I think this will wrap-up our work on matter and energy. If you missed the class (Sam, Katy) see me or one of the team for notes.
I'll post chapters 5 and 6 on the site Friday, check there for the latest readings.

The textbook, chapter 4:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/enger/ch04/
Chapter5:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/enger/ch05/

Something to have a look at:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/apes_apexam1.PDF
Look at the following questions, and see if they seem slightly familiar:
31 32 33 34 35 36 41 42 44 48 55 57 58 60 62 66 67 79 91 92
These represent over 25% of the AP exam given several years ago. I hope you share my sense of our progress so far, and fell confident in your ability to do well on the exam in May.

One last thing:
Have a look at the box on page 76, about diesel cars. Something to consider: Biodiesel (at least the sort that Robert Rapier is working on, called the Fischer-Tropsch process) is very low on particulates. Can you sense why this might be a very important solution for the future? I'd like to know your thoughts on this...

Let me know if I can help.
aloha
b

ADDENDUM:
Please have a look at these questions on chapter 4:
https://www.eztestonline.com/207829/12547715161066300842.tp4
If this works, we can use this format for home practice exams.
Let's discuss in class Tuesday, after you've had a chance to test it once.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Tuesday, let's see the first bits of Poisoned Waters in class. If you can watch over the weekend (what's left of it) and check out these questions, we'll be a step further to your understanding of water pollution and the CWA (clean water act):
From the PBS site, about chicken farming and endocrine disrupters:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/teach/poisonedwaters/1.pdf
Please have these ready for class Tuesday.
For Thursday, have a look at these links:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/teach/poisonedwaters/2.pdf
Our summary questions for Thursday:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/teach/poisonedwaters/discussion.html
Please have these ready for class, it's a great introduction to water pollution issues in the US.
Let me know if I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Please listen to this short interview:
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=113135818
A question: how would you implement something like this?

Friday plan:
Finish Ch. 4 on matter and energy (we'll begin with where we left off on water, and the phase diagram)
Acids and bases, pH
We'll (hopefully) finish your distillations...
Quiz on chapter 3 readings
If we have time, poisoned waters video
See you tomorrow
aloha
b
ADDENDA---
Just released in the news today:
http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/09_40/b4149068698190.htm

...and here is the link to begin our study of "Poisoned Waters":

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/poisonedwaters/view/

aloha
b

Posted by:

Please read chapter 3, which we reviewed in class, and try the following questions online:

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/chapter3/practice_quiz_.html
You should also have your chapter 3 review questions (see link below) turned in.
Our next chapter (four)

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/enger/

will build on the scientific method, and some basics on chemistry, which I'd like to augment with a video called "poisoned waters", which we will see as much of in class as we have time for.
Please read chapter 4 online, so we can discuss in class. Our first class is Wednesday morning this week, leaving just Wednesday and Friday for our work together.
Please bring your usb drives to class, I'll give you the next set of videos for class.
Check here Sunday and Monday for updates...
aloha
b
--UPDATE--
Team:
Here are some notes for class from the reading on chapter 4 of Enger. We'll review these in class Wednesday.
We'll have to wait until Friday to distill your lovely alcohol products, as the stills are being borrowed by moonshiners visiting from the mainland, so be patient, fellow brewmasters...
Let me know if you are unable to read the chapter online:

Chapter 4 notes-Enger
Science as a process-forming possible solutions, followed by rigorous, repeatable testing to establish validity
"cannot mandate technology progress"
See 1-6 p. 62
Cause and effect assumptions-see cargo cult science
Observation vs. casual notice: engaged watching, without bias
Experimental bias-establishing variables
common complaint about science: it only looks for what it already sees
Reproduce results: cold fusion
Theory vs. law: plausible explanation (model) vs. description of what happens in nature
Be cautious with models
Be cautious with pseudoscience-why is this so critical in APES?

OK, now the science bits…
Matter-takes up space, has mass
atomos-not (a) split (tomos), see frontal lobotomy-tomos=split or cut
element-unique properties
nucleus: proton and neutron, electron cloud
isotopes-same protons, different neutrons
molecules-collections of atoms
ions-mess with electron number
compound-collection of chemically bonded atoms
mixtures-not chemically bonded, e.g. sand and iron filings
water-see the phase diagram (look up on wikipedia)
acids, bases, pH-why is it spelled that way?
H+ and OH- look for these
organic vs. inorganic acids and bases
chemical reactions-energy: exothermic vs. endothermic
activation energy: catalyst, enzyme-same things
Why are enzymes so important in organic reactions? Think of protein denaturation
Respiration: dealing with oxygen
aerobic and anaerobic reactions-know these
Energy-reactions: potential (bonds) turns to kinetic energy (heat or work)
Most organic reactions only about 45% efficient, rest is heat loss (think of sweating runners)
States of matter-see the phase diagram again
Heat: conduction, convection and radiation
sensible heat transfer-you can sense it
latent heat-hidden heat
Thermodynamics: Laws-
1. you cannot win
2. you cannot break even
3. you cannot get out of the game
Translation:
1. energy cannot be created or destroyed, so you cannot create more energy than you start with-big picture
2. every process releases some heat as waste energy, nothing can be 100% efficient (entropy)
3. the disorder (entropy) of the universe tends to be positive, e.g. unless you insert energy, things tend to become more random (like your room). Thinking (e.g. organizing) takes energy to reverse the trend towards disorder (∆S >0).

Energy quality: highly organized sources: gasoline, electrical power, proteins
low quality: heat, friction, sound/noise
see you all bright and early in the morning...
aloha
b





Posted by:

UPDATE- Robert Rapier will join us tomorrow for class (Tuesday)
Please make sure you have read his weblog, and come prepared with at least several questions to ask him.
I've told him we are interested in asking questions on biofuels, technologies and so on.
You might read his bio to the right of his blog to get an idea where his interests lay.
END UPDATE-

Please read chapter 3 (see entry below) and complete the review questions 1-19 on page 59 by Wednesday, so I can grade these and get you some feedback by Friday.
This chapter is very interesting, as it relates to many things we've discussed so far. Our next chapter (4) is more about chemistry, which should be loads of fun.
Something new:
Please watch this video online:
http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/william_mcdonough_on_cradle_to_cradle_design.html
and this one on sustainability:
http://www.ted.com/talks/alex_steffen_sees_a_sustainable_future.html
These are the first of many TED talks I'll be passing on to you. I hope these are enlightening for you.
I'd like to move from economics and environmental science to design, in other words, how you would use the wisdom you are now developing to change the design of our buildings, our cities and our world.
You will find some things in the readings that would be very helpful to look up on wikipedia. I trust all of you have seen wikipedia athttp://www.wikipedia.org
The list from Chapter 3:
risk assessment
ASTM
ISO
LD50
IPCC
clean air act
safe drinking water act
BPA
Eutrophication
cradle to cradle
RfD
DfE
dioxin
seventh son of the seventh son
indoor air pollution
dead zones in gulf of Mexico
supply and demand (study the three curves)
contingent valuation method
deferred costs
external costs
pollution
biodegradable
pollution-prevention costs
cost benefit analysis
Environmental impact statement
NEPA act of 1969
tragedy of the commons 1968
command and control approach
cap and trade
brownfields
SBLRBRA
CERCLA/Superfund
RoHS
sustainable development
debt for nature swap
methyl mercury
Responsible Care

See you all in class Tuesday. We may have a guest speaker, Robert Rapier, whose weblog you've seen before, but if you've lost it, it is here:
http://i-r-squared.blogspot.com/

Next set of TED talks:
http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/ken_robinson_says_schools_kill_creativity.html
http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/bonnie_bassler_on_how_bacteria_communicate.html

aloha
b

Posted by:

APES folk,
Here's what I'd like to move to Friday:
1. please read the weblog articles on biofuels
2. we will wrap up your lab, with some notes on how to gather and present your data
3. we'll finish the last of the e2 videos on coal and nuclear power

I appreciate that the last few weeks might seem scattered, but I assure you, there is a convergence: think of this:
We cover energy, and economics of change
We cover biofuels, and this leads us to sustainable development (also in the videos)
We cover global warming, and discuss cause and effect.
The book chapters have been so far working from general to specific. The third chapter (see below) is the last of the "vague" chapters, introducing risk, and the reasons people make change.
Chapter four is all about the science behind the "vague" stuff, with some chemistry to help us understand some of the issues presented.
This should tie in nicely with the global warming CO2 stuff, and the fermentation energy balance in your lab.
The next two chapters are online, please read chapter 3 over the weekend, and if you are so compelled, you can look at the practice quiz online as well (see previous entries for a link to that site)
Chapter 3 is here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/enger/
You'll notice that the next chapter is there as well, which we will go into next week.
For next Wednesday:
1. wrap up the lab (more on this tomorrow)
2. read chapter 3 in the text
3. finish all of the pre and post questions for the e2 energy series

What's on the horizon:
A design series, stressing sustainability
A tour of the energy lab, with a focus on sustainable projects you could work with worldwide
Next steps on our global curriculum project...

Please check out the wiki I'm testing at xserve.hpa.edu, you might find it helpful, and not entirely a waste of time.
See you all tomorrow.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
This week we meet two days for 85 minutes each: Wednesday and Friday. Wednesday is before lunch, and Friday is first thing in the morning.
My goals for this week: To learn about Biofuels
We will begin our lab Wednesday with the fermentation of Katy's potatoes, my white cane sugar (from, you guessed it: sugar cane), and my corn syrup from corn.
With these three biofuels (potatoes are a starch, or sugar chain, the other two are simple sugars), we will try to get a grasp on how biofuels are produced, and what makes them a sustainable option.
Some questions to ponder:
Which if these produces the greatest amount of ethanol for a given amount of biomass?
What are the different environmental impacts of each biofuel? Water? Soil? Fertilizer?
Is the process really truly "carbon neutral"?
What is released as part of the fermentation process? What remains after the ethanol is distilled?
The process, in broad strokes:
1. yeast dissolves in warm water (about 40°C) to activate
2. dissolve biofuel in warm water, same temp
3. combine, cap and measure changes in pressure, what gas is released etc.
4. once fermented (several hours to several days), distill using 89°C water bath and a leibig condenser
5. measure yield

Some things to research before we begin our lab:
1. Read the weblogs by Robert Rapier on Biofuels at this site:
http://i-r-squared.blogspot.com/
or on my wiki:
http://xserve.hpa.edu:80/groups/apes/wiki/2d15f/biofuel_articles.html
(you may have to be on campus to access the wiki for now)
In particular, read biofuel pretenders, contenders and niches. If we're lucky, this global expert may visit our classroom. You may have to look in the September 2009 listing on the right to see the first two.
I've added them below, should you want to read from here.
2. Watch the rest of the nuclear vs. coal e2 video, either in our room or on your own. It is important to see the vision and lack of vision in the coal situation.
3. IMPORTANT: what is the history of coal gasification, in Germany and South Africa, and what impact could this have on US fuel sustainability? Why do you think this is not being done? There are two major players in this: Shell is pro-gasification, Exxon is con-why do you think?
4. Sustainability: look at the biofuel numbers and compare it to the amount of energy used in the US annually. Do we have enough land mass and water to supply this?
5. Carbon impact: prepare two arguments: pro and con for each of these, ready for next week's class:
a. coal mining
b. carbon sequestration
c. nuclear power
d. biomass to biofuel
e. coal gasification
If you work in pairs, and try your argument out on your partner, you'll be ready for next week.
Quiz notes (not a sandwich): we'll have quizzes each day on the following:
Wed: State of Resolve
Fri: lab work, Coal vs. Nuclear, biofuel questions (see above)
Lab reports: these will be due next week Wednesday, I'll go over the format in class.
Old business: The Global Footprint folks want to move forward. Let's discuss next steps in class. I think we are at the "contact the schools" stage.
More to come, check this space.
The weblogs I mentioned are below:

Biofuel Pretenders

Note

This article was initially titled "Pretenders, Contenders, and Niches." However, the section on pretenders grew to the point that I have decided to split the essay up into three parts. The first part, Biofuel Pretenders, will cover many of the current media and political darlings. The second part, Biofuel Contenders, will discuss some options that have received less attention, but in the long term are more likely to have staying power. The final part, Biofuel Niches, will discuss situations in which some of the pretenders might actually work.

Reality Begins to Sink In

There was an interesting article in the Wall Street Journal this past week:

U.S. Biofuel Boom Running on Empty

A few pertinent excerpts:

The biofuels revolution that promised to reduce America's dependence on foreign oil is fizzling out.

Two-thirds of U.S. biodiesel production capacity now sits unused, reports the National Biodiesel Board.

Producers of next-generation biofuels -- those using nonfood renewable materials such as grasses, cornstalks and sugarcane stalks -- are finding it tough to attract investment and ramp up production to an industrial scale.


This all boils down to something I have said on many occasions: You can't mandate technology. Just because you mandate that 36 billion gallons of biofuel are to be produced by 2022 doesn't mean that it has a remote chance of happening. This is not a hard concept to understand, but it seems to have eluded our government for many years. The government would probably understand that they couldn't create colonies on the moon in 10 years via mandate. They know they can't cure cancer via mandate. But in the area of biofuels, they seem to feel like they can just conjure up vast amounts of hydrogen, cellulosic ethanol, or algal biodiesel.

Domestically produced biofuels were supposed to be an answer to reducing America's reliance on foreign oil. In 2007, Congress set targets for the U.S. to blend 36 billion gallons of biofuels a year into the U.S. fuel supply in 2022, from 11.1 billion gallons in 2009.

Cellulosic ethanol, derived from the inedible portions of plants, and other advanced fuels were expected to surpass corn ethanol to fill close to half of all biofuel mandates in that time.

But the industry is already falling behind the targets. The mandate to blend next-generation fuels, which kicks in next year, is unlikely to be met because of a lack of enough viable production.


Most people don't realize that the Germans were the first to produce ethanol from cellulose. That happened in 1898. For our political leaders and many industry boosters, cellulosic ethanol is a recent discovery, and thus they expect big leaps in the technology in the next few years. These expectations completely ignore the fact that researchers have been hard at work on making cellulosic ethanol a reality for decades - with little success.

In President Bush's 2006 State of the Union address, he broadly expanded the mandate for ethanol. He voiced his strong support for cellulosic ethanol, and included billions of gallons in the Renewable Fuel Standard - as well as billions of dollars of financial support.

How quickly our politicians seem to have forgotten the 2003 State of the Union, in which Bush set forth his vision of the hydrogen economy:

"A simple chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen generates energy, which can be used to power a car producing only water, not exhaust fumes. With a new national commitment, our scientists and engineers will overcome obstacles to taking these cars from laboratory to showroom so that the first car driven by a child born today could be powered by hydrogen and pollution-free."


We spent some two billion dollars toward that goal. Once again, this ignored many technical and economic realities, and so in May 2009 the headlines read:

Hydrogen Car Goes Down Like the Hindenburg: DoE Kills the Program

The dream of hydrogen fuel cell cars has just been put back in the garage. U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced yesterday that his department is cutting all funding for hydrogen car research, saying that it won’t be a feasible technology anytime soon. “We asked ourselves, ‘Is it likely in the next 10 or 15, 20 years that we will covert to a hydrogen car economy?’ The answer, we felt, was ‘no,’” Chu said.


My prediction is that in the not too distant future we will start to see headlines like this for cellulosic ethanol. The troublesome barriers to commercialization are quite fundamental, and aren't likely to be resolved by government mandate. If enough money is thrown at it, cellulosic ethanol will of course be produced. But it can never be a scalable, economic reality.

Pretenders

Broadly speaking, in the world of next generation biofuels there are contenders, pretenders, and niches. Over the past decade, we have thrown a lot of money at pretenders and have little to show for it. There are many reasons for this, but fundamentally I believe it boils down to the fact that our political leaders can't sort the wheat from the chaff. If a proponent extols the benefits of hydrogen, cellulose, or algae - the politicians just don't know enough to ask the right critical questions. They listen - often to the very people who will benefit from more funding - and then they allocate money. Billions of dollars and little progress later, they or their successors may begin to realize that they have been misled and they start to dial the funding back.

Here is how I define a next generation Biofuel Pretender: A company or group that makes grandiose promises about the ability of a technology to displace large amounts of fossil fuel, despite facing significant (and often unrecognized) barriers to commercialization.

Here are some examples:

Hydrogen

The poster child for the pretenders. Proponents ignored practical realities in many different areas, including fuel cell vehicles that cost a million dollars, the fact that most hydrogen is produced from natural gas, the fact that the energy density of hydrogen is very low, and the fact that there are multiple issues with hydrogen storage and transport. Technical breakthroughs were being counted on to solve these challenges. After all, we put a man on the moon. Surely we could solve these challenges.

The real problem is that the potential for success falls rapidly as the number of needed breakthroughs pile up. Imagine for instance that the following - cost of production, cost effective storage, and cost effective transport - each have a 25% chance of achieving commercial viability in the next 20 years. The total chance for success of all three in that case falls to 1.5% - so this is overall probability of success. Thus, the vast majority of technologies that require multiple technical breakthroughs will fail to materialize commercially except perhaps over a much longer period of time.

Cellulosic Ethanol

As was the case with hydrogen, this one requires multiple technical breakthroughs before commercial (unsubsidized) viability can be achieved. I won't go through them all now, as I have covered them before. The fundamental reason that cellulosic ethanol won't scale up to displace large amounts of gasoline is that the energy efficiency of the process is so low. You have the sugars that make up cellulose locked up tightly in the biomass - which has a low energy density to start with. So you add energy to unlock the sugar and turn it into ethanol, and then you end up with ethanol in water. More energy inputs are required to get the ethanol out. Even if the energy can be supplied by the by-products of the process like lignin, the net BTUs of liquid fuel that you end up with are going to be low relative to what you started with.

For example, assume you start off with 10 BTUs of biomass. You expend energy to get it to the factory, to process it, and then to get the water out. You burn part of the biomass to fuel the process, and input some fossil fuel. You might net something like 3 BTUs of liquid fuel from the 10 BTUs of biomass you started with.

Don't confuse this with fossil fuel energy balance, though. If the external energy inputs in this example only amounted to 1 BTU of fossil fuel, one could claim a fossil fuel energy balance of 3/1. But that doesn't change the fact the final liquid fuel input is a small fraction of the starting BTUs in the biomass.

This is analogous to the situation with oil shale, which is why I have compared the two. There may in fact be a trillion or more barrels of oil shale locked up in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. But if the extraction of those barrels required a trillion barrels worth of energy inputs and lots of water - then that oil shale might as well be on the moon. That means that a trillion barrels isn't really a trillion barrels in the case of oil shale, and a billion tons of biomass is much smaller than it seems when talking about cellulosic ethanol.

So despite the claims from the EPA that the "Renewable Fuel Standard program will increase the volume of renewable fuel required to be blended into gasoline from 9 billion gallons in 2008 to 36 billion gallons by 2022" - that is not going to happen unless the government is willing to throw massive amounts of money at an inefficient process.

Algal Biofuel

Like many, I was initially enchanted by the possibility of weaning the world away from fossil fuels by using fuel made from algae. Proponents wrote articles suggesting that we could do just that, provided the necessary investments are made.

Sadly, the story is much more complex than that. The U.S. DOE funded a study for many years into the potential of algae to produce fuel. (For an overview of where things stand from John Benemann, one of the men who co-authored the close-out report of that study, see Algal Biodiesel: Fact or Fiction?) The problem is again one of needing to surmount multiple technical hurdles, and the close-out report states that reality. Again, I won't go into those details, as that has been covered before.

While it is a fact that you can produce fuel from algae, the challenges are such that John has written that you can't even buy algal biofuel for $100/gallon. He said that if you want to separate the reality from the hype, just try to secure a contract with someone to supply you with algal fuel.

First Generation Biodiesel

This story is primarily about 2nd generation fuels, and as such I won't get into corn ethanol issues. But I will say a bit about biodiesel. As indicated in the Wall Street Journal story, conventional biodiesel producers are in trouble. Briefly, a conventional biodiesel producer is someone who takes vegetable oils or animal fats and uses methanol (almost all of which is fossil-fuel derived) and converts that into an oxygenated compound (called a mono-alkyl ester). This compound has been defined as 'biodiesel', and can be used - subject to certain limitations - in a diesel engine.

Again, the problems are fundamental. It takes a lot of effort (energy, cost) to produce most of the oils that are used as raw materials, and then you have to react with methanol - which usually contains a lot of embodied fossil fuel energy. Up til now, the first generation biodiesel producers have benefited from a high level of protectionism (to the extent of punishing the more efficient 2nd generation producers). But even with the protectionism and the subsidies, producers are still struggling to survive.

Miscellaneous

There are a number of miscellaneous pretenders that we probably don't need to discuss in depth, such as various free energy schemes or water as a fuel. If you think you might be dealing with a pretender, one caution flag is when their promoters are from backgrounds that have nothing to do with energy. For instance, the person who founded the dot.com that ultimately morphs into an energy company is almost certainly a pretender who is chasing investment funds.

Summary

To summarize, the biofuel pretenders fall into several broad categories. The big ones are:

• Hydrogen

• Most would-be cellulosic ethanol producers

• Most would-be algal biofuel producers

• Most first generation biodiesel producers

This isn't to say that none of these will work in any circumstances. I will get into that when I talk about niches. But I will say that I am confident that none of these are scalable solutions to our fossil fuel dependence. The problem is that political leaders have been, or are still convinced that there is great potential for some of these and we waste billions of dollars chasing fantasies. This is a great distraction, causing a loss of precious time and public goodwill as taxpayer money is squandered chasing schemes that ultimately will not pan out.

In the next installment, I will talk about contenders - options that I think can compete with fossil fuels on a level playing field.

Labels: algal biodiesel, biodiesel, cellulosic ethanol, hydrogen, john benemann


Biofuel Contenders

Introduction

I got quite a few interesting e-mails and comments following my previous essay: Biofuel Pretenders. I probably should have mentioned - but I thought it went without saying - that pretenders usually don't think they are pretenders and will therefore protest mightily at the characterization. A number of people who e-mailed assured me that they have really cracked the code to affordable biofuels, and that we would be hearing more about them soon. Another person who wrote to me about algae said that he has been following algae since 1973, and he wrote "In spite of all the hype and non-stop press releases, no one to my knowledge is producing algae on a commercial basis for biofuel production." Ultimately, I would be happy to be proven wrong on this, but I am just calling it as I see it.

On the other hand, there are some renewable fuel options that have either proven themselves as solid contenders, or have not yet demonstrated fatal flaws that would disqualify them at this point. In this essay I will cover some of those. First, I will cover a pair of first generation biofuels that have proven that they can compete with oil on a cost basis, and then a pair of next generation biofuels that I believe will be competitive.

The First Generation Contenders

Sugarcane Ethanol

Sugarcane ethanol, especially from tropical regions like Brazil, has some unique attributes that have enabled it to compete on a head to head basis with gasoline pricing. Specifically, during the production of sugar, the bagasse (sugarcane residue) is pulverized and washed many times. Many soluble inorganic constituents that may normally pose an ash problem for a boiler are washed out in the process. What remains after processing is a pretty clean biomass feed for the boilers. The normally vexing logistical issues aren't there because the biomass is already at the plant as a result of the sugarcane processing. So they essentially have free boiler fuel, which minimizes the fossil fuel inputs into the process. That enables ethanol production that is relatively cheap, and that is largely decoupled from the impact of volatile fossil fuel prices.

There are several reasons we don't do sugarcane ethanol in the United States. Last year I made a visit to the largest sugar producer in Louisiana, and they explained to me that the economics of their by-product molasses generally favor putting it into animal feed. If they had a year-round growing season as they do in the tropics, it is more likely that the animal feed market would start to become saturated, and conversion into ethanol might be more attractive. Further, a bagasse boiler is a major capital expense, so there needs to be a high level of confidence that in the future ethanol will be a more economical outlet than animal feed. For Brazil, this is certainly the case.

The ultimate downside of sugarcane ethanol will come about if the U.S. and Europe begin to rely heavily on tropical countries for their fuel needs - thus encouraging a massive scale-up. First, ethanol imports don't do much for domestic energy security. More importantly, it may encourage irresponsible usage of the land in an effort to feed our insatiable appetite for fuel. I think the ideal situation is to produce the sugarcane ethanol and use it locally, rather than try to scale it up and supply the world. In this way, sugarcane ethanol could be a long-term contender for providing fuel for the tropics, but not a long-term contender for major fossil fuel displacement outside of the tropics.

Palm Oil

The other major first generation contender is palm oil - which also comes with a lot of environmental risk. Palm oil is derived from the African Oil Palm. The oil palm is a prolific producer of oil, which can be used as fuel (and food). This is also a plant that thrives in the tropics, and is capable of annually producing upwards of 500 gallons of oil per acre. To my knowledge there is no other oil crop that consistently demonstrates these sorts of yields (acknowledging that algae could theoretically produce more).

The price of palm oil over the past 5 years or so has traded in a range comparable to that of crude oil; $50-$75 a barrel for the most part (although like petroleum, prices shot up to around $150/bbl in mid-2008). Palm oil can be used unmodified in a diesel engine, although some precautions are in order (and I don't recommend it). It can also be processed to biodiesel, or hydrocracked to green diesel. The extra processing will generally make the final product somewhat more expensive than petroleum, but demand has still been strong due to biofuel mandates.

The risks with palm oil are significant, though. Palm oil presents an excellent case illustrating both the promise and the peril of biofuels. Driven by demand from the U.S. and the European Union (EU) due to mandated biofuel requirements, palm oil has provided a valuable cash crop for farmers in tropical regions like Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. The high productivity of palm oil has led to a dramatic expansion in most tropical countries around the equator. This has the potential for alleviating poverty in these regions.

But in certain locations, expansion of palm oil cultivation has resulted in serious environmental damage as rain forest has been cleared and peat bogs drained to make room for new palm oil plantations. Deforestation in some countries has been severe, which negatively impacts sustainability criteria, because these tropical forests absorb carbon dioxide and help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Destruction of peat land in Indonesia for palm oil plantations has reportedly caused the country to become the world’s third highest emitter of greenhouse gases.

Because palm oil is capable of competing on price, it was originally viewed as a very attractive source of biofuels. In recent years, countries have begun to rethink their policies as the environmental implications of scaling up palm oil production began to unfold. As is so often the case, the seemingly good idea of biofuel mandates has had some pretty serious unintended consequences.

Next Generation Biofuel Contenders

Here is how I would define a next generation Biofuel Contender: A technology that is capable of supplying 20% of our present liquid fossil fuel consumption on a net energy basis.

Yes, 20% is rather arbitrary, but it weeds out a lot arguments over many potential small contributors. I will focus in this essay on the United States, because I am most familiar with our energy usage and biomass availability, but these arguments should be applicable in many places around the world.

Consider for a moment the amount of energy locked up inside the 1.3 billion tons of dry biomass that the Department of Energy suggests can be sustainably produced each year. Woody biomass and crop residues - the kind of biomass covered in the 1.3 billion ton study - contains an energy content of approximately 7,000 BTUs per pound (bone dry basis). The energy content of a barrel of oil is approximately 5.8 million BTUs. Thus the raw energy contained in 1.3 billion tons of dry biomass is equivalent to the energy content of 3.1 billion barrels of oil, which is equal to 42% of the 7.32 billion barrels the United States consumed in 2008.

This calculation tells you a couple of things. First, the 42% represents an upper limit on the amount of oil that could be displaced by 1.3 billion tons of biomass. The true number would be much lower because energy is required to get the biomass to the biorefinery and then to process it. So replacing oil with biomass isn't going to be a trivial task, and a process must be capable of turning a respectable percentage of those biomass BTUs into liquid fuel if it is to be a contender.

Imagine a process that only captures 25% of the starting BTUs as liquid fuel. The liquid fuel production of 1.3 billion tons would then be 10.5% of our oil usage instead of 42% - and that's before we consider the energy requirements from the logistical operations (like getting that wood to the biorefinery). This is the realm of the pretenders; they waste a lot of BTUs during the production of their liquid fuel. What we really need is a process that can capture >50% of the BTUs as liquid fuels. That's what it will take to be a contender, and quite frankly I don't believe cellulosic ethanol has a chance of pulling this off on a large scale.

However, there are at least two technologies that can achieve net liquid fuel yields in excess of 50% of the BTU value of dry biomass. These technologies are flash pyrolysis and gasification. I will talk about each below.

Flash Pyrolysis

Flash pyrolysis involves rapidly heating up biomass to around 500°C. The reaction takes place in about 2 seconds, and the products are pyrolysis oil (also called bio-oil) and char. The process can handle a wide variety of feedstocks, the oil yield is approximately 70% by weight, and the energy content per pound of oil is similar to the starting material. Thus, approximately 70% of the initial BTUs are captured in the oil before we have to start subtracting out energy inputs.

Char is frequently mentioned as a great soil amendment (as terra preta, for instance), but I don't really know if there is a market for it. As someone recently said to me, it may be like biodiesel and glycerin. In theory there are all kinds of uses for glycerin, but the market was quickly saturated as biodiesel production ramped up. Glycerin suddenly became a disposal problem. Terra preta does in fact appear to be a great soil amendment, but people are going to have to show that they will buy it. It seems to me that the ideal solution would be to use the char to help heat the biomass, unless the ash properties are problematic for the process.

There are definite downsides to flash pyrolysis. Heating up to 500°C will subtract from the net energy production, and while heat integration is possible, it would be more difficult to achieve in a hypothetical mobile unit (which I think could finally provide an outlet for the millions of acres of trees destroyed by the Mountain pine beetle). The properties of the raw oil are such that it isn't suitable for transport fuel as produced. It is not a hydrocarbon and is very acidic. Without upgrading, it can't be blended with conventional diesel. There are various issues around reproducibility and stability, especially if the biomass quality varies. The oil is suitable for power generation or gasification, and can be upgraded to transportation fuel, albeit at greater expense and lower overall energy efficiency.

With those caveats, it is still a contender. It could be knocked out of contention as a viable transportation fuel if the upgrading process is too expensive or energy intensive, but at present no fatal flaw has emerged. There are a number of companies involved in pyrolysis research. Dynamotive Energy Systems has been working on this for a while (I first wrote about them in 2007). UOP - a company that specializes in product upgrading for refineries - has teamed with Ensyn to form a joint venture called Envergent Technologies. The company intends to make pyrolysis oils from biomass for power generation, heat, and transport fuel (this is where UOP's skills will come into play).

Gasification: Biomass to Liquids

The following example is just one reason I think gasification is going to play a big part in our future. During World War II, the Germans were cut off from liquid fuel supplies. In order to keep the war machine running, they turned to coal to liquids, or CTL (coal gasification followed by Fischer-Tropsch to liquids) for their liquid fuel needs. At peak production, the Germans were producing over five million gallons of synthetic fuel a day. To put matters into perspective, five million gallons probably exceeds the historical sum of all the cellulosic ethanol or synthetic algal biofuel ever produced. Without a doubt, one week's production from Germany's WWII CTL plants dwarfs the combined historical output of two technologies upon which the U.S. government and many venture capitalists are placing very large bets.

South Africa during Apartheid had a similar experience. With sanctions restricting their petroleum supplies, they turned to their large coal reserves and once again used CTL. Sasol (South African Coal, Oil and Gas Corporation) - out of necessity - has been a pioneer in gasification technology. Today, they have a number of gasification facilities, including the 160,000 bbl/day Secunda CTL facility, which has been highly profitable for the company (but very expensive relative to oil prices when constructed). In total, Sasol today synthetically produces about 40% of South Africa's liquid fuel.

While we can speculate on the source of future fuel supplies in a petroleum constrained world, we do know that two countries that already found themselves in that position turned to gasification as a solution. The technology has a track record and is scalable. The same can't be said for many of the technologies upon which we are pinning our hopes (and taxpayer dollars). We hope these other technologies scale and that technical breakthroughs allow them to compete. But gasification has already proven itself as a viable go-to option. There are presently a number of operating CTL and GTL plants around the world. Shell has been running their Bintulu GTL plant for 15 years, and is currently building the world's largest GTL plant with a capacity of 140,000 barrels/day.

The biomass to liquid fuel efficiency for gasification is around 70% (See Section 1.2.2: Second-Generation Biofuels), a number cellulosic ethanol will never approach. In short, no other technology to my knowledge can convert a higher percentage of the embedded energy in biomass into liquid fuels.

Of course there's always a catch. Despite large reserves of coal, the United States has not turned to gasification as a solution. Why? High capital costs. At the end of the day the desire to keep fuel prices low consistently overrides our desire for energy security. (There is also environmental pressure over using coal gasification which should not be an issue for waste biomass gasification).

But biomass is more difficult to handle, so there are added costs above those of coal gasification. So you are talking about a process that is more capital intensive than a conventional oil refinery, or even a cellulosic ethanol plant. But what you save on the cellulosic ethanol plant ultimately costs a lot in overall energy efficiency. Until someone actually scales up and runs a cellulosic ethanol plant, we can only speculate as to whether the process is truly a net energy producer at scale.

Interestingly, one of the "cellulosic ethanol" hopefuls that we often hear so much about - Range Fuels - is actually a gasification plant. /images/emoticons/laugh.gifitto Coskata). The front end of their process is intended to produce syngas in a process very similar to that of World War II Germany. For their back end they intend to produce ethanol, which in my opinion is an odd choice that was driven purely by ethanol subsidies. But this is definitely not the optimal end product of a gasification process. They are going to lose a lot of efficiency to byproducts like methanol (which is actually a good end product for a gasification plant) - and that's assuming they get their gasification process right. They are then going to expend some of their net energy trying to purify the ethanol from the mixed alcohols their process will produce.

The question for me is not whether BTL can displace 20% of our petroleum usage. It absolutely can. The question is whether we are prepared to accept domestic fuel that will cost more to produce. In the long run - if oil prices continue to rise - then BTL plants that are built today will become profitable. The risk is that a sustained period of oil prices in the $50-$70 range will retard BTL development. But I don't expect that to happen.

Conclusions

In my opinion, the question of which next generation biofuels can compete comes down to fossil fuel prices. If oil prices are at $50 for the next 10 years, it will be difficult for renewable fuels to compete. Despite the many promises of technologies that will deliver fuel for $1 a gallon, I think that target is likely to be reached only on paper. My view on which technologies will be competitive is based on 1). An expectation of an average oil price over the next 10 years that exceeds $100/bbl; 2). An expectation that we will need to efficiently convert the available biomass. I expect biomass prices to rise as well, and inefficient technologies that may be competitive if the biomass is free and fossil fuel inputs like natural gas are low-priced will not survive as the prices of both rise.

I am certainly interested in helping develop promising next generation technologies, so if you think I have missed some really promising ones then feel free to add your thoughts. It is possible that a company like LS9 or KiOR will ultimately be successful, but they are going to require some technical breakthroughs. Given the great number of renewable energy start-ups, it won't be surprising if one or more of them eventually makes a contribution, but the odds are against most of them. I selected pyrolysis and gasification as strong contenders because they don't require technical breakthroughs in order to produce large amounts of fuel. The technical aspects of gasification at large scale are well-known. This is not the case with most companies seeking to compete in the next generation arena.

Personal Note on Technology Development

On a personal note, since I have long believed in the promise of gasification as a future solution to our liquid fuel problem, it will come as no surprise that my new role in Hawaii has connections into this area. While a few have figured out what I am doing (and quite a few others know because of various meetings I have attended), I still don't have the green light to explicitly discuss it. We still have some pieces to put in place, and then I will explain why I believe we are building a platform that is unique in the world. I can say that my new role is as Chief Technology Officer of what we are building, and that it involves quite a few pieces.

One of the things I am very interested in is developing conversion technologies for woody biomass and crop wastes. I have a number of technologies on my plate right now, but I am searching for other pieces that improve the economics (scalability is important).

For example, in the earlier example of the beetle-infested forests, the logistical challenge of getting the biomass to a processing facility - without consuming a large fraction of the BTU value of the tree - is significant. Biomass has a low energy density relative to fossil fuels, and cost-effective technologies are needed for improving that equation. I am speaking to a number of people with promising technologies around this area, but am always open to speaking to others who have ideas, prototypes, or pilot plants demonstrating their technology. You can find my contact e-mail hidden away from the spambots in my resume.

Labels: biomass gasification, Coskata, Germany, pyrolysis oil, range fuels, Sasol, South Africa

Biofuel Niches

This is the final installment of a three-part series that examines some of the renewable energy options that are presenting themselves as possible contenders to step up as petroleum steps down the depletion curve. The previous installments were:

Biofuel Pretenders

Biofuel Contenders

Today I want to talk about Biofuel Niches. Here is how I would define a Biofuel Niche: A technology that is capable of supplying, long-term, up to 10% of our present liquid fossil fuel consumption, often by utilizing specific, localized synergies.

This definition covers a great number of possibilities, and I don't pretend that I will even cover a large fraction of them. But I want to cover some specific niches for fuels - like cellulosic ethanol - that I believe can work in a niche. If readers can think of others, let's discuss them. I want to lead off with some of the options I categorized as "Pretenders", and then discuss corn ethanol which I did not discuss in the previous installments.

To reiterate, my views are based on the following expectations: 1). That the average oil price over the next 10 years will exceed $100/bbl; 2). That biomass prices will rise in response to demand, putting a premium on efficient conversion technologies; 3). That these biofuel technologies will eventually have to compete on the basis of oil price and not government handouts. This latter point is key, because it favors those technologies that can decouple from fossil fuel inputs.

Algal Biofuel

I classified this as a pretender based on the fact that technological improvements are needed in order to make algal biofuel economical - yet the hype over algae is mind-boggling. We don't even know if it will work at scale, and yet it is going to be the solution to all our problems? Following my previous essay, I had a discussion with someone involved in testing fuels for the U.S. military. They are optimistic about the future of fuel from algae, but admitted that they were only able to secure algal fuel for testing at the cost of $100/gal! How likely is it that there will be a more than 20-fold decrease in production costs?

Having said that, there are three situations in which I think algae can work. Two of these are niches. The first is a situation in which the oil is produced as a by-product. Algae has a great number of uses in consumer products, and oil can be produced as a by-product of those consumer products. As a hypothetical, assume that algae can be engineered to produce a valuable pharmaceutical. This is certainly not science fiction; the first commercial usage of genetic engineering was to design bacteria to produce human insulin. Imagine instead algae, and oil that is removed during processing. The costs are largely born by the more valuable primary product. The problem of course is that this approach isn't scalable. Imagine again that something like insulin production is the primary role of the algae. If you tried to scale that up to a significant fraction of our fuel usage, you will have thoroughly saturated the market for the insulin. But perhaps if we can pair up a number of primary products with oil production, algae can make a contribution to our fuel supply.

The second situation is similar. If algae production is one step in an integrated energy complex, it could work. For instance, I was recently asked to comment on just such an approach by Desert Biofuels, a company in Arizona. Without endorsing their specific approach, this sort of approach may work. (Actually their approach is quite complex and has unique technical risks). But algae can be effective at cleaning up waste water. Imagine algal-cleanup as one step of an integrated complex, and the costs go down substantially.

The only scalable approach I can see is for algae to be engineered to excrete their oil in situ. What drives the cost of algae up so much are the difficulties of collecting the algae, separating from water, and then separating the oil from the algae. (Often overlooked is that the oil must be further processed to biodiesel or green diesel). Now imagine a pond of algae in which the oil "leaks" out while the algae grow. The process of collecting the oil would be dramatically simplified. A caveat of course is that engineered algae tend to get out-competed by native strains. The bigger caveat is that this technology doesn't exist, but companies are working on it.

The wild card out there is the Solazyme approach. Think sugarcane ethanol, except instead of yeast producing ethanol you have algae producing oil. The approach is interesting - which is why I mention it - and gets away from many of the problems inherent in trying to produce fuel from algae. Is it more efficient than sugarcane ethanol? I think it's too early to tell. But one poster at The Oil Drum indicated that during a Q&A with a Solazyme representative, he couldn't come close to a believable answer regarding scale-up costs. So while I think this one bears watching, it is far too early to suggest that this will pan out.

For a balanced overview of fuel from algae, see Biotech's green gold?

Cellulosic Ethanol

I see two major problems with the scalability of cellulosic ethanol. First, the logistical challenges of getting a lot of biomass into the plant is going to limit the size of the plant. As I pointed out in an essay on Coskata, to run their proposed plants would take the equivalent of over a million trees per year. In terms of rail cars, this is over 1 per hour, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year in and out of the plant to dump the biomass. And bear in mind that this is really a gasification to ethanol plant, with higher forecast yields than a conventional cellullosic process (i.e., a real cellulosic plant of this size would require even more biomass).

But beyond that, the ethanol that is produced from the cellulosic process is at a far lower concentration than that of corn ethanol. That means big energy inputs in order to make pure ethanol.

A good niche application for cellulosic ethanol could be a situation in which there is a lot of waste heat available near a point source of biomass. Generally, there isn't a lot of high quality waste heat that would contribute a lot to the steam needs of a cellulosic ethanol plant. But picture something like a cogeneration unit near a collection point for woody waste. The waste is being collected and is coming in anyway for disposal, and the heat output from the cogen unit may improve the economics.

Another alternative could be if there is another very cheap source of steam around that can't be better utilized. If you had a lot of coal in the same location as a lot of biomass, again a cellulosic process might work (but I would argue that depending on the source of biomass, gasification might be a more efficient solution here).

Hydrogen

While not generally considered a biofuel, I discussed hydrogen in my "Pretenders" piece so I will address it here as well. In my opinion, the most interesting realistic option for hydrogen is as energy storage for excess power. For instance, let's say you have a neighborhood in which most houses have enough solar panels to produce excess electricity at mid-day. Once the batteries are charged, what else can you do with that excess electricity? If it can't be diverted to someplace that has a need, then it may make sense to electrolyze water to produce hydrogen. This is not a very efficient process, and not something you would do under normal circumstances, but in this case it could be the best storage option.

Once the hydrogen is produced, it could either be used to fuel stationary fuel cells for the neighborhood when the solar panels aren't producing, or it could be compressed and used to fuel hydrogen combustion engines.

Corn Ethanol

A niche, you say? Aren't we producing 10 billion gallons of corn ethanol already? True, but I am talking about something that could actually stand on its own in the long run - unsubsidized - and still make a decent net contribution to our energy supplies. In that case, producers might still be able to sell 10-15 billion gallons of ethanol a year and make a profit, but the distribution pattern would be different. In a state with ample rainfall and rich soil, corn ethanol may be able to stand unsubsidized by making and consuming the ethanol locally. Corn ethanol may be a fine solution for Iowa (although E85 is not even cornering the market in Iowa, where it should be in its optimal market). Stretching it beyond a local solution is where the economics start to break down and the scheme only works with subsidies.

Here are some examples of what I am talking about. When corn ethanol is produced far from corn supplies - like in California - the economics became difficult due to the cost of shipping the corn to the plant. I talked about that in 2006, when I warned of the potential problems of Pacific Ethanol's plans to do just that. They filed for bankruptcy earlier this year.

Another example is when ethanol is produced from a state in which ethanol's energy balance is poor (e.g., parts of Nebraska, due to corn's irrigation requirements) and then shipped to California. If you look at the USDA's most recent paper on corn ethanol's energy balance (the one in which they used creative accounting), you can see from Table 2 that Nebraska's energy inputs for growing corn are about 20,000 BTU/bushel above the Midwest average. (By comparison, Iowa's are 11,000 BTU/bushel under the Midwest average). This has the overall impact of actually causing Nebraska's net energy from producing ethanol to be negative unless one adds a BTU credit for co-products. With such a marginal energy balance (and I haven't even mentioned the Ogallala Aquifer) it hardly makes sense to produce ethanol in the drier regions of Nebraska. It makes even less sense to then spend more energy shipping that ethanol far from the point of origin.

Conclusion

Those are some of the major niche applications I see, but there are certainly others. What corn ethanol is to the U.S., sugar beet ethanol may be to the EU and palm oil may be to Malaysia. The key to success for any of these is not to try to scale something that should operate in a niche. When we attempt to do this, we open up a can of perpetual subsidies in order to force something that doesn't fit, and often get unintended consequences in the process.

ADDENDA-
Greenest colleges in the US-check out the metrics
http://www.care2.com/greenliving/12-greenest-colleges-in-the-us.html

aloha
b

Posted by:

Please bring in your choice of bio-fuel Friday. Some suggestions:
white sugar
brown sugar
molasses
corn-canned or fresh
barley-no idea where you would get this unless you live on a farm...
potatoes
The main idea is that it should be cookable to produce some sort of starch or sugar. Note that none of these is cellulosic, since we haven't had a visit from Stephen Chu yet, he's busy running the energy policy for the country. Soon, maybe :-)
Here's what I'd like to plan:
1. cook the starch to release the sugars
2. ferment in separate containers (this will be really, really smelly) using yeast
3. Monday, we'll distill your sugar to ethanol (more smelly bits here)
4. We light your fuel to produce energy
Whenever we are doing this, you should be keeping a composition notebook of your thoughts, ideas, excuses, etc. so we can write up a proper lab report, and get that coveted "science lab credit" we're all looking for.
When we are not cooking, fermenting or distilling (sounds like a brewery, not a class), we can finish up the last two e2 videos on energy.
We'll also begin looking at the AP review books that are now in the bookstore, so get yours by the weekend, if possible.
Your homework over the weekend will involve the lab, the review book, and more readings from the textbook, which I will scan today.
As always, let me know if you have questions.
Remember, here is your "to do" list:
1. starch or sugar for Friday
2. review book at the bookstore or Amazon by Friday
3. composition notebook at the bookstore or elsewhere by Friday
aloha
b

Posted by:

Please review chapters 1 and 2 in the text. These practice quizzes might help:
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/chapter1/practice_quiz_.html
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/chapter2/practice_quiz_.html

I should have all of your quizzes from last week returned with comments for the second round, please let me know if I'm missing anything. You may notice a bump in your scores as we continue the iterative process.

Next: State of Mind, and Coal vs. Nuclear

We'll begin introducing more content from the text as we move into more concrete sections of it, as well as a lab on creating biofuel from sugar. We can start of that later this week if you like.
Let me know how it is going.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Hey folks,
Before I forget, here are the pre/post questions for next weeks' videos, if we have time:

e energy “State of Resolve” PRE-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What is a government subsidy? Can you give some examples of government
subsidies? How do these subsidies affect the industry involved?

2. Why are there state policies and federal policies? Do they always have the same
goals? Why or why not?


State of Resolve-POST-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What is the timeline for the implementation of AB 32, California’s Global Warming
Solutions Act to achieve the goal of a 25% reduction in greenhouse gas
emissions by 2020?

2. What important requirement does the companion bill, SB 1368, mandate for the
energy that California imports from out of state? In what ways will this mandate
encourage innovation?

3. What reasons do federal authorities cite for choosing not to implement these
policies nationwide? Do you agree with these reasons? Why or why not?

e2 energy “Coal and Nuclear: Problem or Solution?” PRE-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What type of energy do you think pollutes the natural environment the most? The
least? Why? Are there any energy sources that don’t pollute the environment at
all?

2. What are the major contributors to global warming?

3. What issues have we had with nuclear energy in the past? How is nuclear
energy perceived by the public today? Why? How might that change?


Coal and Nuclear-POST-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What is Carbon Capture Sequestration (CSS)? Could it be a solution to our
current energy problems? Why?

2. What are pebble-bed nuclear reactors?

3. What are long-term goals in terms of energy production and CO2 emissions?

4. How can the government contribute to helping solve the energy issues in the
United States?


-----
Next, here are the readings I promised you for our VTC with Mathis Wackernagel:

The Ecological Footprint:
Decision-Tool for Securing Wellbeing
in a Resource Constrained World

Mathis Wackernagel, PhD

Global Footprint Network

www.footprintnetwork.org


Starting in the mid 1980s humanity’s Ecological Footprint – human demand on Earth’s resources - has been bigger than what the Earth can supply. By 1996, humanity was using 15 percent more resources in a year than the planet could supply. Today, humanity’s overshoot is over 30 percent. Business-as-usual scenarios based on moderate projections of UN agencies show humanity using twice the planet’s regenerative capacity by 2050 (for details see our Ecological Footprint Atlas or Global Footprint Network and WWF’s Living Planet Report 2008). Reaching this level of overshoot may be ecologically impossible.

Growing ecological scarcity will be reshaping our world map. While the 20th century distinction between “developing and developed” countries will vanish, the 21st century division will increasingly be one of ecological creditor countries (such as Latin America, Canada, New Zealand, Gabon, whose residents consume less than what their ecosystems can regenerate) and ecological debtor countries. New investment priorities will have to emerge to make the 21st century successful, and ecological creditor nations will have a leg up – if they manage their ecological assets well.

The infrastructure we build today – roads, power plants, housing; water systems, urban expansions – may last 50 or even 100 years. Since infrastructure shapes the way we live, today’s investment decisions largely determine the level and type of resource consumption for decades to come. Poor choices can lock us into this ecologically (and economically) risky business-as-usual scenario. Good choices will build the foundation for prosperity.

Can we future-proof our economies and cities in time? What will be needed a few decades from now? Can we direct our investments into infrastructure that will enable countries and cities to provide wellbeing in a world of rising resource constraints?


-----
This link to paper #2:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/ecological_footprint.pdf
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/ecological_footprint_slides.pdf

Please check these out, and look at the global footprint website at:

http://www.globalfootprint.org

Let me know your thoughts before our meeting.
I'll also include the GFN proposal:

Global Footprint Network: A Global Curriculum Project

Phase I
August 2009: I will collect a group of students in grades 8-12 that either know of/have met Mathis Wackernagel of the Global Footprint Organization in Oakland (globalfootprint.org), to develop a welcome and critical mass for presentations in late August by Mathis, Robert Rapier and hopefully Michael on the Global Footprint concept.
My choices would also include students that are interested in developing web and other resources for our next phase of the program, as described below.

September 2009: following our meetings with Mathis, Robert and Michael, we will choose a critical mass for phase I of a global footprint "network" (I'll refer to as GFN). This might include schools in the following locations:

International School of Hamburg-contacts Andreas Klimkeit, Rüdiger Wrobel et al
Palmer School, north of Anchorage Alaska-contacts Steve Kreuger, Ray DePriest, Mark Standley
Darrow School, NY
San Francisco Bay area school, TBD, possibly close to Mathis' group
Denver/Boulder school, possibly tied to the National Renewable Energy Lab, which Lindsay visited recently, we have alumni contacts there.
Taiwan-possibly working with Daniel Tsai, HPA parent
Beijing
Sydney Australia
New Zealand
Switzerland
Ghana
Chile or Brazil

Our immediate goals will be to develop a short term, achievable goal, perhaps along the lines of a school survey on global footprint, to develop communication between GFN students, and to then extend into more involved projects, once we have secured funding.

November 2009: schools meet virtually using skype, web presence and other methods comfortable for the students (Facebook, MySpace, etc.) in preparation for the next phase. Evaluation of goals, schools, and introduction of second tier schools, in conjunction with a web presence or meeting space.


Once funding is secured, I propose the following projects, some of which might be chosen for phase I projects:

• Develop a web based GFN page where students can enter data for comparison, contests, and sharing solutions. This would have an integrated map to represent GFN students, and include links to GFN school sites. This would also function as a virtual portal for GF related resources already online.

• In the same way, the HPA Energy Lab will become a physical portal, so that students can visit, either via teleconferencing or in person for workshops, shared speakers, field studies and comparisons, and student exchanges. We would then multiply the resources available at each GFN partner school by engaging students worldwide in the resource. These resources would then be documented and added to the virtual portal above for future development. We might envision workshops over the summer/winter breaks where students come to learn about sustainability and use the Energy Lab as a Pied a Terre for visits to the Upolu wind farm, Puna Geothermal, Mauna Loa atmospheric observatory, and the Keahole ocean energy project as examples.

• Online challenges/games to be included in the web resource portal:
1. Recycle challenge-weigh all recycled materials weekly in your home or school. Compare with mass of materials purchased. This is inspired by the Energy Lab construction process where all materials entering and leaving the site are weighed, with 98.8% either recycled or accounted for in the building construction.
2. Home/school water recycling/reuse calculator: count toilet flushes in a week, then measure amount of water used. Count washes and showers/baths taken and compare with toilet use. Calculate impact on your community/globally if greywater were used for toilets. Develop a prototype device for this (tank, pump, filters, etc.)
3. Food miles calculator-includes food miles for all consumables including store-bought materials, delivered items (UPS/FEDEX), and impact on global footprint of small changes done over large populations
4. Henk Rogers of the Blue Planet Foundation is working on a Nintendo style game of an island resources simulation. A similar game could be designed that is web based, and allow users to run a SIM City sort of simulation on communities.
5. Energy tracker, along the lines of fitness trackers, enabling students to track their energy use at home/school on line, with contests for % decrease in energy use. Global impact calculations of the change in GF if entire community/country were to adopt the changes.
6. Rabbit Island simulation of growth rates, and the study of population growth, including r and K restricted population growth curves (e.g. bacteria vs. mammals). Carrying capacity studies could be simulated for GF of different populations.
7. Online global RISK game, where players have certain GDP and GFI (global footprint index) values, players play to not just win (a la Risk) but to be sustainable. This models global investment strategies to be developed.
8. Solar panel counting: community adoption of solar thermal and solar PV panels can be counted in a transect model, akin to biology reef studies. GPS information would then enable students to include the data in a web based GIS type of resource to be shared by other GFN students.

• Once we secure funding, a larger project might be to create an iPhone app, developed jointly by our students and programmers/developers I now work with. This iPhone application would appeal to student users, and might include the following:
1. A self-contained Global Footprint calculator app, so that students could query friends and determine their GF score
2. A link to our web portal (above) including student name, location (gathered by the GPS location services in the iPhone), and integration into a global map.
3. Contest access, similar to fitness programs now available online and on the iPhone, for students to compete and gather data about their student peers, adults, community members' GF scores
4. Self contained food miles calculator for use when shopping in person or online.

I envision these programs enabling our students to gain fluency in the Global Footprint concept, and to become engaged learners in the process.

Notes:
1. possible internships supported by the grant, visiting scholars/researchers at the energy lab, hosted by HPA.
2. IP options?
3. Student assessment of Sustainability for local resorts/hotels, publish a list of "green hotels"

Posted by:

Hi folks,
You will find two chapters scanned online from our likely text candidate:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/enger/

Please read chapters one and two for Thursday, we'll discuss more today (Tuesday)in class.

Support pages:
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/

YOUR AP TEXTBOOKS ARE IN THE BOOKSTORE.

Also, I forgot to finish my mention of Choren, can you figure out why the company is named CHOREN? Think CHO and REN
Answer tomorrow in class...

Thanks
aloha
b

Posted by:

Folks,
Let's follow up our questions with these, in order (I hope):

Paving the way POST-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What is a hybrid vehicle and how does it function? What are the positive aspects
of owning one? Negative aspects?

2. What problems do we currently face due to our society’s dependence on oil? Are
there benefits behind our current system?

3. How could using lightweight materials to manufacture cars help the environment?

4. Why wouldn’t every car manufacturer want to use lightweight materials right
now? What are some of the risks with being the first company to use a new
technology? What are some of the benefits of being the first?


Growing Energy PRE-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What do you know about ethanol? Where does it come from and what is it used
for?

2. Where does most of the oil that we use in the United States come from? What
problems do we currently face due to our society’s dependence on oil?

3. Why do you think farmers in the United States are sometimes paid to not grow on
their land?



Growing Energy-POST-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. Should the United States consider pursuing ethanol as a fuel for cars? Why or
why not?

2. Describe the difference between ethanol made from corn and ethanol made from
cellulosic sources. Is one preferable to the other? Why or why not?

3. Even though the United States doesn’t have the climate to duplicate how Brazil
created ethanol, can the United States gain knowledge from the success that
Brazil has had with ethanol?


e energy “State of Resolve” PRE-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What is a government subsidy? Can you give some examples of government
subsidies? How do these subsidies affect the industry involved?

2. Why are there state policies and federal policies? Do they always have the same
goals? Why or why not?


State of Resolve-POST-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What is the timeline for the implementation of AB 32, California’s Global Warming
Solutions Act to achieve the goal of a 25% reduction in greenhouse gas
emissions by 2020?

2. What important requirement does the companion bill, SB 1368, mandate for the
energy that California imports from out of state? In what ways will this mandate
encourage innovation?

3. What reasons do federal authorities cite for choosing not to implement these
policies nationwide? Do you agree with these reasons? Why or why not?

e2 energy “Coal and Nuclear: Problem or Solution?” PRE-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What type of energy do you think pollutes the natural environment the most? The
least? Why? Are there any energy sources that don’t pollute the environment at
all?

2. What are the major contributors to global warming?

3. What issues have we had with nuclear energy in the past? How is nuclear
energy perceived by the public today? Why? How might that change?


Coal and Nuclear-POST-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What is Carbon Capture Sequestration (CSS)? Could it be a solution to our
current energy problems? Why?

2. What are pebble-bed nuclear reactors?

3. What are long-term goals in terms of energy production and CO2 emissions?

4. How can the government contribute to helping solve the energy issues in the
United States?


Posted by:

POST-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What is the problem with using kerosene to fuel lamps? What are the
alternatives for Bangladeshis?

2. How did access to renewable energy help the economic growth of the poorer
communities of Bangladesh?

3. The United Nations stated that sustainable development “implies meeting the
needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs”. Given this definition do you think the programs of
Grameen Bank and Grameen Shakti (the non-profit organization) are promoting
sustainable development? Why or why not? Use specific examples.



PRE-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What types of energy currently power cars? What types of energy show promise
for powering cars in the future?

2. What are the challenges of fueling cars on gasoline, both from an environmental
and political perspective?

3. What percentage of the gasoline in a car do you think is used to move it forward?

4. It is often said that people “love their cars”. What do cars represent in our
society? How dependent are you, your family and your city/town on automobiles?
Do you use other forms of transportation?


Please email to bill@hpa.edu with homework apes in the subject line

aloha
b

Posted by:

Harvesting the wind:
POST-VIEWING QUESTIONS
1. What is a community wind farm? How is it different than any other wind farm?
2. Dan Juhl says that community wind is a “trifecta,” what are the three reasons that
he thinks this is true? Do you agree? Why or why not?
3. In what ways has the blade manufacturing facility benefited the community of
Pipestone?
4. If we used all of the wind energy available what percentage of our energy needs
could it power?

For tomorrow:
e2 energy “Energy for a Developing World”
PRE-VIEWING QUESTIONS
1. What is micro-credit? What are the benefits and challenges?
2. How is the importance of energy a factor in economic growth?
3. What are some renewable, alternative forms of energy to create electricity and
heat?

Posted by:

APES notes
Keystone: influence greater than relative abundance
ex: predator keeps herbivore pop down, preserves rare grass

Biomes:
terrestrial, freshwater, marine
latitude, humidity, elevation-terrestrial
freshwater:
rivers, wetlands and basins (deeper than what they serve)
marine:
neritic -close to shelf
benthic-deep, sloping away from con shelf
pelagic-open sea
abyssal-very deep
hadal-trenches

food webs:
connections of energy from producer to consumer
trophic pyramid (see plankton to ahi, bioaccumulation)
primary producers: autotrophs-photosynthetic plants, chemotrophic (sulfur)-inorganic sources (also foundation species)
heterotrophs-get energy from organic sources:
herbivores, carnivores, scavengers
lots of energy lost between trophic levels (thermodynamics)

ecosystems-
abiotic environment
producers-autotrophs, e.g. plants
consumers-heterotrophs, e.g. herbivores, canrivores
decomposers-detritovores

photosynthesis-
CO2, water, light into organic compounds (e.g. sugars)
photoautotrophs-plants
carbon fixation (redox rx) reduction is CO2 to CHO
chlorophyll, carotenes and xanthophylls

cellular respiration-
conversion of energy to ATP (phosphate bonds)
glucose, amino acids and fatty acids with O2 as an oxidizer (accepts electrons) OIL RIG
aerobic and anaerobic metabolysis (aerobic is 19x more efficient)
TCA cycle, mitochondria

biodiversity-
variation of life forms within a biome or ecosystem
genetic
species
ecosystem
creates stability and robustness in ecosystems

biogeochemical cycles (nutrient cycles)
how an element or molecule travels through biotic (living things) and abiotic (earth, air, water) parts of earth
reservoirs may differ: N2 in air, P in soil
closed system: C N O P
open system: energy, e.g. photosynthesis
cycles:
carbon
nitrogen
oxygen
phosphorus
water
also mercury and atrazine (herbicide)

GM crops
genetic engineering vs. selective breeding or mutation breeding
concerns: ecological, economic (LDC) and IP rights (see Monsanto)
uses restriction enzymes to ID and isolate genes
inserted using gene gun (plasmid) or agrobacterium

GMO
insertion or deletion of genes
recombinant DNA, transgenic organisms
if no DNA from other species, cisgenic (cis vs trans)
lentiviruses-can transfer genes to animal cells
Genentech-Berkeley 1978, created human insulin from E. Coli (vs. cow or pig insulin)

pesticides-
biological, chemical, antimicrobial, disinfectant
pests: pathogens, insects, weeds, mullosks, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes and microbes
any food competitor or spoiler, also disease vectors
herbicides-glyphosate (roundup)
insecticides-HCl, carbamates, pyrethrins, etc.
green fungicides-paldoxins
EPA regulates
banned: carcinogenic, mutagenic or bioaccumulators
see also NRDC

pesticide laws-
Federal insecticide act-1910
Federal insecticide, fungicide and rodenticide act (FIFRA)-1947 then 1972, 1988
1947-ag dept
1972-EPA
3 categories: antimicrobials, biopesticides, conventional

forest management-
silviculture, protection and regulation
conservation and economic concerns
watershed management included
see also FSC 1993, forest stewardship council

applied ecology-
conservation biology, ecology, habitat management
invasive species management
rangeland management
restoration ecology

land management-
habitat conservation
sustainable ag
urban planning

sustainable ag-
environmental stewardship
farm profitability
farming communities
e.g. ability to produce food indefinitely, without causing damage to ecosystem health
see also erosion, irrigation/salinization, crop rotation
see also landraces, e.g. prairie grasses

mining laws-
SMCRA
surface mining control and reclamation act (1977)
1. regulates active coal mines
2. reclamation of abandoned mines
dept of interior admin
response to strip mining (1930+)
SMCRA
regulation:
1. standards of performance
2. permitting
3. bonding
4. inspection/enforcement
5. land restrictions
compare to 1945 strip mining practices

Fisheries laws-
monitor and protect fisheries resources
overfishing conference 1936
1957: Beverton and Holt did study on fish dynamics
goals:
1. max sustainable biomass yield
2. max sust. econ yield
3. secure employment
4. secure protein supply
5. income from export
6. bio and economic yield
UNCLOS-UN convention on law of the sea
EEZ-exclusive economic zones
12 mi = coastal sovereignty
200 mi = fishing restrictions
2004-UN made stricter laws on fisheries mgt.
1995 code of conduct for responsible fisheries
quotas, taxation, enforcement (USCG)


tragedy of the commons-
1968 Science article-Garrett Hardin
individual benefit, common damage
strict management of global common goods
see also overgrazing, pollution, privatization
"a fundamental extension of morality"

ozone depletion-
stratospheric ozone depletion
4% since 1970
ozone hole over antarctica
catalytic destruction of ozone by chlorine and bromine
halogen compounds CFCs (freons) and bromofluorocarbons (halons)
ODS ozone depleting substances
ozone blocks UVB 270-315 nm
Montreal protocol 1987 banned CFCs
O + O3 --> 2O2 (transparent)
Cl + O3 -->ClO + O2
ClO + O3 -->Cl + 2O2
effects:
1. ++ carcinomas
2. melanomas
3. cataracts
4. ++ tropospheric ozone (toxic)
5. kills cyanobacteria (rice nitrogen fixers)

Posted by:

Monday:
Review graded quizzes on pollution, poisoned waters

Wednesday:
Please review this folder:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/apx/
I have copied the covered sections in the AP exam, including the approximate weighting of each section. We must focus our attention on these topics in the review time we have left.
In class Wednesday, we will review the FRQ section from the last test in class to learn how better to answer this sort of question for next week's AP exam.

Friday:
Last roundup of review topics, your questions from the outline in the apx folder above.

Topics from the folder above we need to work on:
keystone species
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keystone_species
terrestrial and aquatic biomes
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomes
food webs
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_webs
trophic levels
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trophic_levels
photosynthesis and cellular respiration
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photosynthesis_and_Respiration
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_respiration
biodiversity
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity
biogeochemical cycles: C, N, P, S, H2O
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biogeochemical_cycles
GMO crops
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GM_crops
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetically_modified_organism
types of pesticides
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pesticides
pesticide laws
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Insecticide,_Fungicide,_and_Rodenticide_Act
forestry/management
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forest_management
rangelands/management
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Applied_ecology
sustainable land use
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_management
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_agriculture
mineral laws
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_Mining_Control_and_Reclamation_Act_of_1977
fishing laws
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fisheries_management
tragedy of the commons
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tragedy_of_the_commons
(n.b. the date of the original article is 1968 by Garret Harding)
ozone depletion
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_depletion

As you may notice, the textbook and the class syllabus on which it was based include several topics not covered on the AP exam. Since we have limited time to prepare, we should restrict our discussions to those topics on the list in the apx folder above.
To prepare for Friday's review, please seek out the topics outlined above in wikipedia, as it represents a current and comprehensive view.
--UPDATE--
Good questions to research on your own:
Elliot's question about ozone depletion is covered very well here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_depletion

As well as a good section on CFCs and HFCs:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorofluorocarbon#Chloro_fluoro_carbon_compounds_.28CFC.2C_HCFC.29

Will's question on the water cycle is covered here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_cycle
and his question on zones (benthic, littoral, etc.) is covered under biomes on the right side of the page:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomes
The question on food webs is covered well here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_webs
which includes a discussion of food pyramids as well.

If you finish all of the above, and want a very good summary of energy topics, I have some workshop materials (just released) located here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/06_Environmental_Science_Special_Focus.pdf

It is very long, but if you find it interesting, I'm happy.


b

Posted by:

Monday:
Review video, quiz on video
Review on FR questions assigned as HW over the weekend (see below)

Monday night:
Go to this site and begin the review process:
http://www.cathylaw.com/APES/apestextnotes.html
These will be very helpful in your preparation for the AP exam, although their content is directly from your textbook, which is much more inclusive on some topics than the exam will be.

For class Wednesday:
Go here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/apes_free_reponse/
and complete the four Free Response questions from 2004 (answers and scoring guidelines are on the same site)
Please do the questions, then review the scoring guidelines for each question to see how you might improve

Turn these in before class.

Wednesday:
90 minute multiple choice practice exam. This will start exactly at 8 AM and end exactly at 930 AM.

For class Friday:
Go here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/apes_free_reponse/
and complete the four Free Response questions from 2005 (again, scoring guidelines are on the same site)
Turn these in before class.

Friday:
90 minute free response practice exam. This will start exactly at 120 PM and end exactly at 250 PM. If you have a conflict and need to end at 245, see me Monday.

Weekend:
Free response practice 2006 and 2007
Lab:http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/labs/labs_ap/lab33_climate_change.pdf
Due Monday, before class
This will give you 20 more lab points, which should help some of you with your grade.


Following week:
We'll go over the answers for the practice exam, discuss process of elimination strategies, and review any weak spots you think you'd like to work on.
You can assume that the Free Response questions for 2008 will be due Wednesday, May 6 before class.
Remember, your score on the AP will depend largely on your effort in preparation. I'm available most X periods for any questions, and if you are too busy, email me with your questions. I'm eager to help, and see you do well on the exam.
Sense of higher purpose: Some of you may go into this, the fastest growing field in many universities. Some of you are from nations where the issues we have discussed over this year are just now becoming problems. It is my hope that more than just getting a good grade on the AP exam, you take the lessons we've learned and make something of them. You are in a unique place, at a unique time. As you may have seen in the Frontline video, it is you who will be questioned by your children on how you reacted to this challenge.
Good luck this week, and in two weeks, when you take your exam.
Please see the notes and addenda from last class below.
b

Posted by:

Please open these pdf files
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/apes_apexam1.PDF
pages 14 and 15

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/apes_apexam2.PDF
pages 14, 15 and 16

Bring in your completed free response questions Monday.
I'll also have a video for you to watch and take notes on from Frontline on PBS Thursday:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/poisonedwaters/

This is very timely, since your test today.
Watch particularly the guy lying about 36 minutes in...he blames chicken waste on deer.

Try to watch this video from their site, as soon as I can download it, I'll put it on the server.

Check here for a link, as soon as it is on the server.
b

--ADDENDA--
Please make every effort to see the video linked above. I've just previewed your next practice exam, and at least 6 questions can be answered from topics covered in the video.
b

Posted by:

Congratulations to both sides for a noble tie today.
Friday, be prepared for a quiz on the second section of the wikipedia homework assignment on global warming.
Please also read the articles in the past entry on the laws we may see on the AP exam:
Superfund:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superfund
RCRA:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RCRA
Clean Air Act:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clean_air_act
Federal Water Pollution Control Act:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Water_Pollution_Control_Act
National Environmental policy act:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Environmental_Policy_Act

And answer the following questions:

1. CERCLA stands for what?
2. What happened at Love canal?
3. How was CERCLA expanded in 1986?
4. How is the SuperFund funded now?
5. What two kinds of response actions are outlined in the CERCLA?
6. Who are the "potential responsible parties" under CERCLA?
7. What is the NCP revision, and how does it impact polluters?
8. What is the NPL and what is it's role?
9. What does RCRA stand for?
10. Why is it an improvement on the 1965 law on solid waste?
11. Explain "cradle to grave" requirements and give an example.
12. What is a TSDF, and how does it manage hazardous waste?
13. What is a "whistleblower" and how are they provided for in the RCRA?
14. What are the corporate arguments against the clean air act?
15. Describe the 1955, 1963, 1967, 1970, 1977 and 1990 acts and cite a common theme and opponent.
16. What was new in the 1990 law that may affect third world nations?
17. Last week the EPA made news regarding CO2 emissions and the clean air act. What happened?
18. What is the CWA, and how is it enforced?
19. What are navigable waters, and how are they defined?
20. How does the CWA treat point sources? Give at least two examples.
21. How is this different for non-point sources?
22. What is different with the WQA of 1987?
23. Explain the NEPA act of 1970, and its impact.
24. What happened off the coast of Santa Barbara in 1969 (also the year of Woodstock, and several assassinations)?
25. What is an EIS, and are they required today?
26. How does an EIS differ from an EA?


Please turn these in before class on Friday.


Check here for updates/changes as needed.
The physics server seems to be working now, so there is no need to use the alternate for now.

We will resume our AP jeopardy after the quiz.
Please see the note below from our AP staff:
AP PREADMINISTRATION SESSION (Mandatory for all AP students)
Date: Tuesday, April 28, 2009
Time: 12:30 p.m. - 1:15 p.m. (during X-block)
Place: Taylor Commons Dining Room
What to bring: No. 2 pencil and eraser

Students will also receive important information regarding exam locations, times, what to bring, what not to bring, etc. during this session.

Please also ask students to come and see me before Tuesday, April 28, if they believe they will need to test late, due to sport conflicts. So far we will potentially have students testing late during May 20-22 for AP Calculus AB, AP English Literature and Composition, AP European History, AP United States History and possibly AP Japanese Language and Composition.
b

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2010 archive

These files can be accessed as a folder here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/weblog-archives/


Chapter 9 notes
Team,
Nice work on the last exam. Here is a link to some background on the coal/nuclear video you are working on now:
http://www.pbs.org/e2/teachers/pdfs/206_coal_and_nuclear_edu.pdf
Please remember to email your answers to me before class Tuesday.

Chapter 9:Energy

From the lab:
kWh is a unit of energy, bc Watts are a unit of power (work/time), so need to multiply kW by time (hours) to get energy
we found: you can measure current (i) with a clamp on meter
most applicances are either 120 Vac or 220 Vac, 60 Hz (cycles per second)
ohms law: V=iR volts = current(amps) x resistance (ohms)
Using ohmmeters, we can measure resistance, and calculate current.
Also useful: Power = V2/R
Joule's law: P = iV (also known as "pie" formula: P=iE)
Again, power is in watts, i is in amperes (amps) and voltage is in volts.
we calculated power of the hot water heater/coffee maker, about 900 watts
we could calculate the power of a 220 Vac air conditioner to be 8.8 amps at 220 volts, or 2000 watts. Units like these are found all over the campus. Note where you see a fatter than usual cord plugged into a special looking outlet, these are 220 volt outlets.
biggest expenses in homes are "vampire loads", on 24/7
not large, but the time factor makes them costly
cost: electrical energy in Hawaii is about $0.35/kWh, highest in the nation
CA is about 7, Oregon is about 5.
To calculate cost, multiply amount of kW by number of hours (recall that 720 hours are in a month)
so, kWh x $0.35/kWh gives you dollars
We can measure light output at 50 cm (0.5m) for a 45 watt incandescent light bulb and a compact fluorescent bulb (CFL)
The incand. bulb emitted 220 lux at 50 cm, and consumes 45 watts
the cfl emitted 450 lux at 50 cm and consumes 13 watts
recall the lux per watt of power numbers, the cfl comes out about 6x more efficient.

This demonstration needs to be done in a dark room, such as the electrical room.
--------
Textbook chapter 9 notes:
Between 1900-2007:
world energy changed 16x, economy 70x, population only 4x
why?
80% fossil fuels: all ultimately stored solar energy
fossil: nonrenewable
renewable: in this lifetime, perpetual
resources: all that is out there
reserves: all that can be extracted economically
resources-stay constant
reserves-increase as technology enables access, decreases with use.
Q infinity
Pennsylvania in 1859: oil discovered in PA
Coal: from freshwater swamps 300 my ago, covered with water, so anaerobic decay (e.g. peat bogs)
sediment wt. compressed to peat, then to lignite, then sub-bituminous coal, bituminous and anthracite (lowest water content).
n.b. relative carbon content increases as organics decompose, lose H and O molecules (plants were CHO, coal is just C)
US and china have lots of coal reserves...
global warming issues, railroads as transport,
question: what did Warren Buffet buy on Friday, 11.6.2009? Why?
Oil/natural gas:
marine organisms, ocean bottom, decay released oils into muddy sediments->shale (see oil shales in Canada)
IFF sandstone on top of shale, (oil sands, see Colorado), oil will pass through sands.
IFF cap rock, it will trap oil in domes:
gas-oil-water
"gushers" are not the real way, usually gas first-very dangerous, some emit H2S gas-very toxic (indonesia)
middle east has 60% of oil reserves, but they have reached "peak oil"
We need to discuss this-it is very important-----
80% world energy is non-renewable-heading for a crash
80% = coal 25%, oil 36%, gas 21%
n.b. could trains transport natural gas? what method is used in the US to move most of our coal? why? notice any connections?
Coal: more
lignite-brown coal, all that is left in UK, lots of water, low energy content, usually burned near the mine for energy
Sub-Bituminous coal-used for power plants
Bituminous coal-used for power, cement, steel
Anthracite-bldg heating (cleanest)
surface mining-strip mining, leaves tailings (see mine disaster of 2008 in US)
IFF overburden too thick (>100m) then mining needed
drift or vertical shaft mines
silicosis-black lung disease: external cost of mining (we pay the health care of miners)
Issues: land damage, toxic runoff (see butte, MT), dust, acid deposition, CO2 (coal is worst of oil/gas/coal for CO2 per kWh gained)
Oil: benefits: easier to extract, more concentrated energy, burns cleaner, can be moved through pipes (no trucks or trains needed).
found: land or ocean floor, harder to find today
primary recovery vs. secondary recovery (water injection), tertiary (steam)-see tar sands and oil shale issues
Processing: see 9.14
transport issues: exxon valdez, others (France:amoco cadiz, santa barbara)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_spills
p.195: ANWR-which option is sustainable?
Natural Gas:
21% of global energy
Usually extracted like oil, uses air for secondary extraction.
transported as LNG (liquified natural gas)
cleanest burning, least env impact, safest, cleanest burning, most kWh per CO2
Also: CH4 used to form NH4 fertilizers (thanks again, Dr. Haber and Dr. Bosch)
Renewable energy---------
fossil fuels: 80% global use
nuclear: 6%
energy use: 2% per year, present doubling time is 20 years, as supplies are constant or decrease as demand increases, renewables become more profitable
(n.b. if you use the rule of 70 on this 2% you get 35 years. Why do I then say 20 years?)

12% of global energy:
biomass, hydro, wind, solar, geothermal, tidal
biomass (e.g. wood) mostly in Under Developed countries
biomass: fuel wood, solid waste (Hpower plant)
bagasse (Maui land and sugar), and ethanol (e.g. corn, or sugar cane-Brazil)
energy from biomass:
burning; wood stoves, co-gen (combined heat and electricity generation system)
biofuels: ethanol, biodiesel
E85 is 85% ethanol
biodiesel: palm, rapeseed, soy, jetropha, 36% of global BD produced in DDR
biogas: anaerobic bacterial digestion-methane and CO2
see also landfills (e.g. kailua, oahu)
pyrolysis: fischer-tropsch process-syngas process
issues: competition with food crops, habitat loss,biodiversity loss, global warming, air pollution (leading cause of lung cancers in LD countries)
hydropower:
high "head" means deep dam, with thermoclines, habitat disruption (cool water pollution), sedimentation, limited dam lifespan. See logarithmic backflow curve.
low "head" systems like Aswan dam in Egypt, three gorges dam in China (look this up) 22,500 mW !
minihydro: less than 10 mW
microhydro: less than 1 mW
can be diverse, lower impact, decrease transit losses
issues: flooding of back lands (see china)
The construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China inundated 153 towns and 4500 villages and caused the displacement of over a million people. In addition, numerous archeological sites were submerged and the nature of the scenic canyons of the Three Gorges was changed.
fish ladders, silt fertilization, inorganic mercury -> organic mercury, bioaccumulation.
Solar energy--------
ultimate answer-
issues: only available in daytime-so must store energy
intermittent and diffuse (e.g. oceans)
ocean thermal energy conversion: OTEC Keahole
1. passive solar/solar thermal
2. active solar-pumped solar thermal
3. PV
passive: trombe walls: energy lab is essentially a liquid trombe wall in reverse
sunspaces are like the spaces in the ladakh school (see e2 video on this)
design of windows and floors to absorb heat from day to warm in night is another
see "daylighting" or smart skylights...
n.b. passive systems require no external energy to collect
another example: solahart passive convective solar thermal energy collector systems
Active solar: contrast this with solahart-need a pump (can be PV powered) to run solar thermal system
can be simple or complex (varied pump speeds with radiation, optimized ∆t, etc.)
coolant can be the substance used (e.g. hot water) or something else (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol)-these are also used for geothermal well cooling heating systems.
some systems are testing hot oil to 300°C, stored for later use, e.g. spain project, Keahole project, mojave desert project.
Solar Electric plants
two types: PV (direct) and solar thermal to steam (STS)
PV systems: crystalline silicon is expensive (see solar film video), but direct kWh from sunlight, no moving parts, 30 year lifespan, no maintenance (cleaning only)
Solar furnace: heats oil or other storage medium to 390°C (e.g. SEGS and Segovia plant in Spain)
see also solar stills for water desalinization and purification in LD countries
PV now at $0.20 per kWh (more than US, less than Hawaii-we are past the profit point on this)
efficiency: now at 14%, soon to be 40% (sanyo bifacials are 22% at elab)
18x increase in 20 years
Wind-----essentially solar energy working through convection
Hadley, Ferrel, and polar cells-see the weather this week
cell circulation allows for the transfer of heat from hot earth to cool space
Issues: variable, site specific, usually far from urban centers (high demand)-if there were a means to transfer the energy without loss...
Hydrogen power?
Europe leads wind power
concerns: birds (myth, except at Altamont pass), unsightly (true) latest plan: site them offshore cape cod in Mass.
people are NOT happy about it
map 9.29 is bogus, we are class 7 in Waimea
two types of turbines, VAWT and HAWT-why is each suited for specific uses?
noise, pressure waves also...
Geothermal---
What is it? heat close to the surface: hot rocks, or steam from water percolating down into hot rocks. MAG-MA (important: say in voice of Doctor Evil)
CA leads in geothermal, HI also (here on BI, puna geothermal ventures)
see also NZ (Rotorua) and iceland (everywhere) 50% for heating, 50% for electricity-also being seen as hydrogen fuel site-see car talk video:
Who else do you know who has "vast energy resources and a very small population"?
Ring any bells?
see also closed loop systems: uses a coolant solution, very hot pipes, but no toxic gases released (an issue in Puna)
Hydrogen sulfide gas is very nasty-turns to sulfuric acid in the lungs, toxic to fish, etc. etc.
See also pyrolysis of water at high temperatures, perhaps even on your roof (one future elab project)
Tidal/current---
Solar energy of another sort: the sun's gravity allows us to orbit, with the momentum from our initial explosion that formed the solar system ca. 5 by ago. Moon is also orbiting-us. As the moon passes overhead, its gravity attracts everything (very small rocks, cider, mud, churches, a duck) including MAG-MA, continental plates, you, and the oceans.
As these bulges in water recede, they form currents and tides (not the same: tides ebb and flow, currents are relatively constant-see the Alenuihaha channel between Maui and Hawai'i)
One can harness these currents and tides for power, as they are essentially very small head (∆h) hydroelectric projects, except current energy, which has less to do with relative height than with global movement of water.
5 meters of ∆h needed to make tidal worthwhile. About 5 mph (2 m/s) needed to make current profitable, Hawaii has 12-20 mph current in the channel (google the UH ship Holo Holo, lost at sea, about 1977. issues: technical-biofouling, damage, corrosion.
Conservation---
Not sexy, but dollar for dollar, 4x more efficient than installing new wind or PV.
Like filling a bathtub while leaving the drain open.
idea: find out what energy-star means on an appliance
CFL bulbs-issues: mercury
see also small scale cogen plants (lichtblick)
http://www.reuters.com/article/GCA-GreenBusiness/idUSTRE5883E520090909
Storage methods:
Fuel cells-just like in Apollo 13
+ no pollution
- 40% efficient, 90% if you capture the waste heat for heating water, buildings, etc. Recall your first weeks here, and the idea of entropy-see how it fits now?
Can one make hydrogen non-flammable? No, but we can make it less explosive (lithium hydride canisters)
PSH pumped storage hydro (one reason the energy lab is sited where it is)

ASSIGNMENTS:
View these videos, questions follow:
About the School in Ladakh:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/e2_videos/e2%20design%202/1%20druk%20white%20lotus%20school-ladakh.m4v

Hydrogen Power:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/car/program.html
or here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/media/e2/nova_new_cars/nova_cars.mov
or Here if you are on the HPA network:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/media/e2/web_movies/nova.mp4

Read chapter 9, short quizzes this section instead of larger ones, be prepared each day.

Next assignment: Read this weblog on biofuels:
http://xserve.hpa.edu:80/groups/apes/wiki/2d15f/biofuel_articles.html

Mr. Emmons' moonshine page:
http://www.ehow.com/how_6042008_make-biofuel-potatoes.html

Let us know how we can help.
aloha
b


Coal vs. Nuclear
Team,
Please watch this video, questions are below.



Friday:
We will review 20 questions before the exam on chapter 8. Choose your questions wisely, perhaps ones that you may not be certain of.
Test to follow the review session, homework due at the beginning of class, so make a note of the questions you want to review before you turn in your work.

Below is a summary of notes from chapter 8 that might help you review.

Let us know if you have questions.
aloha
b

<b>Video questions:</b>
Please complete these over the weekend, and email your answers as well as the questions to me at bill@hpa.edu:

What is the "perfect storm" referred to in the video?

Trace the evolution of coal from a 19th century fuel to a 21st century fuel

What are the two biggest fuels for electrical power in the US? Compare this to the audio about the two energy systems in the US. What is the connection?

China starts a coal fired power plant every 6 days. How long will each plant be emitting CO2?

What are the big issues with coal?

"Clean coal" is now (2010) thought to be a myth. The video was done five years ago. Discuss both sides of this issue, including research on recent data (wikipedia might help).

How many years could coal provide energy is the issues were resolved?

Why would a politician from Montana want a carbon sequestration plant there? Where is the powder river basin? What comes from there?

The Coal Lady describes sequestration like a sponge-a better analogy might be CO2 into carbonated water, like we did in class. Why would they be concerned about faults? Why has no one tested CO2 sequestration, even the progressive test plant in Florida?

Su-bituminous coal is one type. What are the others, and why are they different?

Why does Dan Kammen think CO2 sequestration is a bad idea, or bad science? Is he wrong? What do you think? Why is he against the IGCC plant?

Coal power costs about $2 per kWh. Solar is about $5 per kWh, but may soon be as cheap as $0.50 per kWh. What would this do to the coal industry?

Coal lady says that we now release 100% of the CO2. How is she manipulating you?

IGCC stands for what, and why is it different from traditional plants? Why is the government helping fund this test? What do they do with the CO2?

Are you starting to see why to understand global climate change you first have to grasp the coal issue? Why?

We studied the cyclic nature of renewable energy development. Why is the fossil fuel cycle making this problematic?

Why is nuclear desirable over coal? Nuclear guy compares wind to nuclear, but he fudges the numbers-how is he lying?

What are the challenges to using nuclear power? Are these social or scientific?

Explain what happened at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl.

What is a pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR), and how is it different from traditional nuclear plants?

The Germans keep coming up in our discussions of energy. Why? In Victorian England of 1850, a gentleman was taught Latin instead of Chemistry, which was thought of a subject for menials. How did this differ from the German system?

Explain the Lego model for a PBMR, and why it changes the return on investment (ROI) and the net present value (NPV) for a nuclear plant.

The video does not mention it, but we are now (2010) reaching peak cheap uranium as well as peak cheap oil. How would this change the tone of the solutions presented?

Vijay is optimistic-why?


<b>Notes from Chapter 8 in the textbook</b>
ch 8 notes-energy patterns of consumption
sun->photosynthesis is main course of terrestrial energy
civilization: agriculture, domesticated animals, wood for cooking/shelter
industrial revolution: coal (was for heating, hard to mine)
Ind. rev: more coal (mining devices), steam heat/power-began in UK
good points: portable, can be industrially concentrated (e.g. mined), used for many purposes (heat, steam-> kWh, syngas, plastics)
n.b. fig 8.4-note trends from renewable (wood) to limited (fossil fuels)
natural gas-easy to gather (surface wells), easy to process, store
nat gas 23% of US energy
n.b. T. Boone Pickens' energy plan (look up on wikipedia)
biomass: renewable, but low energy density
How to concentrate? See BTL, Fischer-Tropsch process:
Portals:
See fig 8.6-why is Canada so high? Why is Bengaladesh so low?
n.b. heating water-greatest energy use for lowest quality energy-crazy!
See fig 8.8-why are we so high? why again is B so low?
Electricity: both a means for consumption and a means of transport (e.g. wires)
Primary electircal sources: burning fossil fuels, nuclear, hydro, geothermal, wind, tidal, solar
n.b. Norway and Canada hydro-why?
n.b. Iceland all geothermal-why?
n.b. France-nuclear-why? recall Mururoa atoll
50% of power in Korea for industry!
Governmental influence on energy use: OPEC 1973, CAFE standards, coal subsidies, interstate system vs. rail and bus systems
electrical energy pricing-we will soon see a film on Enron-yikes!
OPEC-July 2008: $149/bbl
n.b. fig 8.14-what is the fastest growing region? why should this worry us?
see fig 8.15-notice OPEC countries, and regions of political instability
Is renewable energy our best means of national defense?





Energy, Chapter 8
Team,
Remember in the beginning of our time together we discussed the four critical issues that you will have to navigate, cope with and/or solve: water, energy, food and culture.
This chapter is about energy, but not in the way usually covered in science textbooks, yet more in depth than you may have covered in any social studies textbook. This is such an important issue, yet it goes unmentioned in most of your classes.
It is vital that you understand not only the chain of energy use in our society and that of others, but the changes and vulnerabilities in these chains.

Some basic concepts:
1. All energy ultimately comes from the sun, either long ago as fossil fuels or biomass, as precipitation turning into hydroelectric power, convection driving wind, uranium deep in the core from the formation of the earth for geothermal, or the motion of the moon for tidal energy. It all comes from the sun in one way or another, renewably or stored from events long ago.

2. Before plants evolved on this planet, it looked a lot like Mars: red atmosphere, very hot, very high carbon dioxide levels. You saw this in the video. Plants converted this atmospheric carbon into plant structures like wood, which then either decomposed back into atmospheric carbon, or if it were covered, into fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas, depending on what covered it up (swamps, oceans or land).

3. When we dig up this stored carbon and combine it with oxygen in the atmosphere, a process we call "burning", it releases that stored carbon back into the atmosphere. Why should we care about this? Remember Mars? Radiation from the sun passes through our atmosphere. Some of it is trapped by layers in the atmosphere on the way down, this is necessary for life. I'm talking about the ozone layer and ultraviolet light. Visible light passes relatively easily to the ground, where it heats the ground, turning visible light into heat (longer wavelength, lower energy). This heat radiates back to space, but is trapped by several gases: among these are water vapor (one reason IR telescopes are located on the top of Mauna Kea, above the water vapor in the atmosphere), and carbon dioxide, which is dispersed through the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide does not allow infrared (heat) radiation to pass very well, effectively bouncing it back to the surface. Think of the black dashboard of your car in the sun: visible light passes through the windshield, hits the black plastic, then re-radiates back as heat, which cannot pass through the glass. Result: your car gets very hot. This is called the greenhouse effect, because since Roman times, it has been used to grow warm plants in cold environments, using glass houses called greenhouses. Clever, eh?
So, here's your question: if we continue digging up and burning fossil fuels stored eons ago when the atmosphere was full of carbon dioxide, and use this stored energy to run our civilization, what will happen to the temperature of the atmosphere?
This is one reason this chapter is much more important than you might sense at first reading.

4. Fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal have other elements stored with them that are released when burned. One example is the heavy metals and sulfur stored in coal: when it burns, it releases these elements into either the air (sulfur dioxide which then becomes acid rain) or in the toxic ash left behind (fly ash). So, beyond the greenhouse effect, fossil fuels make our life harder in other ways.

5. The control of fossil fuels begins with the industrial revolution, when coal was the big fuel, because it could be mined from the ground at rates higher and cheaper than one could harvest and transport wood. It is all about "intensity". Wood is a great, renewable biomass, but if you are lazy, or you run out of forest, you can dig up coal, which has much more energy stored in it per kg. Until about 1870, all oil came from whales (the reason that Lahaina developed over on Maui back then). After 1870, oil was discovered in Pennsylvania (you may have seen cans of oil labeled Pennzoil, this is why), which at first replaced whale oil for lamps and lubrication for machines, then was distilled or "cracked" into it's constituents: kerosene, diesel, gasoline, tar, asphalt, and others. Natural gas usually came along with oil, and the methods for collecting and compressing this into a usable fuel came along as well (you may have heard of gaslight in older literature-this was usually methane from these wells, captured and stored in large urban areas, then piped into houses and streets for lighting, heating and cooking).
The big concept again is intensity: wood is renewable, but coal, oil and gas are more concentrated, can be stored without rotting, and can be more easily transported and concentrated for industrial use. If we were still an agrarian (farming) society alone, we would not find fossil fuels so critical-unless…

6. Fertilizers are made up of three elements: N-P-K, which stand oddly for nitrogen, phosphorus and potash or potassium (kalium). The more critical of these for agriculture are the N and P parts. Through history, P was so critical that they actually dug up the bones of dead soldiers after major battles (such as Waterloo) to use as fertilizer, since bones are where we store phosphorus in our bodies. Nations sent ships all over the world looking for islands populated by birds and caves of bats because the bat guano (poop) was so high in phosphorous as well as nitrogen. Sailing ships would fill their holds with bird and bat poop and sail back to England to maintain their agricultural economy. Gunpowder (potassium nitrate, sulfur and charcoal) is made from nitrogen as well, in the form of nitrates. Most of this came from Chile, or from these poop ships.
Until…
Late in the 1800's, a German chemist named Haber found a way to extract the nitrogen in the air to form three chemicals: aniline, used to dye wool and cotton (recall the term "dyed in the wool"), make nitrogen based fertilizers, and to make gunpowder. You may know that a big thing happened in Germany around this time, with a dude named Bismarck (later to have a battleship and a town in the Dakotas named after him). Bismarck united the various city-states of Germany into one country. Ok, now put these together:
a. large country, lots of land
b. fertilizer, to make lots of crops on that land
c. food from these crops to increase the health and number of the population
d. new permanent chemical dyes that break the British monopoly on dying wool and cotton from their plantation countries of India and Egypt, among others. Think: loads of money.
e. gunpowder so you can go to war to get more land for (a) above using the soldiers from c above, fed by crops from (b) above, with weapons bought with money from (d) above.
The Germans invaded France, among other places. This was called World War I.

7. Later on, in 1932 King Ibn Saud formed the country of Saudi Arabia (see the word Saud in there?). Shortly thereafter, while drilling wells for water, they discovered oil. They then worked with an American company (Standard Oil) to collect and refine this oil, called ARAMCO, the Arab American Oil Company in 1933. All was just dandy until 1973, when the Arabs in Egypt, Syria and other places tried to attack Israel, our ally in the Yom Kippur War, to whom we gave weapons, and more importantly, satellite photos of the attacking Arabs, who were then defeated by the Israelis. Do you imagine the Arabs were happy about this? They were not. As major players in OPEC (the organization of petroleum exporting countries, controlling 78% of the world oil supply) they embargoed oil from any country friendly to Israel, including the US.
Check it out:

The result? All oil products increased in price, our economy faltered (we were just then finishing up a nasty, long war in Asia), and our country realized that energy was a critical issue. Conservation became important, our approach to cars, buildings and electricity changed, and it seemed like we were moving towards renewable energy sources.

Then, in 1978, Russia invaded Afghanistan. We pulled out of the olympics in 1980, Reagan came to power, devoted to crushing the Soviets by outspending them on the military. The Soviets needed cash, so they sold as much oil and natural gas as they could. The result? The price of oil dropped, renewable energy went to sleep, and Reagan took off the solar panels President Carter had installed on the white house. So it goes.

But wait! There's more! In 1990, Iraq, a major oil country, invaded Kuwait, our pal and an even more major oil country. Though small, these guys were loaded with cash, so we offered to help them kick Saddam Hussein out of Kuwait, which we did in the first gulf war. Oil, politics and the economy are never far from each other through history. Fast forward to 2008, when oil went from around $20 per barrel to $149 per barrel. This was like the 1973 Arab Oil Embargo, renewable energy once again became popular, conservation and smaller cars were in vogue, you get the picture. Do you notice a cycle here? Can you see a solution to this problem that will only get worse as you get older?

Well you need to know something else: the supply is running out. This is called "Peak oil" and it is even scarier than the last few oil shocks, because it is not so much political as it is a physical reality:


The point is, we are running out of what is known as "cheap oil". Think of this: why was BP drilling in water 5 thousand feet deep off the coast of Louisiana? There will always be oil in some places, but the cost of recovering it (either money or environmental or political) will exceed the market value. Notice I say market value here, if a country goes to war, this is no longer market driven.

Does this mean all we have to do is conserve energy, develop alternate renewable energy sources and we are all set?
Not quite.
Remember the Haber process? Sometime after oil became cheap, folks found a way to create fertilizers economically using petrochemicals. These replaced the less intense fertilizers (like bat and bird poop) that one had to gather, and enabled farmers to have access to cheap, effective fertilizers, raising yields and lowering the cost of food. Now think of peak oil. What will this mean for farmers, food supplies and political stability?
Throw into this mix a relatively recent development: using petrochemicals to grow corn in a monoculture that is then used not for food but for ethanol. The carbon balance on this is not only ugly, it is not sustainable. More than 1 liter of petroleum is used to create 1 liter of ethanol, while also diverting food crops to fuel.
There is another recent development related to crops and energy: Back in the 1930's, Germany (again) had limited access to petroleum, but ready access to coal. They needed petroleum for their economy, and two German scientists Fischer and Tropsh devised a process for turning coal into liquid fuel, called CTL (coal to liquid).
Recently, this process has been updated to enable biomass to liquid (BTL) to be economically viable. This is key, because it (a) does not use food crops, instead focusing on grasses and fast growing trees, (b) is sustainable, as the biomass grows naturally, captures carbon from the atmosphere, then carries this carbon as an energy vehicle where needed, then releases the carbon as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and c) enables countries with low intensity energy (e.g. agrarian or farming nations) to be energy self sufficient, or even energy exporters, enabling them to trade for other things, or to fend off predatory investment that might otherwise threaten their people, their environment, or their future.

So, we come full circle: Forests were sustainable, yet not concentrated enough for the wasteful industrial revolution of the 1850's. It was replaced by coal, then by oil, which has now reached peak production. We are now at a place in history where we can once again harvest sustainable biomass, use it wisely, and reach a sustainable energy future, while not threatening food supplies, political boundaries or cultures. Biomass is a part of the solution, that fits our current energy use, storage and distribution system. One reason we are studying electricity in class is that you may have heard of the "smart grid". One key to the adoption of renewable energy will be the storage and distribution of this energy from places where it is harvested (sunny, windy, geothermal or hydroelectric areas) to the places where the users are (urban areas formed in the fossil fuel era). Will these areas shift to be closer to the sources of the power? Perhaps. Some very wise, very wealthy folks are on to this: T. Boone Pickens made his billions on oil. He has now sold all of that, and is installing wind farms all over Texas.
Warren Buffet, another billionaire just bought the Southern Pacific Railroad, on which most of the coal in our country is delivered, usually from the Powder River Basin in Utah and nearby to power what? The coal fired electric plants around the country. Notice where these guys, who are experts at looking around the next corner are positioning themselves.
LIsten:
Two energy Systems in the US

T.Boone Pickens: "we don't get on our own resource when we have the opportunity to do it, this generation could go down as probably the dumbest crowd that ever came down the street."

Electricity in America:

Framing climate change


Please review these questions, and turn in for credit Wednesday:

Our first energy exam will be on Friday, 10.29.

Let us know how we can help.
aloha
b


AAAAHHHH! The test from hell!
Team,
First of all, each and every one of you did better than you think on this test. It was our first example of what Mr. Emmons and I have been describing in the AP exam: some questions are easy, some are so so, and some are really brutal. You all did surprisingly well in the toughest parts of this, and I've created a review sheet of the most commonly missed questions here:


What might be a nice idea would be for us to re-test you on these questions soon, so you can get some of those precious points. Let us know how you think about this idea.

Second point: the question on parallel growth was poorly worded, so I threw it out. You will all notice that your grade on the gradebook for the test is 2 points higher than that listed on the test site. It's because we are such nice guys.

Speaking of nice guys, Mr. Emmons and I care deeply about your experience here, and how we can both prepare you for a tough exam in May, while also engaging you as creative, whole, contributing beings with a great deal to share.

We are working on finding the best ways to do this, and each class is different, just as each of you learns in your own unique way. We are trying to find that way for each of you, and support you. You may have noticed we tried multiple choice, true false and short answer questions on this last test. You all rocked on the multi-part matching question, which should have been one of the toughest-great work folks.
As for the short answer questions, many of you had great answers, others had just enough to get the point across, and others tried valiantly to snow us. We have seen more snow than Antarctica, so don't go that route next time. The best answers came from those who took notes in class, reviewed the notes, and read the text before class. This is not magic, but you may find it makes the difference in college between those who survive and those who thrive.

Next class: Wednesday we'll go over the exam, then prepare for chapter 8 on energy. We will have a hands-on workshop for you, so make sure you bring your calculator to class.

As always, please let us know how we can help.
aloha
b


Week of 10.18.10
Team,
Monday we will begin with an exam. We'll be including both true/false and short answer questions this time, to help prepare you for the AP exam.
Make sure you read the following topics on wikipedia:
BOD
Dissolved Oxygen
Water quality index
capillary action
biodiversity

Please also listen to this short clip on population:


We appreciate that you need to plan out your week, so please read chapter 8 for class this week, which will prepare you for our discussion of energy. Please make sure you bring your calculator to class on Wednesday.

Let us know if there is any way we can help.
aloha
b


Update
Team,
Let's move the test for chapter 7 to Monday, and go over population some more on Thursday. There was a great deal of material, and we went over it very, very fast.
Here's what you are responsible for:
Thursday: turn in your chapter outline to Mr. Emmons
Weekend: Finish your questions, and do the online practice quiz (see previous post)
Monday: HW and online practice quiz due, test on chapter 7, finish up soils lab.
Wednesday: Begin chapter 8 on energy, lab on energy audits
Thursday: Show your parents how smart you are with the energy meters

We hope this is better and more humane, let us know if we can help further. Please view these videos for class Thursday:

If you have time, this is another very cool one where Ted Rosling predicts what day, month and year that Asia will overtake the world:


aloha
b


Chapter 7 questions, notes-SEE Q2 PLAN BELOW
Chapter 7 population questions Due Thursday 10.14.10
What factors impact a population?
What are the three survivorship curves for sheep, birds and plants?
Describe the population curves for + growth, neutral growth and - growth
Explain "biotic potential"
What are the 4 parts of a population curve, including overshoot
In the Denali wolf/moose example, explain the overshoot and phase shift
Explain the K and r tragegies, including the formula for growth rate
What is the extinction rate?
Explain the rule of 70, and give three examples
What was Malthus' proposal, and why has it not come true (so far)
Explain the IPAT formula, and give an example (be creative)
TFR means what?
What TFR is belived to be stable equilibrium?
What was the TFR for women in China in the 1980's? Why?
Explain why the literacy of women is related to fertility and sustainability?
Explain the trophic level pyramids, and why vegetarians are more sustainable than carnivores (e.g. humans)
Explain and graph the four stages in the demographic transition model
If you look at the population curves for the US (figure 7.18), you will see the WW I baby boom and the WW II baby boom. Explain the "boom echo".
Chapter 7 population notes
n.b. c/c means cunningham text, see the AP env sci folder on this server, here:
population: same species, same location
Factors: birthrate (natality), death rate (mortality), sex ratio, age distribution, growth rate (r), density, spatial distribution
birthrate is per 1000 people, so 20/2000 is 10/k per year
mortality is same
survivorship curves (see fig 7.2) sheep-long life, birds-predators, non specific, plants-lots of offspring don't survive
population growth rate = Brate - Drate
See Fig 7.1, see also 6.6 in c/c page 123
Sex ratio: women always on the right
age distribution curves: pyramid is + growth, parallel is stable growth, inverted pyramid is - growth
repro years = 15-40 for female humans
see figure 7.3
spatial distribution: flowers
emigration: out, immigration:in
biotic potential: inherent repro capacity: geese=10/year, elephants=0.5/year
population curves: see figure 7.5
lag section: lots of food, takes time to reproduce
exponential section: grows according to At = A0 e kt
deceleration: food supply outstripped by population
stable: balance
overshoot: too many for food supply
see figure 6.3 and 6.4 in c/c chapter 6, page 119
see also figure 6.8 in c/c on overshoot
limiting factors: environmental resistance
extrinsic: predators, food source
intrinsic: self controlled, mice fertility drops in overpopulation (negative feedback)
see figure 6.10 in c/c, extinction rate
density dependent: predators, food
density independent: frost, flood, fire
limiting factors: energy, waste, raw materials
CARRYING CAPACITY-always on the AP exam: stable population, renewable resources, sustainable
"stable" is really negative feedback, equilibrium
Strategies:
K: mammals, take care of young, reach stable population at carrying capacity, few offspring, density dependent, low infant mortality
r: bacteria, lots of offspring, high infant mortality, limited by density independent factors (fire, flood, etc.)
see the growth formula: N is population, t is time, r is growth rate, K is carrying capacity:
∆N/∆t = rN(1-N/K)
n.b. as N/k -> 1, ∆N/∆t -> 0
negative feedback is the key here
r: less crowded, so N/K is close to 0, so rate is rN
K: follows carrying capacity, so N/K close to 1, so rate is close to 0
Malthus: population grows exponentially, food linearly, tf crash
see fig 7.12
Impact: IPAT
Impact = population * affluence * technology (we are high on all three)
imagine a village...
Demography: birthrate vs. deathrate
TFR: total fertility rate: number of offpring in female lifetime
2.1 is stable (why not 2.0?)
first child age: 14 in LDC, 21 in DC
see population bomb, ca. 1970
see c/c 7.17
see fig 7.14
Africa vs. US (5.0 TFR vs. 1.6 TFR)
female literacy prop. to TFR, tf GFO focus, also Grameen bank
china 1980, one child policy (some of these kids go to HPA)
tf no concept of sister or brother...the term disappeared...
ChengDu earthquake-China govt. allowed parents to have another child
GNI = gross national income
PPP = purchase power parity (e.g."fair trade")
see Mexico workers
see fig. 7.15, p. 159 Grameen bank
Trophic pyramid: n = 1% for carnivore, 10% for herbivore
see fig. 7.17 Demographic transition model
1. premodern: high BR, high DR, low, stable population
2. urbanization: high BR, low DR, growing pop.
3. mature: low BR (literacy of females), low DR, slowly increasing pop.
4. post-industrial: low BR, low DR, stable pop.
see fig 7.18, pop curves
WW I baby boom, ca. 1918
WW II baby boom, 1945-65 (parents were 20-40 yrs. old)
where is the "boom echo"?
What happened to the pop curves of Iran and Iraq following 1980-1990 period?
To what gender?
Why?
See c/c 7.11 and 7.14


Quarter 2 plan
Team,
Nice work on the last quarter, our next section will begin with population, then spend a few chapters on Energy.
Let's begin this week with Chapter 7 in the text, which you should read before class. We'll go over notes on chapter 7 Monday in class, then test on it when we meet on Thursday. Since this is being posted on Sunday afternoon, instead of Friday afternoon, let's make the chapter outline due to Mr. Emmons on Thursday, unless we have any schedule changes.
Here's an outline of the next two weeks:

Monday, 10.11: Chapter 7-Population notes in class (check here for video updates as well)
Thursday, 10.14: Chapter 7 test: population

Monday, 10.18: Begin Chapter 8 on energy, begin our first energy lab
Wednesday, 10.20: Chapter 8 on energy, more hands-on labs
Thursday, 10.21 (parent's day): short class on energy audits, you get to show your parents how smart you are...

Please complete the practice quiz for chapter 7 by Thursday, here is the link:


One last thing: Here is a question from the AP exam last year. Make sure you know the answer before class tomorrow:

If you were to look at a map of the world biomes, what five-step pattern would you generally see as your eyes move from the regions at the equator to the regions at the poles (put these in correct order):

deciduous forest, tropical forest, ice and snow, taiga, tundra



As always, let us know how can help.
aloha
b


Week of 10.4.10, last week in the first quarter
Team,
This week (Tuesday and Thursday), we'll be going over chapter 6 (see notes below), reviewing your answers to the Earth video, and wrapping up our soils lab. As you may already know, Friday is the end of the quarter, so all work must be turned in for credit before then.
We'll plan on a chapter 6 test Thursday, along with all of the other test in every other class you are taking.

Here are some helpful links from past entries:

Study questions online:

Remember to select the chapter on the left, then look for practice quiz below that:


Test link:

Online grades:

Let us know if you have any questions.
aloha
b


Notes for chapter 5, 6 and earth videos
Team,
Please check out the notes below, and the earth videos assignment:

Addition: here are Mr. Emmons' notes from last class:

<b>apes reading notes 
ch 5</b>
apes reading notes
ch 5 environments and organisms
codes:
n.b. means nota bene, in latin, "note well"
esp. = especially
w/o = without
bc = because
wrt= with respect to
iff=if and only if
e.g.=for example
Op cit= Opus Citera, cited in the work
btw=by the way
ttfn=ta ta for now
pos=parent over shoulder
Notes
energy and matter flow is critical
everything that affects an organism=environment
abiotic=not living, biotic=living
limiting factor-see also rate limiting factor-recall cafeteria line, create your own image
range of tolerance-critical to adaptability (not mentioned in the book)
habitat-place, niche-role
adaptation-change in organism to meet surroundings and survive/thrive
genes-DNA determining characteristics
you=25% mom, 25% dad
population=same kind, same place
species=population concept: all organisms capable of reproduction with that gene set
natural selection: process, close fit between demands of environment and organism
NS over time=evolution
Natural Selection:
1. genetic variation (if none, then there is no outstanding survivor possible)
2. plenty of offspring, leading to…
3. stress on the system resources (food, water, land etc.)
4. outstanding survivors reproduce
5. incremental changes over generations improve adaptation (could be fast, like bacteria or fruit flies)
Speciation=like specialization in medicine: general doctors become radiologists
Often caused by splits in populations (sub populations) like the bunnies and the river…
diploid=you, 2 sets of chromosomes (colored bodies)
ployploidy=many chromosomes (e.g. plants)
Extinction=not enough of a species to effectively reproduce. Effective is the key word, genetic variation diminishes way before extinction occurs.
background rate: 10 species per year
present rate: many times this
co-evolution: two species change together, often in symbiosis
Interactions:
Predator-prey
Competition: interspecies (hawks, owls, foxes hunting the same mice), intraspecies (fastest wins in similar plants)
Symbiosis (see below)
Competitive Exclusion Principle (CEP): no 2 species can occupy the same niche in the same place (habitat) at the same time.
Symbiotic relationships:
Parasitism: B (parasite) feeds on A (host), A suffers for this
Vectors may be involved that carry the parasite (e.g. mosquitoes)
ectoparasites-outside endoparasites-inside
Commensalism: B benefits from A, A does not suffer
"opportunistic"
Mutualism: A benefits, B benefits
e.g. nitrogen fixing bacteria: mycorrhizae
Others: nest parasitism (cow bird), blood parasites
Community: different species in same area (ecosystem)
Ecosystems:
Producers: turn inorganic sources into organic sources, e.g. plants (sun energy) or sulfur plants (Sulfur oxidation and heat from deep sea volcanic vents)
consumers: Primary (eat the plants, e.g. herbivores) or secondary (carnivores, they eat the herbivores)
Omnivores: eat everything
Decomposers: decay everything back to organic and inorganic materials
Keystone species: critical role in balance of the ecosystem: remove them and the ecosystem cannot function
e.g. bison, sea otter
n.b. energy flow through the ecosystem
Trophic levels (very important)
producers: level 1
primary consumers: level 2
secondary consumers: level 3
meat eating carnivores: level 4
90% energy is lost in every transition (recall our talk on energy tax)
Low trophic level is sustainable
Can also be demonstrated by comparing biomass pyramid
Food chains, food webs (both were on the AP exam last year btw)
Food chain: series of organisms at ascending trophic levels, energy flows up
see also bio-accumulation of Hg (mercury)
detritus-decaying matter from living things
good web-intersection of several food chains, mutual interdependence, biodiversity, all good things...
Biochemical cycles (n.b. chemical)
Many chemical cycles, three are critical: carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus
Carbon-stored in atmosphere as CO2, then in bones and organic matter (e.g. wood)
Nitrogen-stored in atmosphere as N2 (gas), used as NO3 and NH4 by primary producers, basis for protein (CHON)
Phosphorus-from rocks, stored in bones-see Waterloo diggers…yuk
photosynthesis-50% occurs in the oceans
light converted to sugar (recall Maui onions)
can track carbon as C14/6 through atmosphere, to CHO (plant) to CHON(protein) to CO2 or oil
All Americans over 50 have traces of C14 from atomic bomb testing in our bones…radioactive phosphorus as well…more yuk
green manure-sacrificial bean crops
crop rotation-n.b.
Question: why was Nauru so high in PO4? Hint: it is an island
fossil fuels burned-how does this change the Carbon cycle balance?
n.b. erg runoff: recall the video on Chesapeake R. eutrophication, algal blooms and red tides (we did not cover these, look them up on wikipedia)

<b>Chapter 6 notes</b>
Chapter 6 notes: Ecosystems and communities
Succession-communites proceed through series of recognizable, predicatable changes in structure over time
long lasting and stable
factors: climate, food, invasion etc.
climax comm. stable, long lasting result of succession
determined by climate, water, substrate and org. type
primary succession-no existing organisms
secondary succession-destruction of existing ecosystem
Primary succession-terrestrial-
factors: substrate (e.g. soil), climate, repro structures, rate of growth, organic matter, water
pioneer comm.- first to colonize bare rock (e.g. lichen)
later comm.-soil available, holds water (life)
1 pioneer stage
lichen: mutualistic: algae/bacteria(photosynthesis) + fungi to hold on
2 secondary stage: soil: retains water, structural support
(succession: plants shade lichens)
3 climax community-stable, diverse, interconnected, interdependent, many niches, recycle biomass (constant)
process of succession is called a sere, stages are seral stages
see fig 6.3-imagine driving from puako to waimea
Primary succession-aquatic
oceanic-stable
limnotic/riparian-transitional, fills with sediment
stages:
1. aquatic vegetation-e.g. aquarium, leads to wet soil and terrestrial networks (roots, wet meadow)
2. transitional: biomass of trees creates top layers of soil, transition to terrestrial climax comm.
imagine trip from middle of lake to shore-see all transitions
bogs=transitional stage from shore to dry land (Ireland, Scotland)
Secondary Succession-terrestrial
recall: existing comm. is replaced
e.g. pond fills to become a meadow, then climax forest
can reverse: beaver dams: land to aquatic
see also human dams, exponential decay curve
Biomes-------
determined by climate, altitude, water (precipitation), temperature
similar niches and habitats in each biome

<b> Earth Questions</b>
earth questions
How old is the earth? How old did early church leaders think it was?
Hutton found what rock formation in Scotland was the clue to the real age of the earth?
Kelvin used thermal cooling calculations to determine the age for the earth-how long was this?
Why was he wrong?
What is "deep time"?
What is so special about "pillow lavas"? What is the Hawaiian name for these?
What does Zircon have to do with aging the planet? What do they tell us about the source of water?
Water is neat stuff. Why would the temperature of the earth 4 bY ago accelerate changes?
3.4 bY ago a new type of rock was formed-what is this rock, and how does it fit into the asthenosphere picture of plate tectonics?
South Africa hosts the CapeVal Cretins: what are these? Why are these important? What did these have to do with the beginning of life? Where was life limited to before these?
What are stromatolites, and what did they produce? From what?
Playford found what? What is the impact of what he found?
What caused the change in the color of the oceans? What then happened to the atmosphere? What color was the planet after this?
What is a trilobite, and where are they found? Why are they significant? What did they prove?
What did Wegener believe? How easy was this to prove? When and how was it finally proven?
What does convection have to do with plate tectonics?
Why is Iceland such an ideal place to study plate tectonics?
What was Rodinia? Why did it cause climate change about 700 mY ago? Why is this so critical to understand today?
What was the Cambrian Explosion? Why is it important? What did Walcott discover? Where? What is the Burgess Shale Quarry? Why is shale so special in this process?
When did carnivores show up? Why? How did their presence change the evolution of creatures?
What did the ozone shield enable the growth of? Where did the ozone come from?
What formed the carbon in the carboniferous era? What did life look like 60 mY ago? What does this carbon look like today?
What does the freshwater in a swamp enable? Why is this important?
What did dead marine organisms transform into? Why is this important to us?
What caused the first mass extinction? What is a mantle flume eruption?
What was the name of the next supercontinent?
What were the predominant survivors of the first mass extinction?
Why would Utah be a good place to find these survivors?
What would be the advantage of being "luke-warm" blooded?
How did the first global warming trend change the dinosaurs? Why did this eventually become their downfall?
The Kimberly "stove pipe" means what? How are diamonds formed?
Who discovered the CT (KT) boundary, and what does it signify? When was this? When was it discovered, and how?
How big was the Yucutan meteor? How was it found (look this up on wikipedia)
50 mY ago, the mammals evolved. How did the demise of the dinosaurs make this possible? Science fiction movies often show cavemen fighting dinosaurs-why is this totally bogus?
What is similar about the Alps and the Himalayas, apart from them being mountains? What limits their ultimate altitude?
Mauna Loa is the largest landmass in the world. From the base of Mauna Loa on the 20,000 ft. deep ocean floor to it's top 13,500 ft. above sea level is much higher than Everest (29,000 ft.). How is this possible?
2 mY ago, an ice age again struck. What triggered this? How long did it last?
What makes glaciers flow? Do they flow faster or slower when they are thicker? Why?
Explain the balance between temperature and the progress of glaciers.
Glaciers often leave "unsorted" rocks, called glacial "till". What does this mean? Why would this differ from normal sedimentary sorting?
It is said that our civilization has been a brief, stable warm period. What does this predict for global warming/cooling?
What two oceans/seas will disappear when pangea ultima forms?


Where are the videos?
Here:

We'd like you to view this video (broken into pieces for downloading) this week, so we can discuss it in class. The earth questions above will be due Tuesday, 10.5.10.
Please prepare for a quiz on chapter 5 Thursday, 9.30.10. We'll be going over notes on chapter 6 Tuesday and Thursday, as we have time, and you can plan for a chapter 6 test 10.5.10.

Let us know if we can help, we hope chapter 6 articulates well with chapter 5. Chapter 7 will be on Populations, which is extremely interesting for you, we hope.
aloha
b


e2 questions
e2 questions
Gray to Green
1. What is the gray in gray to green?
2. What were the challenges for the architects in the story?
3. What is the Bauhaus, and why was it key in the success of the story?
4. Can you imagine a similar recycling solution in your home town? How?
5. What is the final message of this story?

Green Machine
1. Why is the title of this piece ironic (hint: it has to do with Chicago politics)
2. What is the "heat island effect" and why is it so key in this case?
3. How did they address this heat island effect?
4. As a botanist, why would you think this is important?
5. There is a proposal floating around to restore the prairie to native prairie grasses, which could then be used as biofuels. From an ecological perspective, why would this be a good step? Why from an energy standpoint? How would this compare to planting the same areas with corn for bio-ethanol?
6. Sadhu Johnston mentions that Chicago is in a unique position to effect change. Why?
7. What were the main industries in Chicago, and how could these moves change that direction?
8. Sustainability is seen as finding new solutions to age old problems. Is this a social, education or technical issue?
9. The lady mentions that quality of life does not need to diminish, why?
10. What is the impact of LEED on green building? Short term and long term. 11. Describe the Factor 10 house.
12. Describe the McDonald's green roof, and why it is bogus
13. Looking around the energy lab, what ideas are shared in this story?


Weekend readings-UPDATED
Team,
We hope you have a great weekend, full of glee and bliss, while Mr. Emmons and I are shackled to our desks Monday.
That said, to even out the burden of pain, we'd like you to read chapter 5, which is full of all sorts of goodies, including but not limited to:
"Help! I've lost my niche!
Who is that predator predating me and why?
Keystone species exposed in building fraud!
I'm a prisoner of a food web chain gang!
My boyfriend and I have a symbiotic relationship..."

As our resident biologist, Mr. Emmons will be leading the charge on these scintillating (good SAT word) goings-on, so make sure you bring lots of paper for notes, and kleenex for the weepy bits.

We'll also be going into our soils lab, so you would be wise little grasshoppers if you read chapter 13 as preparation. Make sure you bring along your lab handouts. And your shovels. And your tractors. And any earth moving equipment you might own. We'd like to take you to the flume to see the double-secret ash deposits.

Our next unit will be on biomes and ecosystems, which we will follow with chapter 7, on populations, which will be a real barn burner, particularly if your name is Malthus.

For this weekend, please view the two videos, and check here for questions on them. I should have them up by Saturday.
<b>UPDATE--Team, let's move the e2 video assignment to Friday, ok?
Notes and questions will be up tonight.
b</b>

Let us know how we can help.
aloha
b


Friday 9.17.10
Team,
Please remember to bring in your chapter 4 outlines for HW. We'll have a test on chapter 4 in class, then begin our soils lab (weather permitting). Let us know if you have any questions. Please bring in a flash drive so we can give you the movies for the weekend:

Check here for questions on these videos, due next week.

Test link:


aloha
b


Wednesday
Team,
Wednesday we'll begin with a quick quiz on atoms, elements and pH, then we'll begin our soils lab. It would be a good idea to review thermodynamics as we'll have a piece on this in our Friday quiz, and we want you to be prepared.
aloha
b

Flash drives
Team,
Please bring in a flash drive of your choice so we can pass on videos for questions this week.
aloha
b

Cycle 3
APES cycle 3
3.1:
Monday 9.13
W 9.15
F 9.17
-
W 9.22
F 9.24

This weekend, chapter 4 is the reading assignment. Here are some notes:
Please look these up on wikipedia for our discussion in class Monday:
Cold fusion
Cargo cult science

Monday, we'll continue our discussion on the scientific method, then get into some basic notes on matter and chemistry. These are all in chapter 4.
We'll be meeting in the whiteboard rooms so make sure you bring your notebooks.

Wednesday, we'll begin our soils lab, which will use some of the concepts we discuss on Monday, such as pH, compounds and elements

Friday, we'll have a test on chapter 4, then begin a discussion of chapter 5: the predator chapter…

Wednesday 9.22 we'll continue the soil lab and chapter 5 notes, with the soil lab completed by Friday 9.24.

Please let me know by email if you are still having issues viewing the e2 video.

Jhernie found this cool 4 minute video on graphs:
Check it out

Check here for notes and updates




e2 videos, homework
Folks,
After viewing the two TED videos on sustainability, we'd like you to move on to the first in a series of videos from a program called "e2: the economies of being environmentally conscious"

The first series is on Design I, and the first episodes are "The Green Apple" and "Green for All". Please watch these so we can discuss in class Friday.
We'll have three more in this series, then we'll move on to the others:

Design I
Design II
Design III
Energy
Transport

Each season has 5 episodes, with each episode focusing on an aspect of what we are studying together. We hope you find these as compelling as we do, and that they might inspire you to be change agents...

"Green Apple"
"Green for all"

Questions Due Friday:

design: e2 The Green Apple
1. Why is Manhattan considered greener than most cities?
2. Newer cities like LA have created automobile accessible designs. How does this directly tie to health and energy consumption for those working in that city compared to NYC?
3. Describe 4TimesSquare in NYC as a green skyscraper. Discuss “frit” (sunlight) and “slag” (CO2).
4. Describe how the “cost of people” living in a large city building affects the sustainability of that building.
5. The Solaire is located in Downtown Manhattan's most desirable waterfront neighborhood - Battery Park City. Describe why it has become a marketing trend for culture change and eventually sustainability.

design: e2 Green for All
1. One in seven homes in the world are deemed inadequate. What is predicted in 30 years?
2. Describe the Mexican government’s attempt to provide “modern” housing for the Yaqui Indians.
3. The University of Texas graduate students devised a different design. Describe it.
4. Step one of the Guadalupe Project in Austin Texas was The Alley Project? Describe the Alley project and what it was intended to do.
5. New homes create a level of ownership in a community fueling sustainability that in turn develops political and social rights in the world. How can homes essentially reflect how a person lives?

Let us know how we can help.
aloha
b


Peak oil in the news
Folks,
Just released in Germany, this article in Der Spiegel is perfect timing for our discussion of peak oil and of supply and demand. Be sure to read the points in the middle:



ALSO:
Please have a look at this cool link that Mr. DK found for you:


way cool...
aloha
b

Cycle two: 8.30.10-9.10.10 --UPDATED 1700 8.30.10
<b>APES cycle 2 plan</b>
8.30 Monday
9.1 Wednesday
9.3 Friday
----
9.8 Wednesday
9.10 Friday

UPDATE: study questions online:

In your readings for chapter 3, you may notice that the chart in figure 3.3 is whacky beyond belief.
Here is a link to a much more clear explanation of supply and demand, pay attention to the graphs in blue and red:


If you've already had Economics, then you probably know this...

Lab folder:
----

--updated link to Poisoned Waters Video:

Weekend: view Poisoned waters on water quality issues, questions due Monday at beginning of class
If you want to get ahead: read chapter 3 (see links below for chapter locations)
8.30 Monday
Poisoned Waters questions due at beginning of class
Review chapters 1 and 2, quiz on chapters 1 and 2
Water Quality Lab discussion
Chapter 3 introduction

9.1 Wednesday
Chapter 3 discussion, more shorter videos online
Water Quality Lab beginning
Reminder: X period open for questions
Please watch this video online: 



and this one on sustainability: 



These are the first of many TED talks I'll be passing on to you. I hope these are enlightening for you. 
I'd like to move from economics and environmental science to design, in other words, how you would use the wisdom you are now developing to change the design of our buildings, our cities and our world. 
You will find some things in the readings that would be very helpful to look up on wikipedia. I trust all of you have seen wikipedia at http://www.wikipedia.org 

The list from Chapter 3: 

risk assessment 

ASTM 

ISO 

LD50 

IPCC 

clean air act 

safe drinking water act

BPA 

Eutrophication 

cradle to cradle 

RfD 

DfE 

dioxin 

seventh son of the seventh son 

indoor air pollution 

dead zones in gulf of Mexico 

supply and demand (study the three curves) 

contingent valuation method 

deferred costs 

external costs 

pollution 

biodegradable 

pollution-prevention costs 

cost benefit analysis 

Environmental impact statement 

NEPA act of 1969 

tragedy of the commons
1968 

command and control approach 

cap and trade 

brownfields 

SBLRBRA 

CERCLA/Superfund 

RoHS 

sustainable development 

debt for nature swap 

methyl mercury 

Responsible Care 

9.3 Friday
Water Quality Lab
Check here for more details
Weekend:
Lab work
Videos (check here for update)
Read chapter 4
9.8 Wednesday
Chapter 3 wrap-up, quiz
Begin work on chapter 4
9.10 Friday Chapter 4 notes, class discussion

UPDATE----
Test link for Monday's class, chapter one test:

Questions for Water Quality Index, due Wednesday:

Water Quality Index questions

Look up WQI in wikipedia and answer the following:

What is the WQI

What metrics are part of the WQI

Why is it called an index instead of something else?

Why are each category weighted differently?

After viewing the Polluted Waters video, how effective is the WQI in measuring water quality in each of the cases presented? Why? What is missing? How would you detect these?

What would be the impact financially, socially, and environmentally, and in what time frame?

In your opinion, do you think water quality is getting better, worse or staying the same:
In Hawaii
In the Mainland US
In your home town (if you live in Waimea, then in Honolulu)


Resource links
Hi folks,
I hope this helps you now and in the future:
Here is the folder with all of the chapters from the text:


You might find some interesting things hidden in there.

Likewise, there is a folder for all of our videos here:


The main folder for all of our resources is here:


Here is a link to the phone version of the video:

I hope this helps.
aloha
b


Week two, cycle 01.2-UPDATED
---UPDATE---
Text link:


Please see me Wednesday if you are having issues with the video.
------------------
Meeting dates this week:
Tuesday 8.24
Thursday 8.26

Readings:
Text chapter two: Environmental Ethics
Outline for homework, due Thursday
Review Questions, due Thursday

Video: Frontline: Poisoned Waters
Or here:
Watch online, answer questions here:
1 When was the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) formed? What events prompted its formation?

2 How did deregulation of industry during the Reagan years affect water quality and the overall power of the Environmental Protection Agency?
◦ What does “voluntary compliance” mean?

‚ó¶ Why do businesses favor voluntary compliance?

3 The Clean Water Act of 1972 allows citizens to sue alleged offenders if government agencies do not act. Why is that provision of the law important?

4 The expression “canary in the coal mine” means an early warning of danger. (Coal miners would carry canaries or small animals with them into mines to detect deadly but odorless and tasteless methane gas.)
◦ To what does the expression “canary in the coal mine” apply in Poisoned Waters?

5 Twenty million Americans took to the streets for the first Earth Day in 1970 as a result of pollution they could see and smell: The Cuyahoga River in Cleveland burned, with flames that towered eight stories high; the1969 oil spill in Santa Barbara closed virtually all the beaches in Southern California; people had declared Lake Erie dead.
‚ó¶ How, according to the film, have both pollution and people's reaction to Earth Day changed since 1970?

6 What do “endocrine disruptors” do? Why do genetic mutations in fish disturb scientists so much?

7 How do the products that average people use each day end up polluting the nation's and world's waterways?

8 How should we pay for environmental cleanup? Should it be the responsibility of industry? Government? Individuals? Explain your reasoning.

Please turn in our answers at the beginning of class Thursday.

In class:
Lab format:
See this link:

Grading template:

Data analysis:
Check out this page online:
Keeling curve and CO2 trends at Mauna Loa

Check this out if you have time:

Let us know how we can help.
aloha
b

Calendar link
Here is a link to our online class calendar:


I hope this helps.

Friday in class:
Vernier Probeware
Sample lab:
Chapter one outline due
Discussion of videos

aloha
b


2010 year begins!
Welcome folks, to AP Environmental Science.
The link to the first chapter of the text is here:
and the contents page is here:
If you have time, please watch this 22 minute video on wind:
and this one on the Grameen Bank

Here are some thoughts:
The wind video demonstrates how many decisions can be made that are harmonious with both business, consumers and the environment.
The second video is very compelling about the impact of even small changes in society.

We will spend more time on these in the future, this should serve as a teaser to give you a sense of the media we will be covering.

As we mentioned in class, we recommend getting a textbook as soon as possible. If the bookstore is out, you can look on Amazon (used for about $96) or some of the other online textbook sources. Be careful to get the 12th edition, ISBN 0073383201

We'll have a chance to discuss more in class Wednesday.
Let us know if we can help.
aloha
b


Free Response Prep.
All you need to know...
1)Water
2)Energy
3)Pollution
a)LD50/ED50
4)Population
a)Habitat
b)bioaccumulation/biomagnification
c)food webs
d)endangered species
Possibly...
-soils


Sunday
Team,
Please bring at least ten interesting questions for our discussion on Sunday, and think up at least two very clever free response questions, with increasing depth as one goes through the question.
See you all Sunday!
aloha
b

Update
First of all, from Ms. Mitchell:
Please inform your AP Environmental Science students to report to Castle Lecture Hall at 7:30 a.m. on Tuesday, May 11 for their exam. Rob Engel will proctor the exam.

Updated review sheet:
APES notes updated 5.6.2010

Keystone species: influence greater than relative abundance
ex: predator keeps herbivore pop down, preserves rare grass

Biomes:
terrestrial, freshwater, marine
latitude, humidity, elevation-terrestrial
freshwater:
rivers, wetlands and basins (deeper than what they serve)
marine:
neritic -close to shelf
benthic-deep, sloping away from con shelf
pelagic-open sea
abyssal-very deep
hadal-trenches

food webs:
connections of energy from producer to consumer
trophic pyramid (see plankton to ahi, bioaccumulation)
primary producers: autotrophs-photosynthetic plants, chemotrophic (sulfur)-inorganic sources (also foundation species)
heterotrophs-get energy from organic sources:
herbivores, carnivores, scavengers
lots of energy lost between trophic levels (thermodynamics)

ecosystems-
abiotic environment
producers-autotrophs, e.g. plants
consumers-heterotrophs, e.g. herbivores, canrivores
decomposers-detritovores

photosynthesis-
CO2, water, light into organic compounds (e.g. sugars)
photoautotrophs-plants
carbon fixation (redox rx) reduction is CO2 to CHO
chlorophyll, carotenes and xanthophylls

cellular respiration-
conversion of energy to ATP (phosphate bonds)
glucose, amino acids and fatty acids with O2 as an oxidizer (accepts electrons) OIL RIG
aerobic and anaerobic metabolysis (aerobic is 19x more efficient)
TCA cycle, mitochondria

biodiversity-
variation of life forms within a biome or ecosystem
genetic
species
ecosystem
creates stability and robustness in ecosystems

biogeochemical cycles (nutrient cycles)
how an element or molecule travels through biotic (living things) and abiotic (earth, air, water) parts of earth
reservoirs may differ: N2 in air, P in soil
closed system: C N O P
open system: energy, e.g. photosynthesis
cycles:
carbon
nitrogen
oxygen
phosphorus
water
also mercury and atrazine (herbicide)

GM crops
genetic engineering vs. selective breeding or mutation breeding
concerns: ecological, economic (LDC) and IP rights (see Monsanto)
uses restriction enzymes to ID and isolate genes
inserted using gene gun (plasmid) or agrobacterium

GMO
insertion or deletion of genes
recombinant DNA, transgenic organisms
if no DNA from other species, cisgenic (cis vs trans)
lentiviruses-can transfer genes to animal cells
Genentech-Berkeley 1978, created human insulin from E. Coli (vs. cow or pig insulin)

pesticides-
biological, chemical, antimicrobial, disinfectant
pests: pathogens, insects, weeds, mullosks, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes and microbes
any food competitor or spoiler, also disease vectors
herbicides-glyphosate (roundup)
insecticides-HCl, carbamates, pyrethrins, etc.
green fungicides-paldoxins
EPA regulates
banned: carcinogenic, mutagenic or bioaccumulators
see also NRDC

pesticide laws-
Federal insecticide act-1910
Federal insecticide, fungicide and rodenticide act (FIFRA)-1947 then 1972, 1988
1947-ag dept
1972-EPA
3 categories: antimicrobials, biopesticides, conventional

forest management-
silviculture, protection and regulation
conservation and economic concerns
watershed management included
see also FSC 1993, forest stewardship council

applied ecology-
conservation biology, ecology, habitat management
invasive species management
rangeland management
restoration ecology

land management-
habitat conservation
sustainable ag
urban planning

sustainable ag-
environmental stewardship
farm profitability
farming communities
e.g. ability to produce food indefinitely, without causing damage to ecosystem health
see also erosion, irrigation/salinization, crop rotation
see also landraces, e.g. prairie grasses

mining laws-
SMCRA
surface mining control and reclamation act (1977)
1. regulates active coal mines
2. reclamation of abandoned mines
dept of interior admin
response to strip mining (1930+)
SMCRA
regulation:
1. standards of performance
2. permitting
3. bonding
4. inspection/enforcement
5. land restrictions
compare to 1945 strip mining practices

Fisheries laws-
monitor and protect fisheries resources
overfishing conference 1936
1957: Beverton and Holt did study on fish dynamics
goals:
1. max sustainable biomass yield
2. max sust. econ yield
3. secure employment
4. secure protein supply
5. income from export
6. bio and economic yield
UNCLOS-UN convention on law of the sea
EEZ-exclusive economic zones
12 mi = coastal sovereignty
200 mi = fishing restrictions
2004-UN made stricter laws on fisheries mgt.
1995 code of conduct for responsible fisheries
quotas, taxation, enforcement (USCG)


tragedy of the commons-
1968 Science article-Garrett Hardin
individual benefit, common damage
strict management of global common goods
see also overgrazing, pollution, privatization
"a fundamental extension of morality"

ozone depletion-
stratospheric ozone depletion
4% since 1970
ozone hole over antarctica
catalytic destruction of ozone by chlorine and bromine
halogen compounds CFCs (freons) and bromofluorocarbons (halons)
ODS ozone depleting substances
ozone blocks UVB 270-315 nm
Montreal protocol 1987 banned CFCs
O + O3 --> 2O2 (transparent)
Cl + O3 -->ClO + O2
ClO + O3 -->Cl + 2O2
effects:
1. ++ carcinomas
2. melanomas
3. cataracts
4. ++ tropospheric ozone (toxic)
5. kills cyanobacteria (rice nitrogen fixers)

Water quality:
WQI is a composite of many qualities (see below)
BOD is a measure of the oxygen demand to decompose organic materials
BOD measures the rate of oxygen uptake by micro-organisms in a sample of water at a temperature of 20°C and over an elapsed period of five days in the dark.
The following is a list of indicators often measured by situational category:
Drinking water
‚ñ™ Alkalinity
‚ñ™ Color of water
‚ñ™ pH
‚ñ™ Taste and odor (geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), etc)
‚ñ™ Dissolved metals and salts (sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, manganese, magnesium)
‚ñ™ Microorganisms such as fecal coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli), Cryptosporidium, and Giardia lamblia
‚ñ™ Dissolved metals and metalloids (lead, mercury, arsenic, etc.)
‚ñ™ Dissolved organics: colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon
‚ñ™ Radon
‚ñ™ Heavy metals
‚ñ™ Pharmaceuticals
‚ñ™ Hormone analogs
Environmental
Chemical assessment
‚ñ™ Conductivity (also see salinity)
‚ñ™ Dissolved Oxygen
‚ñ™ nitrate-N
‚ñ™ orthophosphates
‚ñ™ Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
‚ñ™ Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
‚ñ™ Pesticides
Physical assessment
‚ñ™ pH
‚ñ™ Temperature
‚ñ™ Total suspended solids (TSS)
‚ñ™ Turbidity

Electrical power numbers:
1 Watt
1000 Watts = 1 kW
These measure rate of energy use (this is called power)
energy use: power x time
kW x hours or kWh
example: 1 kWh is a 500 Watt device used for 2 hours
MWh is a megawatt hour
power plants are often rated in MW rating, or GW rating (gigawatt, or 1000 MW)

LD50 is the measure of toxicity that kills 50% of the population after 2 weeks
The LD50 is usually expressed as the mass of substance administered per unit mass of test subject, such as grams of substance per kilogram of body mass.
As a measure of toxicity, LD50 is somewhat unreliable and results may vary greatly between testing facilities due to factors such as the genetic characteristics of the sample population, animal species tested, environmental factors and mode of administration.[3] Another weakness is that it measures acute toxicity only (as opposed to chronic toxicity at lower doses), and does not take into account toxic effects that do not result in death but are nonetheless serious (e.g. brain damage). There can be wide variability between species as well; what is relatively safe for rats may very well be extremely toxic for humans, and vice versa. In other words, a relatively high LD50 does not necessarily mean a substance is harmless, but a very low one is always a cause for concern.

3 laws of thermodynamics:
1. you cannot win (no process can be more than 100% efficient)
2. you cannot break even (no process can be even 100% efficient)
3. you cannot get out of the game (entropy or disorder tends to increase in spontaneous processes)
See also Gibbs free energy: ∆G = ∆H - T∆S or "goldfish are hell without tartar sauce"

ENSO: el nine southern oscillation
coriolis effect: recall hurricane iniki
aquifer: have an example ready for the depletion/pollution and describe recharge rate
main soil types, main rock types, geological basics (eras etc.)
climate shifts: how do these effect migration and location of animals? Why not plants?
fertility rates, doubling times (rule of 70), demographic transitions, age-structure diagrams
nutritional requirements
sustainable ag (see above)
urban sprawl: define. How has the auto made this possible?
urban heat island effect: define
ore concentration curves
CAFE standards-definition, impact, exceptions

Please also check out the entry from one year ago, 5.5.09 below, particularly the apx folder. We'll review in class Friday.

See you all Friday
aloha
b


AP exam review folder, homework
Team,
We're in the home stretch and I appreciate you have lots of material to cover this week. To make this more efficient, I've collected practice materials in a folder here:


Please start with the folder labeled "critical readme", which contains a summary document I'll be editing and adding to over the next few days. Check it out daily, as I'll be giving you what I think you'll need to cover or review that we might not have covered.

There are several other folders:
AP central stuff is material from the folks who created the exam

Barron's reviews includes both timed simulation exams and other more standard formats

Princeton is the Cracking the AP review folder

AP review course is a curriculum developed by an instructor. Good browsing to see if you need to review anything.

Labs AP is a folder with labs you should review, particularly if the topic in the lab is unfamiliar to you.

I'll post more here later Sunday 5.2.2010, so please check in frequently.

Here is one of your last assignments for credit:

Find and read these articles on Wikipedia:

Superfund:
RCRA:
Clean Air Act:
Federal Water Pollution Control Act:
National Environmental policy act:
And answer the following questions:
1. CERCLA stands for what?
2. What happened at Love canal?
3. How was CERCLA expanded in 1986?
4. How is the SuperFund funded now?
5. What two kinds of response actions are outlined in the CERCLA?
6. Who are the "potential responsible parties" under CERCLA?
7. What is the NCP revision, and how does it impact polluters?
8. What is the NPL and what is it's role?
9. What does RCRA stand for?
10. Why is it an improvement on the 1965 law on solid waste?
11. Explain "cradle to grave" requirements and give an example.
12. What is a TSDF, and how does it manage hazardous waste?
13. What is a "whistleblower" and how are they provided for in the RCRA?
14. What are the corporate arguments against the clean air act?
15. Describe the 1955, 1963, 1967, 1970, 1977 and 1990 acts and cite a common theme and opponent.
16. What was new in the 1990 law that may affect third world nations?
17. Last week the EPA made news regarding CO2 emissions and the clean air act. What happened?
18. What is the CWA, and how is it enforced?
19. What are navigable waters, and how are they defined?
20. How does the CWA treat point sources? Give at least two examples.
21. How is this different for non-point sources?
22. What is different with the WQA of 1987?
23. Explain the NEPA act of 1970, and its impact.
24. What happened off the coast of Santa Barbara in 1969 (also the year of Woodstock, and several assassinations), and how is it relevant today, March 2, 2010?
25. What is an EIS, and are they required today?
26. How does an EIS differ from an EA?

aloha
b


Plan for week of April 26
Team,
We're closing in on the end of our material, and need to wrap up pollution and global climate change this week, beginning risk assessment by Friday.
Here's what we need to cover:
Monday: you read chapters 9 and 11, so we can review in class. Some questions for credit in class.
Tuesday: we finish chapter 9 on pollution in class, begin work on ch 11 (climate change)
Wednesday: short class-ch 11
Friday: chapter 11, questions for credit.
Work for the week: both AP exams in this folder:


Please take your time with these, and record anything you feel we need to review.
More here soon, this is a really good finish to a strong year...
aloha
b


Plan for the rest of time...
Team:
Here is our plan for the rest of the year:

4.20 T Chapters 9 and 11 in Barron's: Pollution and global climate change
4.21 W Pollution
4.23 F Climate change/Ozone issues

4.27 T Health issues/regulations
4.28 W chapter 10
4.30 F Chapter 10

5.4 T review/practice exam diagnostics
5.5 W review/diagnostics
5.7 F all-of-the-missing-pieces-that-will-get-you-a-five

5.11 Tuesday AP exam 8 AM. Be there or be flabby.

So...
For tomorrow (Tuesday) please read all of chapter 9 in the Barron's text, so we may all be experts in pollution by the end of class.

<b>Easter Egg: Find and listen to the song "we didn't start the fire" by Billy Joel.
What is the line following "AIDS, Crack, Bernie Goetz"? Why is this important?
Hint: see the section on solid waste in chapter 9...</b>

As always, should you or any of your IM force be caught, the secretary will disavow any knowledge of your mission...

aloha
b


Atmosphere and footprints
Team,
Please complete and email the following to me before class on Tuesday:

<b>APES Air questions</b>

1. Describe the major levels of the atmosphere, with a description of the temperature in each level and why the temperature profile changes with altitude.

2. Describe the four "criteria pollutants" and where you might find them, why each is hazardous, and why these stand out over the other thousands of air pollutants.

3. Describe the four major greenhouse gases, including how they are formed, how long they last, and if there is any connection between these and human activity.

4. As the climate crisis progresses, eventually the permafrost will begin to melt. Why is this an example of positive feedback?

5. PM refers to particulate matter. Why is this specification based on particle size, and which sizes are the most hazardous?

6. Describe the flow of air on the planet, including the convection zones. Explain how this creates high and low pressure areas on the surface.

7. What is the albedo of the earth, and how does this interact with climate change?

8. The Coriolis effect is often poorly understood. In your own words, explain the rotation of a hurricane approaching Hawaii from the southeast.

9. Is the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) an air event, a sea event, a global event, or all three? Explain.

10. Many people believe that the ozone layer is involved in global warming. How can you distinguish between these two? What is the main impact of a thinner ozone layer, and what might cause this?

<b>APES Footprint questions</b>

1. Explain why the data you were given ends several years ago

2. What is the nature of your country: industrial, rural, etc. and how developed is your country?

3. Describe the ratio of biocapacity to footprint for your country. Calculate this number for each year in your graph, and express it as a ratio: greater than 1.0 is good, less than 1.0 is not so good.

4. Create a graph of your new ratio data, in the same range as your data graph. You can use excel or any other simple graphing app.

5. How do you explain the trends in your ratio graph? What events or changes in the slope might be significant?

6. Next, look at the breakdown of farmlands, carbon and so on, and relate these changes to your ratio graph. What correlations do you notice?

7. What changes would you make in the management of this country, either in resource management or in footprint?

8. Ok, now that you have a good picture of your country, as leader, what is the ideal compromise value that would keep the ratio over 1.0?

<b>Quote for today:</b>

In November of 2009 it was reported that 16 ships create as much pollution as all the cars in the world.

Please read for class Tuesday (these are long, ignore the comments section on the first reading, and browse the second one):



Footprints and other keen stuff
Team,
Please check out this folder on the energylab server:


There are two papers in this folder you can use to prepare for our VTC on Friday

Let me know if you have any problems retrieving these.

Please also turn in any missing work by Friday, and the RQ set for chapter 16 on air by Sunday night at 9 PM.

As always, let me know if I can help.
aloha
b

0 comments

APES archive 2009-2010

APES archive 2009-2010

All you need to know...
1)Water
2)Energy
3)Pollution
a)LD50/ED50
4)Population
a)Habitat
b)bioaccumulation/biomagnification
c)food webs
d)endangered species
Possibly...
-soils

Posted by:

Team,
Please bring at least ten interesting questions for our discussion on Sunday, and think up at least two very clever free response questions, with increasing depth as one goes through the question.
See you all Sunday!
aloha
b

Posted by:

First of all, from Ms. Mitchell:
Please inform your AP Environmental Science students to report to Castle Lecture Hall at 7:30 a.m. on Tuesday, May 11 for their exam. Rob Engel will proctor the exam.

Updated review sheet:
APES notes updated 5.6.2010

Keystone species: influence greater than relative abundance
ex: predator keeps herbivore pop down, preserves rare grass

Biomes:
terrestrial, freshwater, marine
latitude, humidity, elevation-terrestrial
freshwater:
rivers, wetlands and basins (deeper than what they serve)
marine:
neritic -close to shelf
benthic-deep, sloping away from con shelf
pelagic-open sea
abyssal-very deep
hadal-trenches

food webs:
connections of energy from producer to consumer
trophic pyramid (see plankton to ahi, bioaccumulation)
primary producers: autotrophs-photosynthetic plants, chemotrophic (sulfur)-inorganic sources (also foundation species)
heterotrophs-get energy from organic sources:
herbivores, carnivores, scavengers
lots of energy lost between trophic levels (thermodynamics)

ecosystems-
abiotic environment
producers-autotrophs, e.g. plants
consumers-heterotrophs, e.g. herbivores, canrivores
decomposers-detritovores

photosynthesis-
CO2, water, light into organic compounds (e.g. sugars)
photoautotrophs-plants
carbon fixation (redox rx) reduction is CO2 to CHO
chlorophyll, carotenes and xanthophylls

cellular respiration-
conversion of energy to ATP (phosphate bonds)
glucose, amino acids and fatty acids with O2 as an oxidizer (accepts electrons) OIL RIG
aerobic and anaerobic metabolysis (aerobic is 19x more efficient)
TCA cycle, mitochondria

biodiversity-
variation of life forms within a biome or ecosystem
genetic
species
ecosystem
creates stability and robustness in ecosystems

biogeochemical cycles (nutrient cycles)
how an element or molecule travels through biotic (living things) and abiotic (earth, air, water) parts of earth
reservoirs may differ: N2 in air, P in soil
closed system: C N O P
open system: energy, e.g. photosynthesis
cycles:
carbon
nitrogen
oxygen
phosphorus
water
also mercury and atrazine (herbicide)

GM crops
genetic engineering vs. selective breeding or mutation breeding
concerns: ecological, economic (LDC) and IP rights (see Monsanto)
uses restriction enzymes to ID and isolate genes
inserted using gene gun (plasmid) or agrobacterium

GMO
insertion or deletion of genes
recombinant DNA, transgenic organisms
if no DNA from other species, cisgenic (cis vs trans)
lentiviruses-can transfer genes to animal cells
Genentech-Berkeley 1978, created human insulin from E. Coli (vs. cow or pig insulin)

pesticides-
biological, chemical, antimicrobial, disinfectant
pests: pathogens, insects, weeds, mullosks, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes and microbes
any food competitor or spoiler, also disease vectors
herbicides-glyphosate (roundup)
insecticides-HCl, carbamates, pyrethrins, etc.
green fungicides-paldoxins
EPA regulates
banned: carcinogenic, mutagenic or bioaccumulators
see also NRDC

pesticide laws-
Federal insecticide act-1910
Federal insecticide, fungicide and rodenticide act (FIFRA)-1947 then 1972, 1988
1947-ag dept
1972-EPA
3 categories: antimicrobials, biopesticides, conventional

forest management-
silviculture, protection and regulation
conservation and economic concerns
watershed management included
see also FSC 1993, forest stewardship council

applied ecology-
conservation biology, ecology, habitat management
invasive species management
rangeland management
restoration ecology

land management-
habitat conservation
sustainable ag
urban planning

sustainable ag-
environmental stewardship
farm profitability
farming communities
e.g. ability to produce food indefinitely, without causing damage to ecosystem health
see also erosion, irrigation/salinization, crop rotation
see also landraces, e.g. prairie grasses

mining laws-
SMCRA
surface mining control and reclamation act (1977)
1. regulates active coal mines
2. reclamation of abandoned mines
dept of interior admin
response to strip mining (1930+)
SMCRA
regulation:
1. standards of performance
2. permitting
3. bonding
4. inspection/enforcement
5. land restrictions
compare to 1945 strip mining practices

Fisheries laws-
monitor and protect fisheries resources
overfishing conference 1936
1957: Beverton and Holt did study on fish dynamics
goals:
1. max sustainable biomass yield
2. max sust. econ yield
3. secure employment
4. secure protein supply
5. income from export
6. bio and economic yield
UNCLOS-UN convention on law of the sea
EEZ-exclusive economic zones
12 mi = coastal sovereignty
200 mi = fishing restrictions
2004-UN made stricter laws on fisheries mgt.
1995 code of conduct for responsible fisheries
quotas, taxation, enforcement (USCG)


tragedy of the commons-
1968 Science article-Garrett Hardin
individual benefit, common damage
strict management of global common goods
see also overgrazing, pollution, privatization
"a fundamental extension of morality"

ozone depletion-
stratospheric ozone depletion
4% since 1970
ozone hole over antarctica
catalytic destruction of ozone by chlorine and bromine
halogen compounds CFCs (freons) and bromofluorocarbons (halons)
ODS ozone depleting substances
ozone blocks UVB 270-315 nm
Montreal protocol 1987 banned CFCs
O + O3 --> 2O2 (transparent)
Cl + O3 -->ClO + O2
ClO + O3 -->Cl + 2O2
effects:
1. ++ carcinomas
2. melanomas
3. cataracts
4. ++ tropospheric ozone (toxic)
5. kills cyanobacteria (rice nitrogen fixers)

Water quality:
WQI is a composite of many qualities (see below)
BOD is a measure of the oxygen demand to decompose organic materials
BOD measures the rate of oxygen uptake by micro-organisms in a sample of water at a temperature of 20°C and over an elapsed period of five days in the dark.
The following is a list of indicators often measured by situational category:
Drinking water
▪ Alkalinity
▪ Color of water
▪ pH
▪ Taste and odor (geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), etc)
▪ Dissolved metals and salts (sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, manganese, magnesium)
▪ Microorganisms such as fecal coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli), Cryptosporidium, and Giardia lamblia
▪ Dissolved metals and metalloids (lead, mercury, arsenic, etc.)
▪ Dissolved organics: colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon
▪ Radon
▪ Heavy metals
▪ Pharmaceuticals
▪ Hormone analogs
Environmental
Chemical assessment
▪ Conductivity (also see salinity)
▪ Dissolved Oxygen
▪ nitrate-N
▪ orthophosphates
▪ Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
▪ Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
▪ Pesticides
Physical assessment
▪ pH
▪ Temperature
▪ Total suspended solids (TSS)
▪ Turbidity

Electrical power numbers:
1 Watt
1000 Watts = 1 kW
These measure rate of energy use (this is called power)
energy use: power x time
kW x hours or kWh
example: 1 kWh is a 500 Watt device used for 2 hours
MWh is a megawatt hour
power plants are often rated in MW rating, or GW rating (gigawatt, or 1000 MW)

LD50 is the measure of toxicity that kills 50% of the population after 2 weeks
The LD50 is usually expressed as the mass of substance administered per unit mass of test subject, such as grams of substance per kilogram of body mass.
As a measure of toxicity, LD50 is somewhat unreliable and results may vary greatly between testing facilities due to factors such as the genetic characteristics of the sample population, animal species tested, environmental factors and mode of administration.[3] Another weakness is that it measures acute toxicity only (as opposed to chronic toxicity at lower doses), and does not take into account toxic effects that do not result in death but are nonetheless serious (e.g. brain damage). There can be wide variability between species as well; what is relatively safe for rats may very well be extremely toxic for humans, and vice versa. In other words, a relatively high LD50 does not necessarily mean a substance is harmless, but a very low one is always a cause for concern.

3 laws of thermodynamics:
1. you cannot win (no process can be more than 100% efficient)
2. you cannot break even (no process can be even 100% efficient)
3. you cannot get out of the game (entropy or disorder tends to increase in spontaneous processes)
See also Gibbs free energy: ∆G = ∆H - T∆S or "goldfish are hell without tartar sauce"

ENSO: el nine southern oscillation
coriolis effect: recall hurricane iniki
aquifer: have an example ready for the depletion/pollution and describe recharge rate
main soil types, main rock types, geological basics (eras etc.)
climate shifts: how do these effect migration and location of animals? Why not plants?
fertility rates, doubling times (rule of 70), demographic transitions, age-structure diagrams
nutritional requirements
sustainable ag (see above)
urban sprawl: define. How has the auto made this possible?
urban heat island effect: define
ore concentration curves
CAFE standards-definition, impact, exceptions

Please also check out the entry from one year ago, 5.5.09 below, particularly the apx folder. We'll review in class Friday.

See you all Friday
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
We're in the home stretch and I appreciate you have lots of material to cover this week. To make this more efficient, I've collected practice materials in a folder here:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/apes_exam_prep/

Please start with the folder labeled "critical readme", which contains a summary document I'll be editing and adding to over the next few days. Check it out daily, as I'll be giving you what I think you'll need to cover or review that we might not have covered.

There are several other folders:
AP central stuff is material from the folks who created the exam

Barron's reviews includes both timed simulation exams and other more standard formats

Princeton is the Cracking the AP review folder

AP review course is a curriculum developed by an instructor. Good browsing to see if you need to review anything.

Labs AP is a folder with labs you should review, particularly if the topic in the lab is unfamiliar to you.

I'll post more here later Sunday 5.2.2010, so please check in frequently.

Here is one of your last assignments for credit:

Find and read these articles on Wikipedia:

Superfund:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superfund
RCRA:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RCRA
Clean Air Act:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clean_air_act
Federal Water Pollution Control Act:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Water_Pollution_Control_Act
National Environmental policy act:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Environmental_Policy_Act

And answer the following questions:

1. CERCLA stands for what?
2. What happened at Love canal?
3. How was CERCLA expanded in 1986?
4. How is the SuperFund funded now?
5. What two kinds of response actions are outlined in the CERCLA?
6. Who are the "potential responsible parties" under CERCLA?
7. What is the NCP revision, and how does it impact polluters?
8. What is the NPL and what is it's role?
9. What does RCRA stand for?
10. Why is it an improvement on the 1965 law on solid waste?
11. Explain "cradle to grave" requirements and give an example.
12. What is a TSDF, and how does it manage hazardous waste?
13. What is a "whistleblower" and how are they provided for in the RCRA?
14. What are the corporate arguments against the clean air act?
15. Describe the 1955, 1963, 1967, 1970, 1977 and 1990 acts and cite a common theme and opponent.
16. What was new in the 1990 law that may affect third world nations?
17. Last week the EPA made news regarding CO2 emissions and the clean air act. What happened?
18. What is the CWA, and how is it enforced?
19. What are navigable waters, and how are they defined?
20. How does the CWA treat point sources? Give at least two examples.
21. How is this different for non-point sources?
22. What is different with the WQA of 1987?
23. Explain the NEPA act of 1970, and its impact.
24. What happened off the coast of Santa Barbara in 1969 (also the year of Woodstock, and several assassinations), and how is it relevant today, March 2, 2010?
25. What is an EIS, and are they required today?
26. How does an EIS differ from an EA?

aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
We're closing in on the end of our material, and need to wrap up pollution and global climate change this week, beginning risk assessment by Friday.
Here's what we need to cover:
Monday: you read chapters 9 and 11, so we can review in class. Some questions for credit in class.
Tuesday: we finish chapter 9 on pollution in class, begin work on ch 11 (climate change)
Wednesday: short class-ch 11
Friday: chapter 11, questions for credit.
Work for the week: both AP exams in this folder:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/apes_barrons/2010_edition/

Please take your time with these, and record anything you feel we need to review.
More here soon, this is a really good finish to a strong year...
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team:
Here is our plan for the rest of the year:

4.20 T Chapters 9 and 11 in Barron's: Pollution and global climate change
4.21 W Pollution
4.23 F Climate change/Ozone issues

4.27 T Health issues/regulations
4.28 W chapter 10
4.30 F Chapter 10

5.4 T review/practice exam diagnostics
5.5 W review/diagnostics
5.7 F all-of-the-missing-pieces-that-will-get-you-a-five

5.11 Tuesday AP exam 8 AM. Be there or be flabby.

So...
For tomorrow (Tuesday) please read all of chapter 9 in the Barron's text, so we may all be experts in pollution by the end of class.

Easter Egg: Find and listen to the song "we didn't start the fire" by Billy Joel.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jR-A4QFHZBA
What is the line following "AIDS, Crack, Bernie Goetz"? Why is this important?
Hint: see the section on solid waste in chapter 9...


As always, should you or any of your IM force be caught, the secretary will disavow any knowledge of your mission...

aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please complete and email the following to me before class on Tuesday:

APES Air questions

1. Describe the major levels of the atmosphere, with a description of the temperature in each level and why the temperature profile changes with altitude.

2. Describe the four "criteria pollutants" and where you might find them, why each is hazardous, and why these stand out over the other thousands of air pollutants.

3. Describe the four major greenhouse gases, including how they are formed, how long they last, and if there is any connection between these and human activity.

4. As the climate crisis progresses, eventually the permafrost will begin to melt. Why is this an example of positive feedback?

5. PM refers to particulate matter. Why is this specification based on particle size, and which sizes are the most hazardous?

6. Describe the flow of air on the planet, including the convection zones. Explain how this creates high and low pressure areas on the surface.

7. What is the albedo of the earth, and how does this interact with climate change?

8. The Coriolis effect is often poorly understood. In your own words, explain the rotation of a hurricane approaching Hawaii from the southeast.

9. Is the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) an air event, a sea event, a global event, or all three? Explain.

10. Many people believe that the ozone layer is involved in global warming. How can you distinguish between these two? What is the main impact of a thinner ozone layer, and what might cause this?

APES Footprint questions

1. Explain why the data you were given ends several years ago

2. What is the nature of your country: industrial, rural, etc. and how developed is your country?

3. Describe the ratio of biocapacity to footprint for your country. Calculate this number for each year in your graph, and express it as a ratio: greater than 1.0 is good, less than 1.0 is not so good.

4. Create a graph of your new ratio data, in the same range as your data graph. You can use excel or any other simple graphing app.

5. How do you explain the trends in your ratio graph? What events or changes in the slope might be significant?

6. Next, look at the breakdown of farmlands, carbon and so on, and relate these changes to your ratio graph. What correlations do you notice?

7. What changes would you make in the management of this country, either in resource management or in footprint?

8. Ok, now that you have a good picture of your country, as leader, what is the ideal compromise value that would keep the ratio over 1.0?

Quote for today:

In November of 2009 it was reported that 16 ships create as much pollution as all the cars in the world.

Please read for class Tuesday (these are long, ignore the comments section on the first reading, and browse the second one):

http://energylab.hpa.edu/readings/The%20Oil%20Drum%20%7c%20Herman%20Daly:%20Towards%20A%20Steady-State%20Economy.pdf

http://energylab.hpa.edu/readings/the-emperors-new-car.pdf


Posted by:

Team,
Please check out this folder on the energylab server:

http://energylab.hpa.edu/Openhagen/assignment_2/

There are two papers in this folder you can use to prepare for our VTC on Friday

Let me know if you have any problems retrieving these.

Please also turn in any missing work by Friday, and the RQ set for chapter 16 on air by Sunday night at 9 PM.

As always, let me know if I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please check out this folder on the energylab server:

http://energylab.hpa.edu/Openhagen/assignment_2/

There are two papers in this folder you can use to prepare for our VTC on Friday

Let me know if you have any problems retrieving these.

Please also turn in any missing work by Friday, and the RQ set for chapter 16 on air by Sunday night at 9 PM.

As always, let me know if I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please listen to this interview so we can discuss Tuesday:

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125533464&sc=emaf

Please make sure you have the following emailed to me by Monday night, 9PM (2100 for our future Scots):
Barron's questions, chapter 3 on water
Textbook chapter 15 on water, RQ
Please also go to this folder:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/units/apes-unit-water/labs/

and look over the four labs there: 11, 12, 13 and 14. I'd like you to complete 11 by Monday night, and read 12 for class Tuesday. We'll make 13 and 14 due Thursday of that week, if you'd like to work ahead. This should get us up to speed on water use, while we are covering atmospheres in class.

Remember there are great resources in the folder below:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/units/apes-unit-water/

Please also make sure you have read chapter 2 in the Barron's review on atmospheres for class on Tuesday.

We should then have plenty of great scores to boost your grade by the mid quarter next week. I'll make sure you get credit for your work on the GFN as well, so don't think it's just for fun...

Speaking of GFN, here is the second assignment:

http://energylab.hpa.edu/Openhagen/Assignment%20%232.pdf

And in the same folder there is supporting data (though some of you clever grasshoppers have noticed that some of the answers are in the folder already...)

http://energylab.hpa.edu/Openhagen/?C=M;O=D

Let me know your thoughts, and if you have questions, either email me, elabassistant@hpa.edu or the folks at GFN.

Have a great time at the promenade, or at the final four games, or both.

Check here over the weeked for more updates.
As always, let me know if I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
We'll begin this week with a wrap-up of our unit on water, then begin our work on air and the atmosphere.
While we're having all of this fun, we'll be involved in a very exciting Openhagen workshop.
Here are some notes on this from our first meeting today (Tuesday) with the team on Maui and San Francisco:

As a reminder, here’s the official student assignment before the first VTC on Thursday:

Student homework before first webinar
· Watch Ecological Footprint DVD
· Read this short piece on the Ecological Footprint:
http://www.beyond-gdp.eu/download/bgdp-ve-ef.pdf
· Identify questions, issues needing clarification

Here are some links to the curriculum pieces:

http://energylab.hpa.edu/Openhagen/Footprint%20Futures%20Curriculum%20April%202010.pdf

http://energylab.hpa.edu/Openhagen/Openhagen%20Teacher%20Training%20Part%201.pdf


We'll discuss this all in class, please be sure to go over the assignment I posted over break if you have not already.
See you all Wednesday...
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please go to this folder:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/apes_barrons/practice_exams_2008/

and download the two practice tests (the file is zipped).

Please take the practice tests over break, and check here for notes on water, air and solid waste.

Let me know how I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please read chapter 3 in Barron's and chapter 15 in the textbook. Questions at the end of each chapter will be due Friday. Check here later Sunday for more notes on the chapters and resources I have put together for us this week.
---UPDATE---
Here is the folder with resources for the week:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/units/apes-unit-water/
Check here soon for assignments in this folder, for now, please read through and make yourself familiar with the contents of the wikipedia folder.

aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Here is how I see the next few months winding down to your successful AP exam May 11:
March:
Week one-Soils/Land issues---Barron's 1, 7 Text-12, 13,14
Week two-Water---B3, ES15

spring break: summary readings, some questions, notes on balance of year out

April:
Week one: Water/air, labs on BOD, pollution
Week two: Air---B2, B9, B11, B10 (text chapters as well)
Week three: Pollution, climate crisis, ozone layer, public health-B5 and text
Week four: same

May:
Week one: review
Week two: AP exam success

Let's discuss in class today.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please read chapter 3 in Barron's for Friday. I'll have questions for you by then as well.
Over the weekend, we'll complete chapter 3 on Barron's with questions, and chapter 15 in the textbook, RQ due Monday before class.
Please listen to this interview and let's discuss in class:
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=123950399
Let me know if you have any questions.
aloha
b

Posted by:

From Ms. Lay:

http://www.soe-townsville.org/schools/tshs/tlsf.html

Please read and send me your comments today.

For today, please make sure you have emailed the following to me by the end of class:
1. soil lab, including which tests you performed and why, in standard lab format (see link below for this)
2. all homework you'd like included in this quarter's grade

Reading for the weekend:
Please read chapters 12, 13 and turn in the review questions by Wednesday March 3.
Please then read chapter 14 and turn in RQs by Friday March 5.
We'll be reviewing notes in class as well. This should be a more in-depth coverage of what you just read in chapter 7 on soils.

The template for your lab is here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/labs/labs_ap/lab09_soil_analysis.pdf
please make sure you answer all of the questions.

Email/IM me if you have any questions, I'm on my way to UC Berkeley now.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Please turn these in via email before class on Wednesday:

Land/water use questions:
Agriculture:
How many kg of plant protein are needed to make 1 kg of animal protein?

Look up kwashiorkor

How is china's entry into african erg a form of plantation ag?

What was the impact of Norman Borlaug on the first green revolution?

Why is water metering so important in ag?

What are the structural, nutritional and microbial impacts of sustainable ag?

In your soil lab, you see several qualities of the soil. What is the impact of organic matter on the quality of the soil?

Lookup and compare biomagnification and bioaccumulation.

Find trade names for carbamates, chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphate pesticides, along with their major risk

Lookup the following connections:
1. PCB in salmon
2. EDB in cornmeal
3. Heptachlor in milk
4. 2,4-D in well water

Which of these happened here in Hawaii between 1980 and now?

Laws, pp. 179: compare these with the laws in India. Why was 1972 a watershed year for one of these?

Agent Orange is being stored in Kauai. What is this, and why should we be concerned?

Forestry:
Lookup FSC wood, and explain the goals of this process

Why would a pit and mound forest be good, and what impact did the Hawaiians who cultivated the land near the energy lab have on this system?

Compare crown fires with surface fires.

Who was president in 2003 when the law on pp. 182 was passed? Why is this critical?

Explain why McDonald's making deals with landowners in the 1990's caused deforestation in Brazil.

Biodiversity is a theme running through this chapter-explain why, and how hard it is to recover bd.

Explain Hubbard Brook.

Explain the impact of deforestation in the amazon rain forest.

Re: the laws on pp. 187, why was 1976 such a critical year? What was going on in the US then?

Look up and read at least parts of the tragedy of the commons essay by Garrett Hardin in Science. Why was the year it was written significant?

Rangelands:
Explain how reduced water transit time leads to desertification. What else contributes to this?

Re: laws on pp. 189, why was 1934 such a critical year?

One option in Oklahoma is to replant prairie grasses, then use these as fuel for biodiesel. Why is this a good idea, and why might it not work?

Urban development:

We watched several e2 videos, one on buildings. Tie this in with the statements on pp. 190.

Look up the following: USGBC, LEED, LBC
Explain the impact of the energy lab worldwide in light of these standards.

Look up sick building syndrome. Explain how this bears on the construction of the energy lab.

Every 6 days a city of 150,000 people is built in China, along with one coal fired power plant, which will have a 30 year lifespan. Explain how the energy lab design could impact this urbanization.

Why would urbanization have an impact on infant mortality? What impact?

Transport:
When was the FHS created, who was president, and where was he from 1944-1945? Who did we copy in the design of this system?

Re: laws pp. 193, who was president then?

Lookup a tidal estuary. Define.

Explain Gatun Lake as cited on pp. 194

Explain why roads are evil, and 4WD vehicles are even more evil

Explain the law on pp. 194, and cite the timing of this.

Public Lands:

Explain the timing of the law on pp. 195.

Recently Ken Burns produced a film on the National Parks. Explain why this could have a huge impact on the national parks, as described on pp. 195.

Explain how the FSC policy is related to point 11 on pp.198.

Mining:

Explain the connection between external costs, which we studied last fall, and the issues on pp. 199.

Explain the five types of surface mining.

Lookup the tailing pond leak in Buffalo Creek. What happened, where? Lookup a similar disaster Dec. 23, 2008. What happened, where?

Global reserves:
What portion of our oil use is used for transport?

How many years of energy can we derive from present coal reserves? What would be the impact on global CO2 levels if this happens? What do you think will happen then?

Re: laws pp. 203 why are the two dates cited important?

Fishing:
Is Kona Blue an ok operation? Why and why not?

Explain why eating farmed salmon is hazardous.

Global Economics:
Explain why the World bank is different from the UN.













Posted by:

What were the predominant survivors of the first mass extinction?

Why would Utah be a good place to find these survivors?

What would be the advantage of being "luke-warm" blooded?

How did the first global warming trend change the dinosaurs? Why did this eventually become their downfall?

The Kimberly "stove pipe" means what? How are diamonds formed?

Who discovered the CT (KT) boundary, and what does it signify? When was this? When was it discovered, and how?

How big was the Yucutan meteor? How was it found (look this up on wikipedia)

50 mY ago, the mammals evolved. How did the demise of the dinosaurs make this possible? Science fiction movies often show cavemen fighting dinosaurs-why is this totally bogus?

What is similar about the Alps and the Himalayas, apart from them being mountains? What limits their ultimate altitude?

Mauna Loa is the largest landmass in the world. From the base of Mauna Loa on the 20,000 ft. deep ocean floor to it's top 13,500 ft. above sea level is much higher than Everest (29,000 ft.). How is this possible?

2 mY ago, an ice age again struck. What triggered this? How long did it last?

What makes glaciers flow? Do they flow faster or slower when they are thicker? Why?

Explain the balance between temperature and the progress of glaciers.

Glaciers often leave "unsorted" rocks, called glacial "till". What does this mean? Why would this differ from normal sedimentary sorting?

It is said that our civilization has been a brief, stable warm period. What does this predict for global warming/cooling?

What two oceans/seas will disappear when pangea ultima forms?

Posted by:

Team,
Here's how I'd like to proceed with our study of the earth, soils, and other dirty stuff this week:

Please read chapter 13 in your textbook, on soils. I think it will mesh nicely with our little field trip to the flume, as well as your foray into melting the planet back to MAG-ma (say this like Doctor Evil).

Please also do the review questions in the Barron's text on soils, at the end of the chapter, which should complement chapter 13 in our text.

While all this fun is unfolding, please finish your viewing of the video on how the earth was made. I'll post questions on this Monday night from far, far away.

I should have more fun for you soon, please check here regularly.

Please be nice to Ms. Lay, she likes tea, so you can spoil her that way. Not sure of her position on chocolate or yummy cookies, but it's worth a try.

If you have any questions, please let me know. I'd appreciate an email each day after class to let me know what you personally accomplished (aside from buttering up Ms. Lay).

Most of all, have fun, otherwise what's the point, right?

aloha
b

Posted by:

earth questions

How old is the earth? How old did early church leaders think it was?

Hutton found what rock formation in Scotland was the clue to the real age of the earth?

Kelvin used thermal cooling calculations to determine the age for the earth-how long was this?
Why was he wrong?

What is "deep time"?

What is so special about "pillow lavas"? What is the Hawaiian name for these?

What does Zircon have to do with aging the planet? What do they tell us about the source of water?

Water is neat stuff. Why would the temperature of the earth 4 bY ago accelerate changes?

3.4 bY ago a new type of rock was formed-what is this rock, and how does it fit into the asthenosphere picture of plate tectonics?

South Africa hosts the CapeVal Cretins: what are these? Why are these important? What did these have to do with the beginning of life? Where was life limited to before these?

What are stromatolites, and what did they produce? From what?

Playford found what? What is the impact of what he found?

What caused the change in the color of the oceans? What then happened to the atmosphere? What color was the planet after this?

What is a trilobite, and where are they found? Why are they significant? What did they prove?

What did Wegener believe? How easy was this to prove? When and how was it finally proven?

What does convection have to do with plate tectonics?

Why is Iceland such an ideal place to study plate tectonics?

What was Rodinia? Why did it cause climate change about 700 mY ago? Why is this so critical to understand today?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rodinia

What was the Cambrian Explosion? Why is it important? What did Walcott discover? Where? What is the Burgess Shale Quarry? Why is shale so special in this process?

When did carnivores show up? Why? How did their presence change the evolution of creatures?

What did the ozone shield enable the growth of? Where did the ozone come from?

What formed the carbon in the carboniferous era? What did life look like 60 mY ago? What does this carbon look like today?

What does the freshwater in a swamp enable? Why is this important?

What did dead marine organisms transform into? Why is this important to us?

What caused the first mass extinction? What is a mantle flume eruption?

What was the name of the next supercontinent?







Posted by:

Please read chapter one in Barron's on the earth, and view as much of the earth videos as you can. We may not have time in class to view the entire video, and it will help you immensely in preparation for the earth science questions on the AP.

Where are the videos?
Here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/media/earth/

Let me know if I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please review the chapter 4 exam in the Barron's 2009 edition (see link below), and read the chapter 1 review section on the earth.
Friday, we can go over the biodiversity quiz and begin work on the earth, with videos.
Let me know if I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Please read chapter 4 in this link to the 2009 edition:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/apes_barrons/2009_edition/

We'll discuss in class today.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Chapter 11: Biodiversity
See wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity
Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or for the entire Earth. Biodiversity is often used as a measure of the health of biological systems. The biodiversity found on Earth today consists of many millions of distinct biological species, which is the product of nearly 3.5 billion years of evolution

Tie in wherever possible with global footprint and biocapacity...

Concepts:
extinction
genetic, species, ecosystem BD
values: biovalue, economic, ethical
threats: habitat loss, invasive species, pests/predators, climate change
Fish farm game
simulations: see globalfootprint.org
footprint calculator
trendalyzer
------------
BD: genes, species and ecosystems
lost: pop size low/extinct/modified
"background extinction rate" now 10,000x
developing countries-why? How is this capital depletion?
local vs global extinction
table 11.1
low pop density, small area, special niche, low repro rates
lookup amazon BD impact
are humans losing our BD? what color were folks in Bladerunner?
genetic diversity: mutations, migration/adaptation, reproductive genetics, population size (e.g. appalachia, whales), selective breeding.

species diversity: "richness" taxonomic and others
how diverse are insects? why?
think of eucalyptus trees on the way to Hilo: what do you see?
see fig 11.3: look familiar?
richness: geologic history, migration, size, humans

Ecosystem diversity: look up the big island: how diverse in what land area? Anyone else even close to this? why?

See table 11.3 on estimated value for "ecosystem services"
Why is farmed salmon so dangerous? monoculture?

Major human impact:
1. habitat loss
2. exploitation
3. exotic species introduction
4. predator/pest control
5. climate change

see fig 11.7. look up rate of amazon rainforest depletion in acres per hour.

see the dam article on p 244 as well...
How does FSC wood prevent clearcutting?
check them out:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forest_Stewardship_Council

rangeland to grazing: which is more diverse?
fig 11.11: look familiar?

Look up KonaBlue here in Kona. What do they do, and why are they facing some opposition? Who owns the company? Ring any bells?
You might also look up Kona Kampachi-interesting story.

look up the zebra mussel story: how did this happen?
look up cowbirds-is this a symbiotic relationship or something else?

Your generation may be the last to see Polar bears in the wild. Forever. Explain.

why do you think Oklahoma is looking into repopulating the prairie in the native prairie grass, possibly then used as a biofuel in the Fischer-Tropsch process?

Millenium declaration may be on the AP. Good idea to review it.

In the "Poisoned Waters" Frontline video we saw, they mentioned something about BD in Chesapeake bay: what was it?

What is the impact of letting a species get very low in population (like the 17 condors in 1986) on their gene pool? why?
Once you get the population to recover (if you can) what is much harder to recover? Any solution for this?

TED videos to watch:
jonathan drori
nalini nadkarni

Dudes to google:
Jorgen Randers-possible speaker at our grand opening. Very wise move to get to know him and his books...

Let me know how I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Folks,
I'd like us to follow dual paths this semester: the text and the flow of Biodiversity, land, soil, water and air issues, while keeping the global biocapacity thread active, with your participation in the global footprint work we started yesterday with Mathis.
So, while we get our ducks in a row with Mathis, let's begin with biodiversity:
First, have a look at this definition:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity
Then, read chapter 11, leading up to the online practice test for the chapter, which I'll post over the weekend.
By next week, you should have enough of an enlightenment on this that you'll understand why Eqypt has such a bad graph...
Since we have a nice, new lab to do lab experiments in, I'd like to move quickly into soils, so we can learn why the soils in the area are so special, among other things.
Let me know if you have any questions.
Due dates:
Friday 1.8.10: discuss readings on wikipedia and chapter 11, read chapter 11
Tuesday 1.12.10: finish discussion on chapter 11 in your text, some videos
Thursday, 1.14.10: quiz on chapter 11 due.

Somewhere in here I'd like to go over your midterm exam, but I'd like to get the curriculum rolling before I start doing more A.D.D. things to you folks.
aloha
b

Posted by:

http://www.theoildrum.com/node/6094?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+theoildrum+%28The+Oil+Drum%29

there is an iTunes link at the bottom:

http://itunes.apple.com/WebObjects/MZStore.woa/wa/browserRedirect?url=itms%253A%252F%252Fitunes.apple.com%252FWebObjects%252FMZStore.woa%252Fwa%252FviewPodcast%253Fid%253D336366164



This man may be our speaker at the April opening of the energy lab, which you will be part of. More soon.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Folks,
Here are the chapters I think we have covered in our class that you might want to look over in the Cracking the AP book (Prentice Hall), and the Green Barron's book:

CtAP:
4-ecosystems
5-population
7-energy
8-pollution (partial)
9-sustainability

Barron's:
4-ecosystems
5-cycles
6-populations
8-energy
9-populations (partial)
11-global warming

If I can get the AP achiever text scanned, there are 4 chapters in there that apply:
1-principles
2-population
3-biodiversity
5-issues/policy

Here is a list of the chapters in our textbook that we have covered:
1-relationships
2-ethics
3-risk assessment
4-matter and energy
5-environments
6-ecosystems
7-populations
8-energy-consumption
9-energy-sources
10-energy-nuclear

coming up next semester:
11-biodiversity
12-land use
13-soil
14-agriculture
15-water
16-air
17-solid waste
18-hazardous materials (hazmat)
19-policy and laws

You may notice that we have covered quite a bit in our first semester, and that our second semester will involve several involved labs, such as soil analysis, water analysis, BOD (biological oxygen demand), air quality analysis, solid waste decomposition, fertilizer analysis and earth systems (weather, earth science, oceanography).
Loads of fun next semester, I'm really looking forward to it. We will have readings over break to get you up to speed, keep checking here for new materials.

Check here for exam updates over the weekend...
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Several of you were gone last week, so we'll begin Tuesday with a round-up of the notes on nuclear energy. If you were absent, it is your duty to get notes from one of your classmates before we meet Tuesday.
In class, we'll continue our discussion of chapter 10, bringing to closure our study of energy. Please complete the RQ and online test for chapter 10 before class on Friday, so you can devote your weekend to studying for your other exams as well as this one.
I'll also have some questions on the first few chapters of "Our Choice" this week, so check here for updates.
We may have time in class to finish the video "Heat", if not, you should have it on your iPods, so please make a point of watching this by Wednesday, so we can discuss in class. If you have not yet turned in your questions on Heat, see my previous post on this, I'll need this by Wednesday, before class.
My goal is to have all non-exam work done by Friday, before class, so you are not juggling too many balls next weekend.
Next week, we can spend time reviewing for the semester exam. My goal is to assemble a realistic AP exam experience for you, based on the material we have covered this semester. This may involve questions from several exams, and should give you a fair assessment of how you would do on the real exam in May. The exam will be graded the same as the May exam, with your score based on:
answers correct -1/4 answers wrong = your score
I'm sure you've seen this in your other AP courses as well.
Let me know how I can help, check here for updates.
aloha
b
---UPDATE #1-----
Please check your grades online.

Posted by:

Please also see the update below on the HEAT video:

Chapter 10: Nuclear Energy
Three cases: nuclear medicine, nuclear power, nuclear weapons
review half lives-see 10.1 table
n.b. some are more dangerous (e.g. Sr90) bc absorbed into specific areas of the body (bones, thyroid for I131)
Half lives: see chart-is it ever gone?
3 decay modes, 4 types of radiation:
alpha: He nuclei, slow, big, lots of charge, stopped by skin
danger: if internal e.g. lungs

beta: fast electron, fast, small, charged, stopped by Al foil
danger: internal ingestion, or close by (goes through skin)

gamma: massless photon (this gets complicated), passes through lead, concrete, very dangerous, ionizing radiation, bad outside or inside the body

---neutron radiation---
no charge, has same mass as proton, punches holes in tissues, no charge so no ionization but very hazardous, goes through more than gammas
Often released near power plants, nuclear explosions. Causes steel embrittlement.

See Daughter element chart 10.3

n.b. absorbed dose= energy absorbed by matter (rads or grays)
alphas cause 20x damage, so new metric is dose equivalent=dosexquality factor:
rems or sieverts
beta, gamma=1.0
alpha=20
t.f. dose equivalent for alpha is 20x absorbed dose

ionizing radiation: X-rays up to cosmic rays, see table 10.3-very important
think of firemen at Chernobyl, all of them died except one-look up on WP

What is the benefit in evolution of cosmic rays?

Protection: clothes for dust, shields for alpha/beta, badges for past exposure-why?
reason: decrease future dose.

Chernobyl again: workers could run in to dump boron sand on the fire ONCE in their lifetime. Many perished later on...

We learned a great deal about nuclear exposure from this disaster. Others as well, look up Idaho nuclear accident on WP.

Fission vs. fusion: if you are dealing with heavy things splitting into smaller things, you are studying fission (uranium, plutonium etc.)
If you are dealing with H and He, you are studying fusion.

Thermonuclear weapons are fusion bombs triggered by the heat released by fission bombs wrapped around them.

Chain reaction: fission works because 1 neutron enters, 3 are released. If 2 are captured by moderator (water, graphite, Beryllium) then the reaction has a 1.0 rate and is sustainable. More than 1.0 is runaway (e.g. bomb). Less than 1.0 is decay to stop.

U235 is 0.7% of natural Uranium. The rest (99.3%) is U238, non-fissionable.
Iranians have been making gas centrifuges-YIKES! Why?
Look up maraging steel on WP. Iran has been importing it. Oh no...

Reactor types:
BWR: boiling water reactor: single loop of coolant over core, 20% of total
PWR: pressurized water reactor: two loops, one toxic, the other runs through a heat exchanger, 60% of total
HWR: heavy water reactor: uses deuterium as the coolant, absorbs neutrons better.10% of total
GCR: gas cooled reactor: pebble bed reactor, see video on e2, coal and nuclear.

Others:
Breeder reactor: takes low grade U238 and bombards it with neutrons, making Plutonium 239, a bomb fuel. Oh no...

Fusion: 1,000,000 °C, high temperatures, must be contained by a magnetic field. All of these are tough to do, except at the core of the sun.
Hydrogen turns to Helium and so on...

See the mining to tailings issue-n.b. many of these tailings were included in cinder blocks in Colorado in the 80's.

See also the cesium-137 incident in Brazil-stolen from a hospital:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goiania_incident

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radioactive_scrap_metal

Reactor safety: three mile island
March 1979, PA
No one killed, lots of people irradiated
Operator error
What we learned? Cost of nuclear plant decomissioning, dangers of scaling up a small design without changes (submarine reactors into power plants)-why are these different?

Chernobyl: 1986 Ukraine Pripyat
4.5 seconds, 2000x, explosion, never told the firemen the fire was radioactive
Russians lied about the incident, we saw it in satellite photos, radiactivity spread all over europe, eventually triggered radioactivity alarms in Sweden, 2000 miles away.
I 131 given to kids all over europe.
37 fatalities: firemen
500 hospitalized, 24,000 high radiation doses.
Many, many more will perish from long term exposure.
Top 12 feet of soil for 60 miles around was removed and buried in Siberia.

Terrorism: dirty bombs
wast disposal: Yucca flats
thermal pollution

See p 231: Pu is the most toxic substance known to man





Posted by:

Team,
Please complete chapter 9 RQ and online quiz by Friday. We'll be working on two parallel streams until our Semester one exam in December:
Our Choice (from our scanned sources), please read the intro (gore00) and the first chapter for our class next Tuesday.
Chapter 10: Nuclear Energy in the textbook.
My goal is to complete chapter 10 before exams.
I appreciate that your time will be sucked into the black hole that is review week starting after our break next week, so I'll do my best to make sure your assignments are posted far in advance.
Check here for updates.
--UPDATE--
Please view the HEAT video over the weekend, and complete these questions on global warming before Wednesday.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/teach/heat/discussion.html

I'd like to unload your Thanksgiving break as much as possible. More soon.
Let me know how I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

chapter 9 notes-energy
From the lab:
kWh is a unit of energy, bc Watts are a unit of power (work/time), so need to multiply kW by time (hours) to get energy

we found: you can measure current (i) with a clamp on meter
most applicances are either 120 Vac or 220 Vac, 60 Hz (cycles per second)

ohms law: V=iR volts = current(amps) x resistance (ohms)
Using ohmmeters, we can measure resistance, and calculate current.

Also useful: Power = V2/R

Joule's law: P = iV (also known as "pie" formula: P=iE)

Again, power is in watts, i is in amperes (amps) and voltage is in volts.

we calculated power of the hot water heater, about 900 watts
we calculated power of the 220 Vac air conditioner to be 8.8 amps at 220 volts, or 2000 watts.

biggest expenses in homes are "vampire loads", on 24/7
not large, but the time factor makes them costly

cost: electrical energy in Hawaii is about $0.35/kWh, highest in the nation
CA is about 7, Oregon is about 5.

To calculate cost, multiply amount of kW by number of hours (recall that 720 hours are in a month)
so, kWh x $0.35/kWh gives you dollars

We also measured light output at 50 cm (0.5m) for a 45 watt incandescent light bulb and a compact fluorescent bulb (CFL)
The incand. bulb emitted 220 lux at 50 cm, and consumed 45 watts
the cfl emitted 450 lux at 50 cm and consumed 13 watts

recall the lux per watt of power numbers, the cfl came out about 6x more efficient.

--------
text notes:

1900-2007:
world energy 16x, economy 70x, population only 4x
why?
80% fossil fuels: all ultimately stored solar energy
fossil: nonrenewable
renewable: in this lifetime, perpetual
resources: all that is out there
reserves: all that can be extracted economically
resources-stay constant
reserves-increase as technology enables access, decreases with use.
Q infinity
Pennsylvania in 1859: oil discovered in PA
Coal: from freshwater swamps 300 my ago, covered with water, so anaerobic decay (e.g. peat bogs)
sediment wt. compressed to peat, lignite, subbitunimous coal, bituminous and anthracite.
n.b. relative carbon content increases as organics decompose, lose H and O molecules (plants were CHO, coal is just C)
US and china have lots of coal reserves...
global warming issues, railroads as transport,
question: what did T Boone Pickens buy on Friday, 11.6.2009? Why?

Oil/natural gas:
marine organisms, ocean bottom, decay released oils into muddy sediments->shale (see oil shales in Canada)
IFF sandstone on top of shale, (oil sands, see Colorado), oil will pass through sands.
IFF cap rock, it will trap oil in domes:
gas-oil-water
"gushers" are not the real way, usually gas first-very dangerous, some emit H2S gas-very toxic (indonesia)
middle east has 60% of oil reserves, but they have reached "peak oil"
We need to discuss this-it is very important-----

80% world energy is non-renewable-heading for a crash
coal 25%, oil 36%, gas 21%
n.b. could trains transport gas? what method is used in the US to move most of our coal? why? what has been in the news in the past week? notice any connections?

Coal: more
lignite-brown coal, all that is left in UK, lots of water, low energy content, usually burned near the mine for energy
SB coal-used for power plants
BT coal-used for power, cement, steel
anthracite-bldg heating (cleanest)

surface mining-strip mining, leaves tailings (see mine disaster of 2008 in US)
IFF overburden too thick (>100m) then mining needed
drift or vertical shaft mines
silicosis-black lung disease: external cost of mining (we pay the health care of miners)

Issues: land damage, toxic runoff (see butte, MT), dust, acid deposition, CO2 (coal is worst of oil/gas/coal for CO2 per kWh gained)

Oil: benefits: easier to extract, more concentrated energy, burns cleaner, can be moved through pipes (no trucks or trains needed).
found: land or ocean floor, harder to find today
primary recovery vs. secondary recovery (water injection), tertiary (steam)-see tar sands and oil shale issues
Processing: see 9.14





transport issues: exxon valdez, others (france:amoco cadiz, santa barbara)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_spills

p.195: ANWR-which option is sustainable?

Natural Gas:
21% of global energy
extracted like oil, uses air for secondary extraction.
transported as LNG
cleanest burning, least env impact, safest, cleanest burning, most kWh per CO2
Also: CH4 used to form NH4 fertilizers (thanks again, Dr. Haber)

Renewable energy---------
fossil fuels: 80% global use
nuclear: 6%
energy use: 2% per year, present doubling time is 20 years, as supplies are constant or decrease as demand increases, renewables become more profitable
12% of global energy:
biomass, hydro, wind, solar, geothermal, tidal
biomass (e.g. wood) mostly in UD countries
biomass: fuel wood, solid waste (Hpower plant)
bagasse (Maui land and sugar), and ethanol (e.g. corn, or sugar cane-Brazil)

energy from biomass:
burning; wood stoves, co-gen (combined heat and electricity generation system)
biofuels: ethanol, biodiesel
E85 is 85% ethanol

biodiesel: palm, rapeseed, soy, jetropha, 36% of global BD produced in DDR

biogas: anaerobic bacterial digestion-methane and CO2
see also landfills (e.g. kailua, oahu)

pyrolysis: fischer-tropsch process-syngas process

issues: competition with food crops, habitat loss,biodiversity loss, global warming, air pollution (leading cause of lung cancers in LD countries)

hydropower:
high "head" means deep dam, with thermoclines, habitat disruption (cool water pollution), sedimentation, limited dam lifespan. See logarithmic backflow curve.

low "head" systems like Aswan dam in Egypt, three gorges dam in China (look this up) 22,500 mW !
minihydro: less than 10 mW
microhydro: less than 1 mW
can be diverse, lower impact, decrease transit losses

issues: flooding of back lands (see china)
The construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China inundated 153 towns and 4500 villages and caused the displacement of over a million people. In addition, numerous archeological sites were submerged and the nature of the scenic canyons of the Three Gorges was changed.

fish ladders, silt fertilization, inorganic mercury -> organic mercury, bioaccumulation.

Solar energy--------
ultimate answer-
issues: only available in daytime-so must store energy
intermittent and diffuse (e.g. oceans)
ocean thermal energy conversion: OTEC Keahole
1. passive solar/solar thermal
2. active solar-pumped solar thermal
3. PV

passive: trombe walls: energy lab is essentially a liquid trombe wall in reverse
sunspaces are like the spaces in the ladakh school (see e2 video on this)



design of windows and floors to absorb heat from day to warm in night is another
see "daylighting" or smart skylights...
n.b. passive systems require no external energy to collect
another example: solahart passive convective solar thermal energy collector systems

Active solar: contrast this with solahart-need a pump (can be PV powered) to run solar thermal system
can be simple or complex (varied pump speeds with radiation, optimized ∆t, etc.)

coolant can be the substance used (e.g. hot water) or something else (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol)-these are also used for geothermal well cooling heating systems.

some systems are testing hot oil to 300°C, stored for later use, e.g. spain project, Keahole project, mojave desert project.

Solar Electric plants
two types: PV (direct) and solar thermal to steam (STS)

PV systems: crystalline silicon is expensive (see solar film video), but direct kWh from sunlight, no moving parts, 30 year lifespan, no maintenance (cleaning only)

Solar furnace: heats oil or other storage medium to 390°C (e.g. SEGS and Segovia plant in Spain)

see also solar stills for water desalinization and purification in LD countries

PV now at $0.20 per kWh (more than US, less than Hawaii-we are past the profit point on this)
efficiency: now at 15%, soon to be 40% (sanyo bifacials are 20% at elab)

18x increase in 20 years

Wind-----essentially solar energy working through convection
Hadley, Ferrel, and polar cells-see the weather this week
cell circulation allows for the transfer of heat from hot earth to cool space
Issues: variable, site specific, usually far from urban centers (high demand)-if there were a means to transfer the energy without loss...
Hydrogen power?
Europe leads wind power
concerns: birds (myth, except at Altamont pass), unsightly (true) latest plan: site them offshore cape cod in Mass.
people are NOT happy about it
map 9.29 is bogus, we are class 7 in Waimea
two types of turbines, VAWT and HAWT-why is each suited for specific uses?
noise, pressure waves also...


Geothermal---
What is it? heat close to the surface: hot rocks, or steam from water percolating down into hot rocks. MAG-MA (important: say in voice of professor Evil)
CA leads in geothermal, HI also (here on BI, puna geothermal ventures)
see also NZ (Rotorua) and iceland (everywhere) 50% for heating, 50% for electricity-also being seen as hydrogen fuel site-see car talk video:



Who else do you know who has "vast energy resources and a very small population"?
Ring any bells?

see also closed loop systems: uses a coolant solution, very hot pipes, but no toxic gases released (an issue in Puna)
Hydrogen sulfide gas is very nasty-turns to sulfuric acid in the lungs, toxic to fish, etc. etc.
See also pyrolysis of water at high temperatures, perhaps even on your roof (one future elab project)

Tidal/current---
Solar energy of another sort: the sun's gravity allows us to orbit, with the momentum from our inital explosion that formed the solar system ca. 5 by ago. Moon is also orbiting-us. As the moon passes overhead, its gravity attracts everything (very small rocks, cider, mud, churches, a duck) including MAG-MA, continental plates, you, and the oceans.
As these bulges in water recede, they form currents and tides (not the same: tides ebb and flow, currents are relatively constant-see the alenuihaha channel between Maui and Hawai'i)
One can harness these currents and tides for power, as they are essentially very small head (∆h) hydroelectric projects, except current energy, which has less to do with relative height than with global movement of water.
5 meters of ∆h needed to make tidal worthwhile. About 5 mph (2 m/s) needed to make current profitable, Hawaii has 12-20 mph current in the channel (google the UH ship Holo Holo, lost at sea, about 1977. I knew some of these guys, the oceantech guy who visited HPA last month worked with them)
issues: technical-biofouling, damage, corrosion.

Conservation---
Not sexy, but dollar for dollar, 4x more efficient than installing new wind or PV.
Like filling a bathtub while leaving the drain open.
idea: find out what energy-star means on an appliance
CFL bulbs-issues: mercury
see also small scale cogen plants (lichtblick)
http://www.reuters.com/article/GCA-GreenBusiness/idUSTRE5883E520090909

Storage methods:
Fuel cells-just like in Apollo 13
+ no pollution
- 40% efficient
Can one make hydrogen non-flammable? No, but we can make it less explosive (lithium hydride canisters)

PSH pumped storage hydro (one reason the energy lab is sited where it is)





Posted by:

Yay! lab day!
Today: a short primer on electrical power
Things we will learn:
what is a watt?
kilo, mega, giga-what does it all mean?
which costs more: a 60 watt bulb left on for 1000 hours, or a 1000 watt iron left on for 60 hours?
how HELCO measures what they charge you
hands-on: tackling kW and kWh with meters
more hands-on: measuring the power used by a 220 v device

I'd like to include this minilab in your midquarter reports, let's see if we can do this all tomorrow with a discussion you can email me over the weekend for even more lab points.

Sound good?
See you all in the morning.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Here is our outline for this week, until Tuesday, Nov. 10:

Please complete these questions, without notes or book, and email your answers to me. I'll email back a key with answers for you, so you will know how well you did.

APES AP exam questions-population

AP exam 1:
11-15,39,49,50,51,64,68,71,77,96
AP exam 2:
1-5,32,37,38,39,40,44,50-52,59,79,81,86,96
FR 2 and FR4

Here are my notes on chapter 8, energy: patterns of consumption:

ch 8 notes-energy patterns of consumption

sun->photosynthesis is main course of terrestrial energy
civilization: agriculture, domesticated animals, wood for cooking/shelter
industrial revolution: coal (was for heating, hard to mine)
Ind. rev: more coal (mining devices), steam heat/power-began in UK
good points: portable, can be industrially concentrated (e.g. mined), used for many purposes (heat, steam-> kWh, syngas, plastics)

n.b. fig 8.4-note trends from renewable (wood) to limited (fossil fuels)
natural gas-easy to gather (surface wells), easy to process, store
nat gas 23% of US energy
n.b. T. Boone Pickens' energy plan (look up on wikipedia)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T_boone_pickens#The_Pickens_Plan

biomass: renewable, but low energy density
How to concentrate? See BTL, Fischer-Tropsch process:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomass_to_liquid
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fischer_Tropsch
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel
Portals:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Energy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Ecology
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Sustainable_development
http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Category:Renewable_energy

See fig 8.6-why is Canada so high? Why is Bengaladesh so low?
n.b. heating water-greatest energy use for lowest quality energy-crazy!
See fig 8.8-why are we so high? why again is B so low?

Electricity: both a means for consumption and a means of transport (e.g. wires)
Primary electircal sources: burning fossil fuels, nuclear, hydro, geothermal, wind, tidal, solar
n.b. Norway and Canada hydro-why?
n.b. Iceland all geothermal-why?
n.b. France-nuclear-why? recall Mururoa atoll
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_nuclear_testing#Atmospheric_tests_at_Mururoa_.26_Fangataufa

50% of power in Korea for industry!

Governmental influence on energy use: OPEC 1973, CAFE standards, coal subsidies, interstate system vs. rail and bus systems
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Oil_Embargo
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CAFE_standards

electrical energy pricing-see Enron film-yikes!

OPEC-July 2008: $149/bbl

n.b. fig 8.14-what is the fastest growing region? why should this worry us?

see fig 8.15-notice OPEC countries, and regions of political instability
Is renewable energy our best means of national defense?


Plan for the week:
Tuesday, 11.3: wrap-up chapter 7 on population, notes in class, plan out

Wednesday, 11.4: notes on chapter 8, energy: patterns of consumption, notes online

Friday: 11.6: finish chapter 8 notes, RQ and online test due Tuesday 11.10.

Due Tuesday 11.10:
RQ chapter 8
online quiz chapter 8
AP exam questions, chapter 7 (population)

I'll be loading new videos on the iPods tomorrow, in particular a film about Enron that covers how electrical power came to be traded as a commodity.

Let me know how I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Chapter 7 population questions

What factors impact a population?

What are the three survivorship curves for sheep, birds and plants?

Describe the population curves for + growth, neutral growth and - growth

Explain "biotic potential"

What are the 4 parts of a population curve, including overshoot

In the Denali wolf/moose example, explain the overshoot and phase shift

Explain the K and r tragegies, including the formula for growth rate

What is the extinction rate?

Explain the rule of 70, and give three examples

What was Malthus' proposal, and why has it not come true (so far)

Explain the IPAT formula, and give an example (be creative)

TFR means what?

What TFR is belived to be stable equilibrium?

What was the TFR for women in China in the 1980's? Why?

Explain why the literacy of women is related to fertility and sustainability?

Explain the trophic level pyramids, and why vegetarians are more sustainable than carnivores (e.g. humans)

Explain and graph the four stages in the demographic transition model

If you look at the population curves for the US (figure 7.18), you will see the WW I baby boom and the WW II baby boom. Explain the "boom echo".

Chapter 7 population notes

n.b. c/c means cunningham text, see the AP env sci folder on this server, here:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/cunningham_text/



population: same species, same location

Factors: birthrate (natality), death rate (mortality), sex ratio, age distribution, growth rate (r), density, spatial distribution

birthrate is per 1000 people, so 20/2000 is 10/k per year

mortality is same

survivorship curves (see fig 7.2) sheep-long life, birds-predators, non specific, plants-lots of offspring don't survive

population growth rate = Brate - Drate

See Fig 7.1, see also 6.6 in c/c page 123

Sex ratio: women always on the right

age distribution curves: pyramid is + growth, parallel is stable growth, inverted pyramid is - growth

repro years = 15-40 for female humans

see figure 7.3

spatial distribution: flowers

emigration: out, immigration:in

biotic potential: inherent repro capacity: geese=10/year, elephants=0.5/year

population curves: see figure 7.5
lag section: lots of food, takes time to reproduce
exponential section: grows according to At = A0 e kt
deceleration: food supply outstripped by population
stable: balance
overshoot: too many for food supply

see figure 6.3 and 6.4 in c/c chapter 6, page 119
see also figure 6.8 in c/c on overshoot

limiting factors: environmental resistance
extrinsic: predators, food source
intrinsic: self controlled, mice fertility drops in overpopulation (negative feedback)

see figure 6.10 in c/c, extinction rate

density dependent: predators, food
density independent: frost, flood, fire

limiting factors: energy, waste, raw materials

CARRYING CAPACITY-always on the AP exam: stable population, renewable resources, sustainable

"stable" is really negative feedback, equilibrium

Strategies:
K: mammals, take care of young, reach stable population at carrying capacity, few offspring, density dependent, low infant mortality

r: bacteria, lots of offspring, high infant mortality, limited by density independent factors (fire, flood, etc.)

see the growth formula: N is population, t is time, r is growth rate, K is carrying capacity:

∆N/∆t = rN(1-N/K)

n.b. as N/k -> 1, ∆N/∆t -> 0

negative feedback is the key here

r: less crowded, so N/K is close to 0, so rate is rN

K: follows carrying capacity, so N/K close to 1, so rate is close to 0

Malthus: population grows exponentially, food linearly, tf crash

see fig 7.12

Impact: IPAT
Impact = population * affluence * technology (we are high on all three)

imagine a village...

Demography: birthrate vs. deathrate

TFR: total fertility rate: number of offpring in female lifetime
2.1 is stable (why not 2.0?)

first child age: 14 in LDC, 21 in DC

see population bomb, ca. 1970

see c/c 7.17

see fig 7.14

Africa vs. US (5.0 TFR vs. 1.6 TFR)

female literacy prop. to TFR, tf GFO focus, also Grameen bank

china 1980, one child policy (some of these kids go to HPA)
tf no concept of sister or brother...the term disappeared...

ChengDu earthquake-China govt. allowed parents to have another child

GNI = gross national income
PPP = purchase power parity (e.g."fair trade")
see Mexico workers

see fig. 7.15, p. 159 Grameen bank

Trophic pyramid: n = 1% for carnivore, 10% for herbivore

see fig. 7.17 Demographic transition model

1. premodern: high BR, high DR, low, stable population
2. urbanization: high BR, low DR, growing pop.
3. mature: low BR (literacy of females), low DR, slowly increasing pop.
4. post-industrial: low BR, low DR, stable pop.

see fig 7.18, pop curves
WW I baby boom, ca. 1918
WW II baby boom, 1945-65 (parents were 20-40 yrs. old)
where is the "boom echo"?

What happened to the pop curves of Iran and Iraq following 1980-1990 period?
To what gender?
Why?

See c/c 7.11 and 7.14




Posted by:

Team:
This week---
Energy lab tour (yay! Finally!)
Design videos on e2, season one-green everything
(I'm loading this onto iPods now, I've already converted these to web enabled movies, see below) No pre or post questions, just for class discussion, and prep for our energy lab tour.
Finish our presentations on Biomes
HW from the text on biomes
Reading chapter 7 (11th edition version), questions at the end of the chapter due next Tuesday, November 3 (what? November already?)
Begin discussions of Population-this should be really, really interesting-remember the population distribution curves? We'll begin there...

With all of this fun, we will have to wait to distill your noxious moonshine brews, I may do this at X period.

Here is how you can access all of the e2 videos online:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/e2_videos/

You can also access them on the physics server, from the connect to server menu.
As I mentioned, I'm trying to blast these all onto the steaming pile of iPods here on my desk, I'll let you know Tuesday who won.

Here is how to get to chapter 7 from the 11th edition of the Enger text:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/enger/

Please read at least the first part of this by class Wednesday. We can take Friday to go up to the energy lab, last class of the day.

The questions for chapter 6 on biomes lives in the same folder, under chapter 6, at the end of the readings. Please do the review questions, page 138. Please email these to my by Wednesday.

The practice quiz for chapter 6 lives here:

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/chapter6/practice_quiz_.html

Please also finish this by Wednesday.

So, sports fans, here is the line-up:
Tuesday: finish biome reports, begin notes on population
Wednesday: we do more on chapter 7, population, you turn in the chapter 6 Review Questions and the practice test via email.
Friday: you read the rest of chapter 7, and do the review questions and test by class Tuesday, November 3.

We'll wait on the videos, unless you need a break from all of this conventional "book lernin", in which case I'll set you up with the next series, e2-Design, season one. Remember there are no pre or post questions for this season one module.

Let me know how I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

First, let's discuss the aviation video and how transport figures into our larger vision of footprint.
Second, an update on the global footprint project, including our new partner, Dresden International School.
Next, I'll give you a brief explanation of global weather, so you'll understand why deserts are where they are, and other neat things.
Last, we'll break into our groups to work on our biome projects, outlining what questions we'd like answered.
Friday, each of you should come up with at least one question for each presentation, which should last about 10-20 minutes for the pair of you. Email me the questions, and this will become your homework over the weekend, from this very weblog.
Cheers
b

Posted by:

Team,
I've discovered a goldmine:
Rather than wading through all of the (interesting) pages on the pbs site to find the videos and pre/post questions for each video, I've stumbled on a directory on the PBS server that has all of the files. Here it is:

http://www.pbs.org/e2/teachers/pdfs/

If you go there, you will find all of the pre and post questions for all of the e2 series, with the exception of series one of the design segment. These have no pre/post questions, so we'll have to come up with our own.
For next week then, please do the pre/post questions for the Seoul: stream of consciousness video, as well as the one on aviation, which I think you'll find amazing, particularly living out here in Hawai'i ne.

Aviation link:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/e2/e2_transport/

number 12 is the one you want.

I'll load the video for the Transport: aviation onto some of the iPods, if you want to use these, or I will post a link below to see them on the PBS site or on the server.
Check here soon for more info.
Quiz next week on chapter 6: biomes, probably on Friday. Wednesday of next week, you'll present your biome to us:
Robert has dibs on the aquatic biomes: marine and freshwater
This leaves 9 terrestrial biomes for the remaining 6 of you.
Let me know if this works:
Morgan and Alyssa: Desert (Ka'u), temperate rain forest (volcano) and chaparral (waikoloa)
Eaman and Katy: tropical rain forest (hamakua) tropical dry forest (waimea), taiga (hakalau)
Sam and Eunsol: temerate grassland (hawi), savanna (puako), tropical deciduous forest (waikii)

Let's do this:
Work in your group to introduce us to your biomes. Include climate, locations (including places worldwide), rainfall, plants and animals, and how they are threatened by civilization.
We should be able to begin these presentations Friday, and continue into the next week.

Let me know if your biome is a dog and you cannot find anything juicy about it, I'll help.

We can discuss this more as a group when we meet on Wednesday.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Chapter 6 notes: Ecosystems and communities
Succession-communites proceed through series of recognizable, predicatable changes in structure over time
long lasting and stable
factors: climate, food, invasion etc.
climax comm. stable, long lasting result of succession
determined by climate, water, substrate and org. type

primary succession-no existing organisms
secondary succession-destruction of existing ecosystem

Primary succession-terrestrial-
factors: substrate (e.g. soil), climate, repro structures, rate of growth, organic matter, water
pioneer comm.- first to colonize bare rock (e.g. lichen)
later comm.-soil available, holds water (life)
1 pioneer stage
lichen: mutualistic: algae/bacteria(photosynthesis) + fungi to hold on
2 secondary stage: soil: retains water, structural support
(succession: plants shade lichens)
3 climax community-stable, diverse, interconnected, interdependent, many niches, recycle biomass (constant)

process of succession is called a sere, stages are seral stages
see fig 6.3-imagine driving from puako to waimea

Primary succession-aquatic
oceanic-stable
limnotic/riparian-transitional, fills with sediment
stages:
1. aquatic vegetation-e.g. aquarium, leads to wet soil and terrestrial networks (roots, wet meadow)
2. transitional: biomass of trees creates top layers of soil, transition to terrestrial climax comm.

imagine trip from middle of lake to shore-see all transitions
bogs=transitional stage from shore to dry land (Ireland, Scotland)

Secondary Succession-terrestrial
recall: existing comm. is replaced
e.g. pond fills to become a meadow, then climax forest
can reverse: beaver dams: land to aquatic
see also human dams, exponential decay curve

Biomes-------
determined by climate, altitude, water (precipitation), temperature
similar niches and habitats in each biome











Posted by:

Student Global Footprint Network project outline

Problem:
• Modern civilizations are living beyond their means, on a non-sustainable course
• Students, concerned about this trend, are often isolated, unable to share local perspectives on global issues, to develop best practices
• Several educational programs exist to address global issues, none of which leverage students' most familiar tools: social networking


Solution:
• Leverage student social networks to connect students to each other, to authentic scientists and to resources to develop global solutions through sharing of local issues

Resources:
• Global Footprint Network, based in Alameda, CA: Access to authentic researchers in the field, as well as collected data on one metric of sustainability: the Global Footprint Index (GFI)
• HPA Energy Lab, Kamuela, Hawaii: a virtual and physical portal for student interaction, hosting video conferencing facilities to bridge student conversations, and to host a student sustainability congress each summer (http://www.hpa.edu/energylab/)
• Digital repository: cloud based access to recorded conversations, video conferences and student produced media, as well as shared digital resources and best practices


Goals:
• Establish a network of students at schools around the world, representing varied geographical, cultural and socio-economic conditions.
• Link these students with familiar tools, such as MySpace, FaceBook, and Instant Messaging
• Develop a model for exchange of ideas, using more advanced tools such as wikis, weblogs and video weblogs
• Develop online tools for calculation and dissemination of sustainability metrics, such as the Global Footprint Index, including hand-held tools such as iPhone apps to create a Google map layer of GFI
• Hold regular virtual conferences on GFI, with shared solutions, visiting speakers and shared synthesis of solutions by students
• Develop a student model for global cooperation (a la IPCC) with local dissemination of global concerns
• Establish partnerships with other global awareness programs such as project 2020 and Global Issues Network (GIN)

Timeline:
• Year one: establish trial group of schools, establish student social networking tools, share GFI metric calculators online, first virtual and physical student sustainability congress held
• Year two: establish robust, reliable communications including video teleconferencing, wikis and weblogs, building on the existing social networks, improvement of facilities, expand to second tier of schools, establish shared goals, curriculum development, second student sustainability congress, virtual and physical, web resources created (iPhone apps, google map layers)
• Year three: determine means and solutions for critical issues, global and local, tertiary school groups included, 5 year student action plan developed, student solutions shared on virtual conference site, virtual and physical congresses expand.

Questions for schools:
1. Do you have access to the internet?
2. Do you have an engaged faculty sponsor?
3. Do you have a vision for ecological footprint at your school and in your community?
4. Do you have unique local issues the team can learn from your sharing?
5. How would you benefit from joining with other global schools to share ideas and solutions?

Schools: short list:
Hawaii Preparatory Academy, Kamuela, Hawaii
International School, Hamburg
Palmer School/High Tech High, Alaska
Darrow School, NY
Berkeley High, CA/Bay Area school tbd
Boulder High, CO
Taipei International School, Taiwan
Beijing International School, China
Sydney School, Australia
Taupo School, Taupo NZ
Ghana International School, Accra Ghana
American School of Rio De Janeiro
Washington International School
Brussels American School
International School of Brussels
UAE International school
Silicon Valley school tbd
India international school. tbd



Schools:
International School of Hamburg
Andreas Klimkeit klimkeitam@arcor.de
Juliane Schweda <JSchweda@ishamburg.org>

Palmer School, north of Anchorage Alaska
Ray DePriest <Ray.DePriest@matsuk12.us>
Stephen Krueger <Stephen.Krueger@matsuk12.us>
Mark Standley akstandley@mac.com

Darrow School, NY
Mr. Jim Bennett bennettj@darrowschool.org

San Francisco Bay area school
Berkeley High

Denver/Boulder school

Taiwan
possibly working with Daniel Tsai, HPA parent, will meet with DT week of 10.15.09

Beijing
international school?

Sydney School, Australia
Michael McDowell <mikemcdowell@ozemail.com.au>

New Zealand-Taupo
Mawae Morton <mawae@hawaii.rr.com>
john.mataira@mfat.govt.nz NZ consulate in LA

Switzerland-international school?

Ghana
MS contact

Northern Brazil/Amazon basin
joao kopytowski <joaohmf@yahoo.com>

Washington International School
Clayton Lewis, clewis@wis.edu



Notes:
elab support funding (annual or endowment): connectivity, staff, material resources, virtual portal
HPA student scholarship funding (annual or endowment): enable exchange students worldwide

Posted by:

Team,
Nice work on the AP simulation exam. This week we meet twice: Tuesday and Thursday for a short time with some of your parents.
Tuesday I'd like to begin work on chapter 6: ecosystems and biomes. I've listed the readings below.

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/enger/

I'd also like to proceed with the nano videos you now all have at home.
Please watch the following:

Ideas for a small planet: Work-you should find the study of sustainability familiar, particularly the speaker in segment III

e2-Seoul river restoration-this is the first video on the e2 transport section. Note the counter view on the carbon footprint of the restoration. Something you have not heard yet: concrete is soon to be implicated as the largest greenhouse gas factor during production.

e2-green apple-pay particular attention to the innovations cited. As we move into the energy lab, you'll find some of the things they mention incorporated into our design. See if you can notice these things.

We have a short time this week, let's have some fun.
Let me know if I can help.
aloha
b


Posted by:

Here are your links to the AP tests:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/apes_apexam1.PDF

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/apes_apexam2.PDF

Posted by:

apes reading notes
ch 5 environments and organisms
codes:
n.b. means nota bene, in latin, "note well"
esp. = especially
w/o = without
bcd = because
wrt= with respect to
iff=if and only if
e.g.=for example
Op cit= Opus Citera, cited in the work
btw=by the way
ttfn=ta ta for now
pos=parent over shoulder


Notes
energy and matter flow is critical
everything that affects an organism=environment
abiotic=not living, biotic=living
limiting factor-see also rate limiting factor-recall cafeteria line, create your own image
range of tolerance-critical to adaptability (not mentioned in the book)
habitat-place, niche-role
adaptation-change in organism to meet surroundings and survive/thrive
genes-DNA determining characteristics
you=25% mom, 25% dad
population=same kind, same place
species=population concept: all organisms capable of reproduction with that gene set
natural selection: process, close fit between demands of environment and organism
NS over time=evolution
Natural Selection:
1. genetic variation (if none, then there is no outstanding survivor possible)
2. plenty of offspring, leading to…
3. stress on the system resources (food, water, land etc.)
4. outstanding survivors reproduce
5. incremental changes over generations improve adaptation (could be fast, like bacteria or fruit flies)

Speciation=like specialization in medicine: general doctors become radiologists
Often caused by splits in populations (sub populations) like the bunnies and the river…
diploid=you, 2 sets of chromosomes (colored bodies)
ployploidy=many chromosomes (e.g. plants)
Extinction=not enough of a species to effectively reproduce. Effective is the key word, genetic variation diminishes way before extinction occurs.
background rate: 10 species per year
present rate: many times this
co-evolution: two species change together, often in symbiosis

Interactions:
Predator-prey
Competition: interspecies (hawks, owls, foxes hunting the same mice), intraspecies (fastest wins in similar plants)
Symbiosis (see below)

Competitive Exclusion Principle (CEP): no 2 species can occupy the same niche in the same place (habitat) at the same time.

Symbiotic relationships:
Parasitism: B (parasite) feeds on A (host), A suffers for this
Vectors may be involved that carry the parasite (e.g. mosquitoes)
ectoparasites-outside endoparasites-inside

Commensalism: B benefits from A, A does not suffer
"opportunistic"

Mutualism: A benefits, B benefits
e.g. nitrogen fixing bacteria: mycorrhizae

Others: nest parasitism (cow bird), blood parasites

Community: different species in same area (ecosystem)
Ecosystems:
Producers: turn inorganic sources into organic sources, e.g. plants (sun energy) or sulfur plants (Sulfur oxidation and heat from deep sea volcanic vents)
consumers: Primary (eat the plants, e.g. herbivores) or secondary (carnivores, they eat the herbivores)
Omnivores: eat everything
Decomposers: decay everything back to organic and inorganic materials

Keystone species: critical role in balance of the ecosystem: remove them and the ecosystem cannot function
e.g. bison, sea otter
n.b. energy flow through the ecosystem

Trophic levels (very important)
producers: level 1
primary consumers: level 2
secondary consumers: level 3
meat eating carnivores: level 4

90% energy is lost in every transition (recall our talk on energy tax)
Low trophic level is sustainable
Can also be demonstrated by comparing biomass pyramid

Food chains, food webs (both were on the AP exam last year btw)
Food chain: series of organisms at ascending trophic levels, energy flows up
see also bio-accumulation of Hg (mercury)
detritus-decaying matter from living things
good web-intersection of several food chains, mutual interdependence, biodiversity, all good things...

Biochemical cycles (n.b. chemical)
Many chemical cycles, three are critical: carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus
Carbon-stored in atmosphere as CO2, then in bones and organic matter (e.g. wood)
Nitrogen-stored in atmosphere as N2 (gas), used as NO3 and NH4 by primary producers, basis for protein (CHON)
Phosphorus-from rocks, stored in bones-see Waterloo diggers…yuk

photosynthesis-50% occurs in the oceans
light converted to sugar (recall Maui onions)
can track carbon as C14/6 through atmosphere, to CHO (plant) to CHON(protein) to CO2 or oil
All Americans over 50 have traces of C14 from atomic bomb testing in our bones…radioactive phosphorus as well…more yuk
green manure-sacrificial bean crops
crop rotation-n.b.
Question: why was Nauru so high in PO4? Hint: it is an island
fossil fuels burned-how does this change the Carbon cycle balance?

n.b. erg runoff: recall the video on Chesapeake R. eutrophication, algal blooms and red tides (we did not cover these, look them up on wikipedia)

Check these out while reading the chapter, and bring your notes along to Starbuck's tomorrow.
aloha
b
















Posted by:

Team,
Please do the review questions page 77 of Enger, chapter 4, from 1-11. I think this will wrap-up our work on matter and energy. If you missed the class (Sam, Katy) see me or one of the team for notes.
I'll post chapters 5 and 6 on the site Friday, check there for the latest readings.

The textbook, chapter 4:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/enger/ch04/
Chapter5:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/enger/ch05/

Something to have a look at:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/apes_apexam1.PDF
Look at the following questions, and see if they seem slightly familiar:
31 32 33 34 35 36 41 42 44 48 55 57 58 60 62 66 67 79 91 92
These represent over 25% of the AP exam given several years ago. I hope you share my sense of our progress so far, and fell confident in your ability to do well on the exam in May.

One last thing:
Have a look at the box on page 76, about diesel cars. Something to consider: Biodiesel (at least the sort that Robert Rapier is working on, called the Fischer-Tropsch process) is very low on particulates. Can you sense why this might be a very important solution for the future? I'd like to know your thoughts on this...

Let me know if I can help.
aloha
b

ADDENDUM:
Please have a look at these questions on chapter 4:
https://www.eztestonline.com/207829/12547715161066300842.tp4
If this works, we can use this format for home practice exams.
Let's discuss in class Tuesday, after you've had a chance to test it once.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Tuesday, let's see the first bits of Poisoned Waters in class. If you can watch over the weekend (what's left of it) and check out these questions, we'll be a step further to your understanding of water pollution and the CWA (clean water act):
From the PBS site, about chicken farming and endocrine disrupters:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/teach/poisonedwaters/1.pdf
Please have these ready for class Tuesday.
For Thursday, have a look at these links:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/teach/poisonedwaters/2.pdf
Our summary questions for Thursday:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/teach/poisonedwaters/discussion.html
Please have these ready for class, it's a great introduction to water pollution issues in the US.
Let me know if I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Please listen to this short interview:
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=113135818
A question: how would you implement something like this?

Friday plan:
Finish Ch. 4 on matter and energy (we'll begin with where we left off on water, and the phase diagram)
Acids and bases, pH
We'll (hopefully) finish your distillations...
Quiz on chapter 3 readings
If we have time, poisoned waters video
See you tomorrow
aloha
b
ADDENDA---
Just released in the news today:
http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/09_40/b4149068698190.htm

...and here is the link to begin our study of "Poisoned Waters":

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/poisonedwaters/view/

aloha
b

Posted by:

Please read chapter 3, which we reviewed in class, and try the following questions online:

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/chapter3/practice_quiz_.html
You should also have your chapter 3 review questions (see link below) turned in.
Our next chapter (four)

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/enger/

will build on the scientific method, and some basics on chemistry, which I'd like to augment with a video called "poisoned waters", which we will see as much of in class as we have time for.
Please read chapter 4 online, so we can discuss in class. Our first class is Wednesday morning this week, leaving just Wednesday and Friday for our work together.
Please bring your usb drives to class, I'll give you the next set of videos for class.
Check here Sunday and Monday for updates...
aloha
b
--UPDATE--
Team:
Here are some notes for class from the reading on chapter 4 of Enger. We'll review these in class Wednesday.
We'll have to wait until Friday to distill your lovely alcohol products, as the stills are being borrowed by moonshiners visiting from the mainland, so be patient, fellow brewmasters...
Let me know if you are unable to read the chapter online:

Chapter 4 notes-Enger
Science as a process-forming possible solutions, followed by rigorous, repeatable testing to establish validity
"cannot mandate technology progress"
See 1-6 p. 62
Cause and effect assumptions-see cargo cult science
Observation vs. casual notice: engaged watching, without bias
Experimental bias-establishing variables
common complaint about science: it only looks for what it already sees
Reproduce results: cold fusion
Theory vs. law: plausible explanation (model) vs. description of what happens in nature
Be cautious with models
Be cautious with pseudoscience-why is this so critical in APES?

OK, now the science bits…
Matter-takes up space, has mass
atomos-not (a) split (tomos), see frontal lobotomy-tomos=split or cut
element-unique properties
nucleus: proton and neutron, electron cloud
isotopes-same protons, different neutrons
molecules-collections of atoms
ions-mess with electron number
compound-collection of chemically bonded atoms
mixtures-not chemically bonded, e.g. sand and iron filings
water-see the phase diagram (look up on wikipedia)
acids, bases, pH-why is it spelled that way?
H+ and OH- look for these
organic vs. inorganic acids and bases
chemical reactions-energy: exothermic vs. endothermic
activation energy: catalyst, enzyme-same things
Why are enzymes so important in organic reactions? Think of protein denaturation
Respiration: dealing with oxygen
aerobic and anaerobic reactions-know these
Energy-reactions: potential (bonds) turns to kinetic energy (heat or work)
Most organic reactions only about 45% efficient, rest is heat loss (think of sweating runners)
States of matter-see the phase diagram again
Heat: conduction, convection and radiation
sensible heat transfer-you can sense it
latent heat-hidden heat
Thermodynamics: Laws-
1. you cannot win
2. you cannot break even
3. you cannot get out of the game
Translation:
1. energy cannot be created or destroyed, so you cannot create more energy than you start with-big picture
2. every process releases some heat as waste energy, nothing can be 100% efficient (entropy)
3. the disorder (entropy) of the universe tends to be positive, e.g. unless you insert energy, things tend to become more random (like your room). Thinking (e.g. organizing) takes energy to reverse the trend towards disorder (∆S >0).

Energy quality: highly organized sources: gasoline, electrical power, proteins
low quality: heat, friction, sound/noise
see you all bright and early in the morning...
aloha
b





Posted by:

UPDATE- Robert Rapier will join us tomorrow for class (Tuesday)
Please make sure you have read his weblog, and come prepared with at least several questions to ask him.
I've told him we are interested in asking questions on biofuels, technologies and so on.
You might read his bio to the right of his blog to get an idea where his interests lay.
END UPDATE-

Please read chapter 3 (see entry below) and complete the review questions 1-19 on page 59 by Wednesday, so I can grade these and get you some feedback by Friday.
This chapter is very interesting, as it relates to many things we've discussed so far. Our next chapter (4) is more about chemistry, which should be loads of fun.
Something new:
Please watch this video online:
http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/william_mcdonough_on_cradle_to_cradle_design.html
and this one on sustainability:
http://www.ted.com/talks/alex_steffen_sees_a_sustainable_future.html
These are the first of many TED talks I'll be passing on to you. I hope these are enlightening for you.
I'd like to move from economics and environmental science to design, in other words, how you would use the wisdom you are now developing to change the design of our buildings, our cities and our world.
You will find some things in the readings that would be very helpful to look up on wikipedia. I trust all of you have seen wikipedia athttp://www.wikipedia.org
The list from Chapter 3:
risk assessment
ASTM
ISO
LD50
IPCC
clean air act
safe drinking water act
BPA
Eutrophication
cradle to cradle
RfD
DfE
dioxin
seventh son of the seventh son
indoor air pollution
dead zones in gulf of Mexico
supply and demand (study the three curves)
contingent valuation method
deferred costs
external costs
pollution
biodegradable
pollution-prevention costs
cost benefit analysis
Environmental impact statement
NEPA act of 1969
tragedy of the commons 1968
command and control approach
cap and trade
brownfields
SBLRBRA
CERCLA/Superfund
RoHS
sustainable development
debt for nature swap
methyl mercury
Responsible Care

See you all in class Tuesday. We may have a guest speaker, Robert Rapier, whose weblog you've seen before, but if you've lost it, it is here:
http://i-r-squared.blogspot.com/

Next set of TED talks:
http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/ken_robinson_says_schools_kill_creativity.html
http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/bonnie_bassler_on_how_bacteria_communicate.html

aloha
b

Posted by:

APES folk,
Here's what I'd like to move to Friday:
1. please read the weblog articles on biofuels
2. we will wrap up your lab, with some notes on how to gather and present your data
3. we'll finish the last of the e2 videos on coal and nuclear power

I appreciate that the last few weeks might seem scattered, but I assure you, there is a convergence: think of this:
We cover energy, and economics of change
We cover biofuels, and this leads us to sustainable development (also in the videos)
We cover global warming, and discuss cause and effect.
The book chapters have been so far working from general to specific. The third chapter (see below) is the last of the "vague" chapters, introducing risk, and the reasons people make change.
Chapter four is all about the science behind the "vague" stuff, with some chemistry to help us understand some of the issues presented.
This should tie in nicely with the global warming CO2 stuff, and the fermentation energy balance in your lab.
The next two chapters are online, please read chapter 3 over the weekend, and if you are so compelled, you can look at the practice quiz online as well (see previous entries for a link to that site)
Chapter 3 is here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/enger/
You'll notice that the next chapter is there as well, which we will go into next week.
For next Wednesday:
1. wrap up the lab (more on this tomorrow)
2. read chapter 3 in the text
3. finish all of the pre and post questions for the e2 energy series

What's on the horizon:
A design series, stressing sustainability
A tour of the energy lab, with a focus on sustainable projects you could work with worldwide
Next steps on our global curriculum project...

Please check out the wiki I'm testing at xserve.hpa.edu, you might find it helpful, and not entirely a waste of time.
See you all tomorrow.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
This week we meet two days for 85 minutes each: Wednesday and Friday. Wednesday is before lunch, and Friday is first thing in the morning.
My goals for this week: To learn about Biofuels
We will begin our lab Wednesday with the fermentation of Katy's potatoes, my white cane sugar (from, you guessed it: sugar cane), and my corn syrup from corn.
With these three biofuels (potatoes are a starch, or sugar chain, the other two are simple sugars), we will try to get a grasp on how biofuels are produced, and what makes them a sustainable option.
Some questions to ponder:
Which if these produces the greatest amount of ethanol for a given amount of biomass?
What are the different environmental impacts of each biofuel? Water? Soil? Fertilizer?
Is the process really truly "carbon neutral"?
What is released as part of the fermentation process? What remains after the ethanol is distilled?
The process, in broad strokes:
1. yeast dissolves in warm water (about 40°C) to activate
2. dissolve biofuel in warm water, same temp
3. combine, cap and measure changes in pressure, what gas is released etc.
4. once fermented (several hours to several days), distill using 89°C water bath and a leibig condenser
5. measure yield

Some things to research before we begin our lab:
1. Read the weblogs by Robert Rapier on Biofuels at this site:
http://i-r-squared.blogspot.com/
or on my wiki:
http://xserve.hpa.edu:80/groups/apes/wiki/2d15f/biofuel_articles.html
(you may have to be on campus to access the wiki for now)
In particular, read biofuel pretenders, contenders and niches. If we're lucky, this global expert may visit our classroom. You may have to look in the September 2009 listing on the right to see the first two.
I've added them below, should you want to read from here.
2. Watch the rest of the nuclear vs. coal e2 video, either in our room or on your own. It is important to see the vision and lack of vision in the coal situation.
3. IMPORTANT: what is the history of coal gasification, in Germany and South Africa, and what impact could this have on US fuel sustainability? Why do you think this is not being done? There are two major players in this: Shell is pro-gasification, Exxon is con-why do you think?
4. Sustainability: look at the biofuel numbers and compare it to the amount of energy used in the US annually. Do we have enough land mass and water to supply this?
5. Carbon impact: prepare two arguments: pro and con for each of these, ready for next week's class:
a. coal mining
b. carbon sequestration
c. nuclear power
d. biomass to biofuel
e. coal gasification
If you work in pairs, and try your argument out on your partner, you'll be ready for next week.
Quiz notes (not a sandwich): we'll have quizzes each day on the following:
Wed: State of Resolve
Fri: lab work, Coal vs. Nuclear, biofuel questions (see above)
Lab reports: these will be due next week Wednesday, I'll go over the format in class.
Old business: The Global Footprint folks want to move forward. Let's discuss next steps in class. I think we are at the "contact the schools" stage.
More to come, check this space.
The weblogs I mentioned are below:

Biofuel Pretenders

Note

This article was initially titled "Pretenders, Contenders, and Niches." However, the section on pretenders grew to the point that I have decided to split the essay up into three parts. The first part, Biofuel Pretenders, will cover many of the current media and political darlings. The second part, Biofuel Contenders, will discuss some options that have received less attention, but in the long term are more likely to have staying power. The final part, Biofuel Niches, will discuss situations in which some of the pretenders might actually work.

Reality Begins to Sink In

There was an interesting article in the Wall Street Journal this past week:

U.S. Biofuel Boom Running on Empty

A few pertinent excerpts:

The biofuels revolution that promised to reduce America's dependence on foreign oil is fizzling out.

Two-thirds of U.S. biodiesel production capacity now sits unused, reports the National Biodiesel Board.

Producers of next-generation biofuels -- those using nonfood renewable materials such as grasses, cornstalks and sugarcane stalks -- are finding it tough to attract investment and ramp up production to an industrial scale.


This all boils down to something I have said on many occasions: You can't mandate technology. Just because you mandate that 36 billion gallons of biofuel are to be produced by 2022 doesn't mean that it has a remote chance of happening. This is not a hard concept to understand, but it seems to have eluded our government for many years. The government would probably understand that they couldn't create colonies on the moon in 10 years via mandate. They know they can't cure cancer via mandate. But in the area of biofuels, they seem to feel like they can just conjure up vast amounts of hydrogen, cellulosic ethanol, or algal biodiesel.

Domestically produced biofuels were supposed to be an answer to reducing America's reliance on foreign oil. In 2007, Congress set targets for the U.S. to blend 36 billion gallons of biofuels a year into the U.S. fuel supply in 2022, from 11.1 billion gallons in 2009.

Cellulosic ethanol, derived from the inedible portions of plants, and other advanced fuels were expected to surpass corn ethanol to fill close to half of all biofuel mandates in that time.

But the industry is already falling behind the targets. The mandate to blend next-generation fuels, which kicks in next year, is unlikely to be met because of a lack of enough viable production.


Most people don't realize that the Germans were the first to produce ethanol from cellulose. That happened in 1898. For our political leaders and many industry boosters, cellulosic ethanol is a recent discovery, and thus they expect big leaps in the technology in the next few years. These expectations completely ignore the fact that researchers have been hard at work on making cellulosic ethanol a reality for decades - with little success.

In President Bush's 2006 State of the Union address, he broadly expanded the mandate for ethanol. He voiced his strong support for cellulosic ethanol, and included billions of gallons in the Renewable Fuel Standard - as well as billions of dollars of financial support.

How quickly our politicians seem to have forgotten the 2003 State of the Union, in which Bush set forth his vision of the hydrogen economy:

"A simple chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen generates energy, which can be used to power a car producing only water, not exhaust fumes. With a new national commitment, our scientists and engineers will overcome obstacles to taking these cars from laboratory to showroom so that the first car driven by a child born today could be powered by hydrogen and pollution-free."


We spent some two billion dollars toward that goal. Once again, this ignored many technical and economic realities, and so in May 2009 the headlines read:

Hydrogen Car Goes Down Like the Hindenburg: DoE Kills the Program

The dream of hydrogen fuel cell cars has just been put back in the garage. U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced yesterday that his department is cutting all funding for hydrogen car research, saying that it won’t be a feasible technology anytime soon. “We asked ourselves, ‘Is it likely in the next 10 or 15, 20 years that we will covert to a hydrogen car economy?’ The answer, we felt, was ‘no,’” Chu said.


My prediction is that in the not too distant future we will start to see headlines like this for cellulosic ethanol. The troublesome barriers to commercialization are quite fundamental, and aren't likely to be resolved by government mandate. If enough money is thrown at it, cellulosic ethanol will of course be produced. But it can never be a scalable, economic reality.

Pretenders

Broadly speaking, in the world of next generation biofuels there are contenders, pretenders, and niches. Over the past decade, we have thrown a lot of money at pretenders and have little to show for it. There are many reasons for this, but fundamentally I believe it boils down to the fact that our political leaders can't sort the wheat from the chaff. If a proponent extols the benefits of hydrogen, cellulose, or algae - the politicians just don't know enough to ask the right critical questions. They listen - often to the very people who will benefit from more funding - and then they allocate money. Billions of dollars and little progress later, they or their successors may begin to realize that they have been misled and they start to dial the funding back.

Here is how I define a next generation Biofuel Pretender: A company or group that makes grandiose promises about the ability of a technology to displace large amounts of fossil fuel, despite facing significant (and often unrecognized) barriers to commercialization.

Here are some examples:

Hydrogen

The poster child for the pretenders. Proponents ignored practical realities in many different areas, including fuel cell vehicles that cost a million dollars, the fact that most hydrogen is produced from natural gas, the fact that the energy density of hydrogen is very low, and the fact that there are multiple issues with hydrogen storage and transport. Technical breakthroughs were being counted on to solve these challenges. After all, we put a man on the moon. Surely we could solve these challenges.

The real problem is that the potential for success falls rapidly as the number of needed breakthroughs pile up. Imagine for instance that the following - cost of production, cost effective storage, and cost effective transport - each have a 25% chance of achieving commercial viability in the next 20 years. The total chance for success of all three in that case falls to 1.5% - so this is overall probability of success. Thus, the vast majority of technologies that require multiple technical breakthroughs will fail to materialize commercially except perhaps over a much longer period of time.

Cellulosic Ethanol

As was the case with hydrogen, this one requires multiple technical breakthroughs before commercial (unsubsidized) viability can be achieved. I won't go through them all now, as I have covered them before. The fundamental reason that cellulosic ethanol won't scale up to displace large amounts of gasoline is that the energy efficiency of the process is so low. You have the sugars that make up cellulose locked up tightly in the biomass - which has a low energy density to start with. So you add energy to unlock the sugar and turn it into ethanol, and then you end up with ethanol in water. More energy inputs are required to get the ethanol out. Even if the energy can be supplied by the by-products of the process like lignin, the net BTUs of liquid fuel that you end up with are going to be low relative to what you started with.

For example, assume you start off with 10 BTUs of biomass. You expend energy to get it to the factory, to process it, and then to get the water out. You burn part of the biomass to fuel the process, and input some fossil fuel. You might net something like 3 BTUs of liquid fuel from the 10 BTUs of biomass you started with.

Don't confuse this with fossil fuel energy balance, though. If the external energy inputs in this example only amounted to 1 BTU of fossil fuel, one could claim a fossil fuel energy balance of 3/1. But that doesn't change the fact the final liquid fuel input is a small fraction of the starting BTUs in the biomass.

This is analogous to the situation with oil shale, which is why I have compared the two. There may in fact be a trillion or more barrels of oil shale locked up in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. But if the extraction of those barrels required a trillion barrels worth of energy inputs and lots of water - then that oil shale might as well be on the moon. That means that a trillion barrels isn't really a trillion barrels in the case of oil shale, and a billion tons of biomass is much smaller than it seems when talking about cellulosic ethanol.

So despite the claims from the EPA that the "Renewable Fuel Standard program will increase the volume of renewable fuel required to be blended into gasoline from 9 billion gallons in 2008 to 36 billion gallons by 2022" - that is not going to happen unless the government is willing to throw massive amounts of money at an inefficient process.

Algal Biofuel

Like many, I was initially enchanted by the possibility of weaning the world away from fossil fuels by using fuel made from algae. Proponents wrote articles suggesting that we could do just that, provided the necessary investments are made.

Sadly, the story is much more complex than that. The U.S. DOE funded a study for many years into the potential of algae to produce fuel. (For an overview of where things stand from John Benemann, one of the men who co-authored the close-out report of that study, see Algal Biodiesel: Fact or Fiction?) The problem is again one of needing to surmount multiple technical hurdles, and the close-out report states that reality. Again, I won't go into those details, as that has been covered before.

While it is a fact that you can produce fuel from algae, the challenges are such that John has written that you can't even buy algal biofuel for $100/gallon. He said that if you want to separate the reality from the hype, just try to secure a contract with someone to supply you with algal fuel.

First Generation Biodiesel

This story is primarily about 2nd generation fuels, and as such I won't get into corn ethanol issues. But I will say a bit about biodiesel. As indicated in the Wall Street Journal story, conventional biodiesel producers are in trouble. Briefly, a conventional biodiesel producer is someone who takes vegetable oils or animal fats and uses methanol (almost all of which is fossil-fuel derived) and converts that into an oxygenated compound (called a mono-alkyl ester). This compound has been defined as 'biodiesel', and can be used - subject to certain limitations - in a diesel engine.

Again, the problems are fundamental. It takes a lot of effort (energy, cost) to produce most of the oils that are used as raw materials, and then you have to react with methanol - which usually contains a lot of embodied fossil fuel energy. Up til now, the first generation biodiesel producers have benefited from a high level of protectionism (to the extent of punishing the more efficient 2nd generation producers). But even with the protectionism and the subsidies, producers are still struggling to survive.

Miscellaneous

There are a number of miscellaneous pretenders that we probably don't need to discuss in depth, such as various free energy schemes or water as a fuel. If you think you might be dealing with a pretender, one caution flag is when their promoters are from backgrounds that have nothing to do with energy. For instance, the person who founded the dot.com that ultimately morphs into an energy company is almost certainly a pretender who is chasing investment funds.

Summary

To summarize, the biofuel pretenders fall into several broad categories. The big ones are:

• Hydrogen

• Most would-be cellulosic ethanol producers

• Most would-be algal biofuel producers

• Most first generation biodiesel producers

This isn't to say that none of these will work in any circumstances. I will get into that when I talk about niches. But I will say that I am confident that none of these are scalable solutions to our fossil fuel dependence. The problem is that political leaders have been, or are still convinced that there is great potential for some of these and we waste billions of dollars chasing fantasies. This is a great distraction, causing a loss of precious time and public goodwill as taxpayer money is squandered chasing schemes that ultimately will not pan out.

In the next installment, I will talk about contenders - options that I think can compete with fossil fuels on a level playing field.

Labels: algal biodiesel, biodiesel, cellulosic ethanol, hydrogen, john benemann


Biofuel Contenders

Introduction

I got quite a few interesting e-mails and comments following my previous essay: Biofuel Pretenders. I probably should have mentioned - but I thought it went without saying - that pretenders usually don't think they are pretenders and will therefore protest mightily at the characterization. A number of people who e-mailed assured me that they have really cracked the code to affordable biofuels, and that we would be hearing more about them soon. Another person who wrote to me about algae said that he has been following algae since 1973, and he wrote "In spite of all the hype and non-stop press releases, no one to my knowledge is producing algae on a commercial basis for biofuel production." Ultimately, I would be happy to be proven wrong on this, but I am just calling it as I see it.

On the other hand, there are some renewable fuel options that have either proven themselves as solid contenders, or have not yet demonstrated fatal flaws that would disqualify them at this point. In this essay I will cover some of those. First, I will cover a pair of first generation biofuels that have proven that they can compete with oil on a cost basis, and then a pair of next generation biofuels that I believe will be competitive.

The First Generation Contenders

Sugarcane Ethanol

Sugarcane ethanol, especially from tropical regions like Brazil, has some unique attributes that have enabled it to compete on a head to head basis with gasoline pricing. Specifically, during the production of sugar, the bagasse (sugarcane residue) is pulverized and washed many times. Many soluble inorganic constituents that may normally pose an ash problem for a boiler are washed out in the process. What remains after processing is a pretty clean biomass feed for the boilers. The normally vexing logistical issues aren't there because the biomass is already at the plant as a result of the sugarcane processing. So they essentially have free boiler fuel, which minimizes the fossil fuel inputs into the process. That enables ethanol production that is relatively cheap, and that is largely decoupled from the impact of volatile fossil fuel prices.

There are several reasons we don't do sugarcane ethanol in the United States. Last year I made a visit to the largest sugar producer in Louisiana, and they explained to me that the economics of their by-product molasses generally favor putting it into animal feed. If they had a year-round growing season as they do in the tropics, it is more likely that the animal feed market would start to become saturated, and conversion into ethanol might be more attractive. Further, a bagasse boiler is a major capital expense, so there needs to be a high level of confidence that in the future ethanol will be a more economical outlet than animal feed. For Brazil, this is certainly the case.

The ultimate downside of sugarcane ethanol will come about if the U.S. and Europe begin to rely heavily on tropical countries for their fuel needs - thus encouraging a massive scale-up. First, ethanol imports don't do much for domestic energy security. More importantly, it may encourage irresponsible usage of the land in an effort to feed our insatiable appetite for fuel. I think the ideal situation is to produce the sugarcane ethanol and use it locally, rather than try to scale it up and supply the world. In this way, sugarcane ethanol could be a long-term contender for providing fuel for the tropics, but not a long-term contender for major fossil fuel displacement outside of the tropics.

Palm Oil

The other major first generation contender is palm oil - which also comes with a lot of environmental risk. Palm oil is derived from the African Oil Palm. The oil palm is a prolific producer of oil, which can be used as fuel (and food). This is also a plant that thrives in the tropics, and is capable of annually producing upwards of 500 gallons of oil per acre. To my knowledge there is no other oil crop that consistently demonstrates these sorts of yields (acknowledging that algae could theoretically produce more).

The price of palm oil over the past 5 years or so has traded in a range comparable to that of crude oil; $50-$75 a barrel for the most part (although like petroleum, prices shot up to around $150/bbl in mid-2008). Palm oil can be used unmodified in a diesel engine, although some precautions are in order (and I don't recommend it). It can also be processed to biodiesel, or hydrocracked to green diesel. The extra processing will generally make the final product somewhat more expensive than petroleum, but demand has still been strong due to biofuel mandates.

The risks with palm oil are significant, though. Palm oil presents an excellent case illustrating both the promise and the peril of biofuels. Driven by demand from the U.S. and the European Union (EU) due to mandated biofuel requirements, palm oil has provided a valuable cash crop for farmers in tropical regions like Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. The high productivity of palm oil has led to a dramatic expansion in most tropical countries around the equator. This has the potential for alleviating poverty in these regions.

But in certain locations, expansion of palm oil cultivation has resulted in serious environmental damage as rain forest has been cleared and peat bogs drained to make room for new palm oil plantations. Deforestation in some countries has been severe, which negatively impacts sustainability criteria, because these tropical forests absorb carbon dioxide and help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Destruction of peat land in Indonesia for palm oil plantations has reportedly caused the country to become the world’s third highest emitter of greenhouse gases.

Because palm oil is capable of competing on price, it was originally viewed as a very attractive source of biofuels. In recent years, countries have begun to rethink their policies as the environmental implications of scaling up palm oil production began to unfold. As is so often the case, the seemingly good idea of biofuel mandates has had some pretty serious unintended consequences.

Next Generation Biofuel Contenders

Here is how I would define a next generation Biofuel Contender: A technology that is capable of supplying 20% of our present liquid fossil fuel consumption on a net energy basis.

Yes, 20% is rather arbitrary, but it weeds out a lot arguments over many potential small contributors. I will focus in this essay on the United States, because I am most familiar with our energy usage and biomass availability, but these arguments should be applicable in many places around the world.

Consider for a moment the amount of energy locked up inside the 1.3 billion tons of dry biomass that the Department of Energy suggests can be sustainably produced each year. Woody biomass and crop residues - the kind of biomass covered in the 1.3 billion ton study - contains an energy content of approximately 7,000 BTUs per pound (bone dry basis). The energy content of a barrel of oil is approximately 5.8 million BTUs. Thus the raw energy contained in 1.3 billion tons of dry biomass is equivalent to the energy content of 3.1 billion barrels of oil, which is equal to 42% of the 7.32 billion barrels the United States consumed in 2008.

This calculation tells you a couple of things. First, the 42% represents an upper limit on the amount of oil that could be displaced by 1.3 billion tons of biomass. The true number would be much lower because energy is required to get the biomass to the biorefinery and then to process it. So replacing oil with biomass isn't going to be a trivial task, and a process must be capable of turning a respectable percentage of those biomass BTUs into liquid fuel if it is to be a contender.

Imagine a process that only captures 25% of the starting BTUs as liquid fuel. The liquid fuel production of 1.3 billion tons would then be 10.5% of our oil usage instead of 42% - and that's before we consider the energy requirements from the logistical operations (like getting that wood to the biorefinery). This is the realm of the pretenders; they waste a lot of BTUs during the production of their liquid fuel. What we really need is a process that can capture >50% of the BTUs as liquid fuels. That's what it will take to be a contender, and quite frankly I don't believe cellulosic ethanol has a chance of pulling this off on a large scale.

However, there are at least two technologies that can achieve net liquid fuel yields in excess of 50% of the BTU value of dry biomass. These technologies are flash pyrolysis and gasification. I will talk about each below.

Flash Pyrolysis

Flash pyrolysis involves rapidly heating up biomass to around 500°C. The reaction takes place in about 2 seconds, and the products are pyrolysis oil (also called bio-oil) and char. The process can handle a wide variety of feedstocks, the oil yield is approximately 70% by weight, and the energy content per pound of oil is similar to the starting material. Thus, approximately 70% of the initial BTUs are captured in the oil before we have to start subtracting out energy inputs.

Char is frequently mentioned as a great soil amendment (as terra preta, for instance), but I don't really know if there is a market for it. As someone recently said to me, it may be like biodiesel and glycerin. In theory there are all kinds of uses for glycerin, but the market was quickly saturated as biodiesel production ramped up. Glycerin suddenly became a disposal problem. Terra preta does in fact appear to be a great soil amendment, but people are going to have to show that they will buy it. It seems to me that the ideal solution would be to use the char to help heat the biomass, unless the ash properties are problematic for the process.

There are definite downsides to flash pyrolysis. Heating up to 500°C will subtract from the net energy production, and while heat integration is possible, it would be more difficult to achieve in a hypothetical mobile unit (which I think could finally provide an outlet for the millions of acres of trees destroyed by the Mountain pine beetle). The properties of the raw oil are such that it isn't suitable for transport fuel as produced. It is not a hydrocarbon and is very acidic. Without upgrading, it can't be blended with conventional diesel. There are various issues around reproducibility and stability, especially if the biomass quality varies. The oil is suitable for power generation or gasification, and can be upgraded to transportation fuel, albeit at greater expense and lower overall energy efficiency.

With those caveats, it is still a contender. It could be knocked out of contention as a viable transportation fuel if the upgrading process is too expensive or energy intensive, but at present no fatal flaw has emerged. There are a number of companies involved in pyrolysis research. Dynamotive Energy Systems has been working on this for a while (I first wrote about them in 2007). UOP - a company that specializes in product upgrading for refineries - has teamed with Ensyn to form a joint venture called Envergent Technologies. The company intends to make pyrolysis oils from biomass for power generation, heat, and transport fuel (this is where UOP's skills will come into play).

Gasification: Biomass to Liquids

The following example is just one reason I think gasification is going to play a big part in our future. During World War II, the Germans were cut off from liquid fuel supplies. In order to keep the war machine running, they turned to coal to liquids, or CTL (coal gasification followed by Fischer-Tropsch to liquids) for their liquid fuel needs. At peak production, the Germans were producing over five million gallons of synthetic fuel a day. To put matters into perspective, five million gallons probably exceeds the historical sum of all the cellulosic ethanol or synthetic algal biofuel ever produced. Without a doubt, one week's production from Germany's WWII CTL plants dwarfs the combined historical output of two technologies upon which the U.S. government and many venture capitalists are placing very large bets.

South Africa during Apartheid had a similar experience. With sanctions restricting their petroleum supplies, they turned to their large coal reserves and once again used CTL. Sasol (South African Coal, Oil and Gas Corporation) - out of necessity - has been a pioneer in gasification technology. Today, they have a number of gasification facilities, including the 160,000 bbl/day Secunda CTL facility, which has been highly profitable for the company (but very expensive relative to oil prices when constructed). In total, Sasol today synthetically produces about 40% of South Africa's liquid fuel.

While we can speculate on the source of future fuel supplies in a petroleum constrained world, we do know that two countries that already found themselves in that position turned to gasification as a solution. The technology has a track record and is scalable. The same can't be said for many of the technologies upon which we are pinning our hopes (and taxpayer dollars). We hope these other technologies scale and that technical breakthroughs allow them to compete. But gasification has already proven itself as a viable go-to option. There are presently a number of operating CTL and GTL plants around the world. Shell has been running their Bintulu GTL plant for 15 years, and is currently building the world's largest GTL plant with a capacity of 140,000 barrels/day.

The biomass to liquid fuel efficiency for gasification is around 70% (See Section 1.2.2: Second-Generation Biofuels), a number cellulosic ethanol will never approach. In short, no other technology to my knowledge can convert a higher percentage of the embedded energy in biomass into liquid fuels.

Of course there's always a catch. Despite large reserves of coal, the United States has not turned to gasification as a solution. Why? High capital costs. At the end of the day the desire to keep fuel prices low consistently overrides our desire for energy security. (There is also environmental pressure over using coal gasification which should not be an issue for waste biomass gasification).

But biomass is more difficult to handle, so there are added costs above those of coal gasification. So you are talking about a process that is more capital intensive than a conventional oil refinery, or even a cellulosic ethanol plant. But what you save on the cellulosic ethanol plant ultimately costs a lot in overall energy efficiency. Until someone actually scales up and runs a cellulosic ethanol plant, we can only speculate as to whether the process is truly a net energy producer at scale.

Interestingly, one of the "cellulosic ethanol" hopefuls that we often hear so much about - Range Fuels - is actually a gasification plant. /images/emoticons/laugh.gifitto Coskata). The front end of their process is intended to produce syngas in a process very similar to that of World War II Germany. For their back end they intend to produce ethanol, which in my opinion is an odd choice that was driven purely by ethanol subsidies. But this is definitely not the optimal end product of a gasification process. They are going to lose a lot of efficiency to byproducts like methanol (which is actually a good end product for a gasification plant) - and that's assuming they get their gasification process right. They are then going to expend some of their net energy trying to purify the ethanol from the mixed alcohols their process will produce.

The question for me is not whether BTL can displace 20% of our petroleum usage. It absolutely can. The question is whether we are prepared to accept domestic fuel that will cost more to produce. In the long run - if oil prices continue to rise - then BTL plants that are built today will become profitable. The risk is that a sustained period of oil prices in the $50-$70 range will retard BTL development. But I don't expect that to happen.

Conclusions

In my opinion, the question of which next generation biofuels can compete comes down to fossil fuel prices. If oil prices are at $50 for the next 10 years, it will be difficult for renewable fuels to compete. Despite the many promises of technologies that will deliver fuel for $1 a gallon, I think that target is likely to be reached only on paper. My view on which technologies will be competitive is based on 1). An expectation of an average oil price over the next 10 years that exceeds $100/bbl; 2). An expectation that we will need to efficiently convert the available biomass. I expect biomass prices to rise as well, and inefficient technologies that may be competitive if the biomass is free and fossil fuel inputs like natural gas are low-priced will not survive as the prices of both rise.

I am certainly interested in helping develop promising next generation technologies, so if you think I have missed some really promising ones then feel free to add your thoughts. It is possible that a company like LS9 or KiOR will ultimately be successful, but they are going to require some technical breakthroughs. Given the great number of renewable energy start-ups, it won't be surprising if one or more of them eventually makes a contribution, but the odds are against most of them. I selected pyrolysis and gasification as strong contenders because they don't require technical breakthroughs in order to produce large amounts of fuel. The technical aspects of gasification at large scale are well-known. This is not the case with most companies seeking to compete in the next generation arena.

Personal Note on Technology Development

On a personal note, since I have long believed in the promise of gasification as a future solution to our liquid fuel problem, it will come as no surprise that my new role in Hawaii has connections into this area. While a few have figured out what I am doing (and quite a few others know because of various meetings I have attended), I still don't have the green light to explicitly discuss it. We still have some pieces to put in place, and then I will explain why I believe we are building a platform that is unique in the world. I can say that my new role is as Chief Technology Officer of what we are building, and that it involves quite a few pieces.

One of the things I am very interested in is developing conversion technologies for woody biomass and crop wastes. I have a number of technologies on my plate right now, but I am searching for other pieces that improve the economics (scalability is important).

For example, in the earlier example of the beetle-infested forests, the logistical challenge of getting the biomass to a processing facility - without consuming a large fraction of the BTU value of the tree - is significant. Biomass has a low energy density relative to fossil fuels, and cost-effective technologies are needed for improving that equation. I am speaking to a number of people with promising technologies around this area, but am always open to speaking to others who have ideas, prototypes, or pilot plants demonstrating their technology. You can find my contact e-mail hidden away from the spambots in my resume.

Labels: biomass gasification, Coskata, Germany, pyrolysis oil, range fuels, Sasol, South Africa

Biofuel Niches

This is the final installment of a three-part series that examines some of the renewable energy options that are presenting themselves as possible contenders to step up as petroleum steps down the depletion curve. The previous installments were:

Biofuel Pretenders

Biofuel Contenders

Today I want to talk about Biofuel Niches. Here is how I would define a Biofuel Niche: A technology that is capable of supplying, long-term, up to 10% of our present liquid fossil fuel consumption, often by utilizing specific, localized synergies.

This definition covers a great number of possibilities, and I don't pretend that I will even cover a large fraction of them. But I want to cover some specific niches for fuels - like cellulosic ethanol - that I believe can work in a niche. If readers can think of others, let's discuss them. I want to lead off with some of the options I categorized as "Pretenders", and then discuss corn ethanol which I did not discuss in the previous installments.

To reiterate, my views are based on the following expectations: 1). That the average oil price over the next 10 years will exceed $100/bbl; 2). That biomass prices will rise in response to demand, putting a premium on efficient conversion technologies; 3). That these biofuel technologies will eventually have to compete on the basis of oil price and not government handouts. This latter point is key, because it favors those technologies that can decouple from fossil fuel inputs.

Algal Biofuel

I classified this as a pretender based on the fact that technological improvements are needed in order to make algal biofuel economical - yet the hype over algae is mind-boggling. We don't even know if it will work at scale, and yet it is going to be the solution to all our problems? Following my previous essay, I had a discussion with someone involved in testing fuels for the U.S. military. They are optimistic about the future of fuel from algae, but admitted that they were only able to secure algal fuel for testing at the cost of $100/gal! How likely is it that there will be a more than 20-fold decrease in production costs?

Having said that, there are three situations in which I think algae can work. Two of these are niches. The first is a situation in which the oil is produced as a by-product. Algae has a great number of uses in consumer products, and oil can be produced as a by-product of those consumer products. As a hypothetical, assume that algae can be engineered to produce a valuable pharmaceutical. This is certainly not science fiction; the first commercial usage of genetic engineering was to design bacteria to produce human insulin. Imagine instead algae, and oil that is removed during processing. The costs are largely born by the more valuable primary product. The problem of course is that this approach isn't scalable. Imagine again that something like insulin production is the primary role of the algae. If you tried to scale that up to a significant fraction of our fuel usage, you will have thoroughly saturated the market for the insulin. But perhaps if we can pair up a number of primary products with oil production, algae can make a contribution to our fuel supply.

The second situation is similar. If algae production is one step in an integrated energy complex, it could work. For instance, I was recently asked to comment on just such an approach by Desert Biofuels, a company in Arizona. Without endorsing their specific approach, this sort of approach may work. (Actually their approach is quite complex and has unique technical risks). But algae can be effective at cleaning up waste water. Imagine algal-cleanup as one step of an integrated complex, and the costs go down substantially.

The only scalable approach I can see is for algae to be engineered to excrete their oil in situ. What drives the cost of algae up so much are the difficulties of collecting the algae, separating from water, and then separating the oil from the algae. (Often overlooked is that the oil must be further processed to biodiesel or green diesel). Now imagine a pond of algae in which the oil "leaks" out while the algae grow. The process of collecting the oil would be dramatically simplified. A caveat of course is that engineered algae tend to get out-competed by native strains. The bigger caveat is that this technology doesn't exist, but companies are working on it.

The wild card out there is the Solazyme approach. Think sugarcane ethanol, except instead of yeast producing ethanol you have algae producing oil. The approach is interesting - which is why I mention it - and gets away from many of the problems inherent in trying to produce fuel from algae. Is it more efficient than sugarcane ethanol? I think it's too early to tell. But one poster at The Oil Drum indicated that during a Q&A with a Solazyme representative, he couldn't come close to a believable answer regarding scale-up costs. So while I think this one bears watching, it is far too early to suggest that this will pan out.

For a balanced overview of fuel from algae, see Biotech's green gold?

Cellulosic Ethanol

I see two major problems with the scalability of cellulosic ethanol. First, the logistical challenges of getting a lot of biomass into the plant is going to limit the size of the plant. As I pointed out in an essay on Coskata, to run their proposed plants would take the equivalent of over a million trees per year. In terms of rail cars, this is over 1 per hour, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year in and out of the plant to dump the biomass. And bear in mind that this is really a gasification to ethanol plant, with higher forecast yields than a conventional cellullosic process (i.e., a real cellulosic plant of this size would require even more biomass).

But beyond that, the ethanol that is produced from the cellulosic process is at a far lower concentration than that of corn ethanol. That means big energy inputs in order to make pure ethanol.

A good niche application for cellulosic ethanol could be a situation in which there is a lot of waste heat available near a point source of biomass. Generally, there isn't a lot of high quality waste heat that would contribute a lot to the steam needs of a cellulosic ethanol plant. But picture something like a cogeneration unit near a collection point for woody waste. The waste is being collected and is coming in anyway for disposal, and the heat output from the cogen unit may improve the economics.

Another alternative could be if there is another very cheap source of steam around that can't be better utilized. If you had a lot of coal in the same location as a lot of biomass, again a cellulosic process might work (but I would argue that depending on the source of biomass, gasification might be a more efficient solution here).

Hydrogen

While not generally considered a biofuel, I discussed hydrogen in my "Pretenders" piece so I will address it here as well. In my opinion, the most interesting realistic option for hydrogen is as energy storage for excess power. For instance, let's say you have a neighborhood in which most houses have enough solar panels to produce excess electricity at mid-day. Once the batteries are charged, what else can you do with that excess electricity? If it can't be diverted to someplace that has a need, then it may make sense to electrolyze water to produce hydrogen. This is not a very efficient process, and not something you would do under normal circumstances, but in this case it could be the best storage option.

Once the hydrogen is produced, it could either be used to fuel stationary fuel cells for the neighborhood when the solar panels aren't producing, or it could be compressed and used to fuel hydrogen combustion engines.

Corn Ethanol

A niche, you say? Aren't we producing 10 billion gallons of corn ethanol already? True, but I am talking about something that could actually stand on its own in the long run - unsubsidized - and still make a decent net contribution to our energy supplies. In that case, producers might still be able to sell 10-15 billion gallons of ethanol a year and make a profit, but the distribution pattern would be different. In a state with ample rainfall and rich soil, corn ethanol may be able to stand unsubsidized by making and consuming the ethanol locally. Corn ethanol may be a fine solution for Iowa (although E85 is not even cornering the market in Iowa, where it should be in its optimal market). Stretching it beyond a local solution is where the economics start to break down and the scheme only works with subsidies.

Here are some examples of what I am talking about. When corn ethanol is produced far from corn supplies - like in California - the economics became difficult due to the cost of shipping the corn to the plant. I talked about that in 2006, when I warned of the potential problems of Pacific Ethanol's plans to do just that. They filed for bankruptcy earlier this year.

Another example is when ethanol is produced from a state in which ethanol's energy balance is poor (e.g., parts of Nebraska, due to corn's irrigation requirements) and then shipped to California. If you look at the USDA's most recent paper on corn ethanol's energy balance (the one in which they used creative accounting), you can see from Table 2 that Nebraska's energy inputs for growing corn are about 20,000 BTU/bushel above the Midwest average. (By comparison, Iowa's are 11,000 BTU/bushel under the Midwest average). This has the overall impact of actually causing Nebraska's net energy from producing ethanol to be negative unless one adds a BTU credit for co-products. With such a marginal energy balance (and I haven't even mentioned the Ogallala Aquifer) it hardly makes sense to produce ethanol in the drier regions of Nebraska. It makes even less sense to then spend more energy shipping that ethanol far from the point of origin.

Conclusion

Those are some of the major niche applications I see, but there are certainly others. What corn ethanol is to the U.S., sugar beet ethanol may be to the EU and palm oil may be to Malaysia. The key to success for any of these is not to try to scale something that should operate in a niche. When we attempt to do this, we open up a can of perpetual subsidies in order to force something that doesn't fit, and often get unintended consequences in the process.

ADDENDA-
Greenest colleges in the US-check out the metrics
http://www.care2.com/greenliving/12-greenest-colleges-in-the-us.html

aloha
b

Posted by:

Please bring in your choice of bio-fuel Friday. Some suggestions:
white sugar
brown sugar
molasses
corn-canned or fresh
barley-no idea where you would get this unless you live on a farm...
potatoes
The main idea is that it should be cookable to produce some sort of starch or sugar. Note that none of these is cellulosic, since we haven't had a visit from Stephen Chu yet, he's busy running the energy policy for the country. Soon, maybe :-)
Here's what I'd like to plan:
1. cook the starch to release the sugars
2. ferment in separate containers (this will be really, really smelly) using yeast
3. Monday, we'll distill your sugar to ethanol (more smelly bits here)
4. We light your fuel to produce energy
Whenever we are doing this, you should be keeping a composition notebook of your thoughts, ideas, excuses, etc. so we can write up a proper lab report, and get that coveted "science lab credit" we're all looking for.
When we are not cooking, fermenting or distilling (sounds like a brewery, not a class), we can finish up the last two e2 videos on energy.
We'll also begin looking at the AP review books that are now in the bookstore, so get yours by the weekend, if possible.
Your homework over the weekend will involve the lab, the review book, and more readings from the textbook, which I will scan today.
As always, let me know if you have questions.
Remember, here is your "to do" list:
1. starch or sugar for Friday
2. review book at the bookstore or Amazon by Friday
3. composition notebook at the bookstore or elsewhere by Friday
aloha
b

Posted by:

Please review chapters 1 and 2 in the text. These practice quizzes might help:
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/chapter1/practice_quiz_.html
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/chapter2/practice_quiz_.html

I should have all of your quizzes from last week returned with comments for the second round, please let me know if I'm missing anything. You may notice a bump in your scores as we continue the iterative process.

Next: State of Mind, and Coal vs. Nuclear

We'll begin introducing more content from the text as we move into more concrete sections of it, as well as a lab on creating biofuel from sugar. We can start of that later this week if you like.
Let me know how it is going.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Hey folks,
Before I forget, here are the pre/post questions for next weeks' videos, if we have time:

e energy “State of Resolve” PRE-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What is a government subsidy? Can you give some examples of government
subsidies? How do these subsidies affect the industry involved?

2. Why are there state policies and federal policies? Do they always have the same
goals? Why or why not?


State of Resolve-POST-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What is the timeline for the implementation of AB 32, California’s Global Warming
Solutions Act to achieve the goal of a 25% reduction in greenhouse gas
emissions by 2020?

2. What important requirement does the companion bill, SB 1368, mandate for the
energy that California imports from out of state? In what ways will this mandate
encourage innovation?

3. What reasons do federal authorities cite for choosing not to implement these
policies nationwide? Do you agree with these reasons? Why or why not?

e2 energy “Coal and Nuclear: Problem or Solution?” PRE-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What type of energy do you think pollutes the natural environment the most? The
least? Why? Are there any energy sources that don’t pollute the environment at
all?

2. What are the major contributors to global warming?

3. What issues have we had with nuclear energy in the past? How is nuclear
energy perceived by the public today? Why? How might that change?


Coal and Nuclear-POST-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What is Carbon Capture Sequestration (CSS)? Could it be a solution to our
current energy problems? Why?

2. What are pebble-bed nuclear reactors?

3. What are long-term goals in terms of energy production and CO2 emissions?

4. How can the government contribute to helping solve the energy issues in the
United States?


-----
Next, here are the readings I promised you for our VTC with Mathis Wackernagel:

The Ecological Footprint:
Decision-Tool for Securing Wellbeing
in a Resource Constrained World

Mathis Wackernagel, PhD

Global Footprint Network

www.footprintnetwork.org


Starting in the mid 1980s humanity’s Ecological Footprint – human demand on Earth’s resources - has been bigger than what the Earth can supply. By 1996, humanity was using 15 percent more resources in a year than the planet could supply. Today, humanity’s overshoot is over 30 percent. Business-as-usual scenarios based on moderate projections of UN agencies show humanity using twice the planet’s regenerative capacity by 2050 (for details see our Ecological Footprint Atlas or Global Footprint Network and WWF’s Living Planet Report 2008). Reaching this level of overshoot may be ecologically impossible.

Growing ecological scarcity will be reshaping our world map. While the 20th century distinction between “developing and developed” countries will vanish, the 21st century division will increasingly be one of ecological creditor countries (such as Latin America, Canada, New Zealand, Gabon, whose residents consume less than what their ecosystems can regenerate) and ecological debtor countries. New investment priorities will have to emerge to make the 21st century successful, and ecological creditor nations will have a leg up – if they manage their ecological assets well.

The infrastructure we build today – roads, power plants, housing; water systems, urban expansions – may last 50 or even 100 years. Since infrastructure shapes the way we live, today’s investment decisions largely determine the level and type of resource consumption for decades to come. Poor choices can lock us into this ecologically (and economically) risky business-as-usual scenario. Good choices will build the foundation for prosperity.

Can we future-proof our economies and cities in time? What will be needed a few decades from now? Can we direct our investments into infrastructure that will enable countries and cities to provide wellbeing in a world of rising resource constraints?


-----
This link to paper #2:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/ecological_footprint.pdf
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/ecological_footprint_slides.pdf

Please check these out, and look at the global footprint website at:

http://www.globalfootprint.org

Let me know your thoughts before our meeting.
I'll also include the GFN proposal:

Global Footprint Network: A Global Curriculum Project

Phase I
August 2009: I will collect a group of students in grades 8-12 that either know of/have met Mathis Wackernagel of the Global Footprint Organization in Oakland (globalfootprint.org), to develop a welcome and critical mass for presentations in late August by Mathis, Robert Rapier and hopefully Michael on the Global Footprint concept.
My choices would also include students that are interested in developing web and other resources for our next phase of the program, as described below.

September 2009: following our meetings with Mathis, Robert and Michael, we will choose a critical mass for phase I of a global footprint "network" (I'll refer to as GFN). This might include schools in the following locations:

International School of Hamburg-contacts Andreas Klimkeit, Rüdiger Wrobel et al
Palmer School, north of Anchorage Alaska-contacts Steve Kreuger, Ray DePriest, Mark Standley
Darrow School, NY
San Francisco Bay area school, TBD, possibly close to Mathis' group
Denver/Boulder school, possibly tied to the National Renewable Energy Lab, which Lindsay visited recently, we have alumni contacts there.
Taiwan-possibly working with Daniel Tsai, HPA parent
Beijing
Sydney Australia
New Zealand
Switzerland
Ghana
Chile or Brazil

Our immediate goals will be to develop a short term, achievable goal, perhaps along the lines of a school survey on global footprint, to develop communication between GFN students, and to then extend into more involved projects, once we have secured funding.

November 2009: schools meet virtually using skype, web presence and other methods comfortable for the students (Facebook, MySpace, etc.) in preparation for the next phase. Evaluation of goals, schools, and introduction of second tier schools, in conjunction with a web presence or meeting space.


Once funding is secured, I propose the following projects, some of which might be chosen for phase I projects:

• Develop a web based GFN page where students can enter data for comparison, contests, and sharing solutions. This would have an integrated map to represent GFN students, and include links to GFN school sites. This would also function as a virtual portal for GF related resources already online.

• In the same way, the HPA Energy Lab will become a physical portal, so that students can visit, either via teleconferencing or in person for workshops, shared speakers, field studies and comparisons, and student exchanges. We would then multiply the resources available at each GFN partner school by engaging students worldwide in the resource. These resources would then be documented and added to the virtual portal above for future development. We might envision workshops over the summer/winter breaks where students come to learn about sustainability and use the Energy Lab as a Pied a Terre for visits to the Upolu wind farm, Puna Geothermal, Mauna Loa atmospheric observatory, and the Keahole ocean energy project as examples.

• Online challenges/games to be included in the web resource portal:
1. Recycle challenge-weigh all recycled materials weekly in your home or school. Compare with mass of materials purchased. This is inspired by the Energy Lab construction process where all materials entering and leaving the site are weighed, with 98.8% either recycled or accounted for in the building construction.
2. Home/school water recycling/reuse calculator: count toilet flushes in a week, then measure amount of water used. Count washes and showers/baths taken and compare with toilet use. Calculate impact on your community/globally if greywater were used for toilets. Develop a prototype device for this (tank, pump, filters, etc.)
3. Food miles calculator-includes food miles for all consumables including store-bought materials, delivered items (UPS/FEDEX), and impact on global footprint of small changes done over large populations
4. Henk Rogers of the Blue Planet Foundation is working on a Nintendo style game of an island resources simulation. A similar game could be designed that is web based, and allow users to run a SIM City sort of simulation on communities.
5. Energy tracker, along the lines of fitness trackers, enabling students to track their energy use at home/school on line, with contests for % decrease in energy use. Global impact calculations of the change in GF if entire community/country were to adopt the changes.
6. Rabbit Island simulation of growth rates, and the study of population growth, including r and K restricted population growth curves (e.g. bacteria vs. mammals). Carrying capacity studies could be simulated for GF of different populations.
7. Online global RISK game, where players have certain GDP and GFI (global footprint index) values, players play to not just win (a la Risk) but to be sustainable. This models global investment strategies to be developed.
8. Solar panel counting: community adoption of solar thermal and solar PV panels can be counted in a transect model, akin to biology reef studies. GPS information would then enable students to include the data in a web based GIS type of resource to be shared by other GFN students.

• Once we secure funding, a larger project might be to create an iPhone app, developed jointly by our students and programmers/developers I now work with. This iPhone application would appeal to student users, and might include the following:
1. A self-contained Global Footprint calculator app, so that students could query friends and determine their GF score
2. A link to our web portal (above) including student name, location (gathered by the GPS location services in the iPhone), and integration into a global map.
3. Contest access, similar to fitness programs now available online and on the iPhone, for students to compete and gather data about their student peers, adults, community members' GF scores
4. Self contained food miles calculator for use when shopping in person or online.

I envision these programs enabling our students to gain fluency in the Global Footprint concept, and to become engaged learners in the process.

Notes:
1. possible internships supported by the grant, visiting scholars/researchers at the energy lab, hosted by HPA.
2. IP options?
3. Student assessment of Sustainability for local resorts/hotels, publish a list of "green hotels"

Posted by:

Hi folks,
You will find two chapters scanned online from our likely text candidate:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/enger/

Please read chapters one and two for Thursday, we'll discuss more today (Tuesday)in class.

Support pages:
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/

YOUR AP TEXTBOOKS ARE IN THE BOOKSTORE.

Also, I forgot to finish my mention of Choren, can you figure out why the company is named CHOREN? Think CHO and REN
Answer tomorrow in class...

Thanks
aloha
b

Posted by:

Folks,
Let's follow up our questions with these, in order (I hope):

Paving the way POST-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What is a hybrid vehicle and how does it function? What are the positive aspects
of owning one? Negative aspects?

2. What problems do we currently face due to our society’s dependence on oil? Are
there benefits behind our current system?

3. How could using lightweight materials to manufacture cars help the environment?

4. Why wouldn’t every car manufacturer want to use lightweight materials right
now? What are some of the risks with being the first company to use a new
technology? What are some of the benefits of being the first?


Growing Energy PRE-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What do you know about ethanol? Where does it come from and what is it used
for?

2. Where does most of the oil that we use in the United States come from? What
problems do we currently face due to our society’s dependence on oil?

3. Why do you think farmers in the United States are sometimes paid to not grow on
their land?



Growing Energy-POST-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. Should the United States consider pursuing ethanol as a fuel for cars? Why or
why not?

2. Describe the difference between ethanol made from corn and ethanol made from
cellulosic sources. Is one preferable to the other? Why or why not?

3. Even though the United States doesn’t have the climate to duplicate how Brazil
created ethanol, can the United States gain knowledge from the success that
Brazil has had with ethanol?


e energy “State of Resolve” PRE-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What is a government subsidy? Can you give some examples of government
subsidies? How do these subsidies affect the industry involved?

2. Why are there state policies and federal policies? Do they always have the same
goals? Why or why not?


State of Resolve-POST-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What is the timeline for the implementation of AB 32, California’s Global Warming
Solutions Act to achieve the goal of a 25% reduction in greenhouse gas
emissions by 2020?

2. What important requirement does the companion bill, SB 1368, mandate for the
energy that California imports from out of state? In what ways will this mandate
encourage innovation?

3. What reasons do federal authorities cite for choosing not to implement these
policies nationwide? Do you agree with these reasons? Why or why not?

e2 energy “Coal and Nuclear: Problem or Solution?” PRE-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What type of energy do you think pollutes the natural environment the most? The
least? Why? Are there any energy sources that don’t pollute the environment at
all?

2. What are the major contributors to global warming?

3. What issues have we had with nuclear energy in the past? How is nuclear
energy perceived by the public today? Why? How might that change?


Coal and Nuclear-POST-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What is Carbon Capture Sequestration (CSS)? Could it be a solution to our
current energy problems? Why?

2. What are pebble-bed nuclear reactors?

3. What are long-term goals in terms of energy production and CO2 emissions?

4. How can the government contribute to helping solve the energy issues in the
United States?


Posted by:

POST-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What is the problem with using kerosene to fuel lamps? What are the
alternatives for Bangladeshis?

2. How did access to renewable energy help the economic growth of the poorer
communities of Bangladesh?

3. The United Nations stated that sustainable development “implies meeting the
needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs”. Given this definition do you think the programs of
Grameen Bank and Grameen Shakti (the non-profit organization) are promoting
sustainable development? Why or why not? Use specific examples.



PRE-VIEWING QUESTIONS

1. What types of energy currently power cars? What types of energy show promise
for powering cars in the future?

2. What are the challenges of fueling cars on gasoline, both from an environmental
and political perspective?

3. What percentage of the gasoline in a car do you think is used to move it forward?

4. It is often said that people “love their cars”. What do cars represent in our
society? How dependent are you, your family and your city/town on automobiles?
Do you use other forms of transportation?


Please email to bill@hpa.edu with homework apes in the subject line

aloha
b

Posted by:

Harvesting the wind:
POST-VIEWING QUESTIONS
1. What is a community wind farm? How is it different than any other wind farm?
2. Dan Juhl says that community wind is a “trifecta,” what are the three reasons that
he thinks this is true? Do you agree? Why or why not?
3. In what ways has the blade manufacturing facility benefited the community of
Pipestone?
4. If we used all of the wind energy available what percentage of our energy needs
could it power?

For tomorrow:
e2 energy “Energy for a Developing World”
PRE-VIEWING QUESTIONS
1. What is micro-credit? What are the benefits and challenges?
2. How is the importance of energy a factor in economic growth?
3. What are some renewable, alternative forms of energy to create electricity and
heat?

Posted by:

APES notes
Keystone: influence greater than relative abundance
ex: predator keeps herbivore pop down, preserves rare grass

Biomes:
terrestrial, freshwater, marine
latitude, humidity, elevation-terrestrial
freshwater:
rivers, wetlands and basins (deeper than what they serve)
marine:
neritic -close to shelf
benthic-deep, sloping away from con shelf
pelagic-open sea
abyssal-very deep
hadal-trenches

food webs:
connections of energy from producer to consumer
trophic pyramid (see plankton to ahi, bioaccumulation)
primary producers: autotrophs-photosynthetic plants, chemotrophic (sulfur)-inorganic sources (also foundation species)
heterotrophs-get energy from organic sources:
herbivores, carnivores, scavengers
lots of energy lost between trophic levels (thermodynamics)

ecosystems-
abiotic environment
producers-autotrophs, e.g. plants
consumers-heterotrophs, e.g. herbivores, canrivores
decomposers-detritovores

photosynthesis-
CO2, water, light into organic compounds (e.g. sugars)
photoautotrophs-plants
carbon fixation (redox rx) reduction is CO2 to CHO
chlorophyll, carotenes and xanthophylls

cellular respiration-
conversion of energy to ATP (phosphate bonds)
glucose, amino acids and fatty acids with O2 as an oxidizer (accepts electrons) OIL RIG
aerobic and anaerobic metabolysis (aerobic is 19x more efficient)
TCA cycle, mitochondria

biodiversity-
variation of life forms within a biome or ecosystem
genetic
species
ecosystem
creates stability and robustness in ecosystems

biogeochemical cycles (nutrient cycles)
how an element or molecule travels through biotic (living things) and abiotic (earth, air, water) parts of earth
reservoirs may differ: N2 in air, P in soil
closed system: C N O P
open system: energy, e.g. photosynthesis
cycles:
carbon
nitrogen
oxygen
phosphorus
water
also mercury and atrazine (herbicide)

GM crops
genetic engineering vs. selective breeding or mutation breeding
concerns: ecological, economic (LDC) and IP rights (see Monsanto)
uses restriction enzymes to ID and isolate genes
inserted using gene gun (plasmid) or agrobacterium

GMO
insertion or deletion of genes
recombinant DNA, transgenic organisms
if no DNA from other species, cisgenic (cis vs trans)
lentiviruses-can transfer genes to animal cells
Genentech-Berkeley 1978, created human insulin from E. Coli (vs. cow or pig insulin)

pesticides-
biological, chemical, antimicrobial, disinfectant
pests: pathogens, insects, weeds, mullosks, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes and microbes
any food competitor or spoiler, also disease vectors
herbicides-glyphosate (roundup)
insecticides-HCl, carbamates, pyrethrins, etc.
green fungicides-paldoxins
EPA regulates
banned: carcinogenic, mutagenic or bioaccumulators
see also NRDC

pesticide laws-
Federal insecticide act-1910
Federal insecticide, fungicide and rodenticide act (FIFRA)-1947 then 1972, 1988
1947-ag dept
1972-EPA
3 categories: antimicrobials, biopesticides, conventional

forest management-
silviculture, protection and regulation
conservation and economic concerns
watershed management included
see also FSC 1993, forest stewardship council

applied ecology-
conservation biology, ecology, habitat management
invasive species management
rangeland management
restoration ecology

land management-
habitat conservation
sustainable ag
urban planning

sustainable ag-
environmental stewardship
farm profitability
farming communities
e.g. ability to produce food indefinitely, without causing damage to ecosystem health
see also erosion, irrigation/salinization, crop rotation
see also landraces, e.g. prairie grasses

mining laws-
SMCRA
surface mining control and reclamation act (1977)
1. regulates active coal mines
2. reclamation of abandoned mines
dept of interior admin
response to strip mining (1930+)
SMCRA
regulation:
1. standards of performance
2. permitting
3. bonding
4. inspection/enforcement
5. land restrictions
compare to 1945 strip mining practices

Fisheries laws-
monitor and protect fisheries resources
overfishing conference 1936
1957: Beverton and Holt did study on fish dynamics
goals:
1. max sustainable biomass yield
2. max sust. econ yield
3. secure employment
4. secure protein supply
5. income from export
6. bio and economic yield
UNCLOS-UN convention on law of the sea
EEZ-exclusive economic zones
12 mi = coastal sovereignty
200 mi = fishing restrictions
2004-UN made stricter laws on fisheries mgt.
1995 code of conduct for responsible fisheries
quotas, taxation, enforcement (USCG)


tragedy of the commons-
1968 Science article-Garrett Hardin
individual benefit, common damage
strict management of global common goods
see also overgrazing, pollution, privatization
"a fundamental extension of morality"

ozone depletion-
stratospheric ozone depletion
4% since 1970
ozone hole over antarctica
catalytic destruction of ozone by chlorine and bromine
halogen compounds CFCs (freons) and bromofluorocarbons (halons)
ODS ozone depleting substances
ozone blocks UVB 270-315 nm
Montreal protocol 1987 banned CFCs
O + O3 --> 2O2 (transparent)
Cl + O3 -->ClO + O2
ClO + O3 -->Cl + 2O2
effects:
1. ++ carcinomas
2. melanomas
3. cataracts
4. ++ tropospheric ozone (toxic)
5. kills cyanobacteria (rice nitrogen fixers)

Posted by:

Monday:
Review graded quizzes on pollution, poisoned waters

Wednesday:
Please review this folder:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/apx/
I have copied the covered sections in the AP exam, including the approximate weighting of each section. We must focus our attention on these topics in the review time we have left.
In class Wednesday, we will review the FRQ section from the last test in class to learn how better to answer this sort of question for next week's AP exam.

Friday:
Last roundup of review topics, your questions from the outline in the apx folder above.

Topics from the folder above we need to work on:
keystone species
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keystone_species
terrestrial and aquatic biomes
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomes
food webs
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_webs
trophic levels
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trophic_levels
photosynthesis and cellular respiration
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photosynthesis_and_Respiration
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_respiration
biodiversity
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity
biogeochemical cycles: C, N, P, S, H2O
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biogeochemical_cycles
GMO crops
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GM_crops
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetically_modified_organism
types of pesticides
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pesticides
pesticide laws
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Insecticide,_Fungicide,_and_Rodenticide_Act
forestry/management
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forest_management
rangelands/management
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Applied_ecology
sustainable land use
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_management
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_agriculture
mineral laws
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_Mining_Control_and_Reclamation_Act_of_1977
fishing laws
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fisheries_management
tragedy of the commons
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tragedy_of_the_commons
(n.b. the date of the original article is 1968 by Garret Harding)
ozone depletion
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_depletion

As you may notice, the textbook and the class syllabus on which it was based include several topics not covered on the AP exam. Since we have limited time to prepare, we should restrict our discussions to those topics on the list in the apx folder above.
To prepare for Friday's review, please seek out the topics outlined above in wikipedia, as it represents a current and comprehensive view.
--UPDATE--
Good questions to research on your own:
Elliot's question about ozone depletion is covered very well here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_depletion

As well as a good section on CFCs and HFCs:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorofluorocarbon#Chloro_fluoro_carbon_compounds_.28CFC.2C_HCFC.29

Will's question on the water cycle is covered here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_cycle
and his question on zones (benthic, littoral, etc.) is covered under biomes on the right side of the page:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomes
The question on food webs is covered well here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_webs
which includes a discussion of food pyramids as well.

If you finish all of the above, and want a very good summary of energy topics, I have some workshop materials (just released) located here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/06_Environmental_Science_Special_Focus.pdf

It is very long, but if you find it interesting, I'm happy.


b

Posted by:

Monday:
Review video, quiz on video
Review on FR questions assigned as HW over the weekend (see below)

Monday night:
Go to this site and begin the review process:
http://www.cathylaw.com/APES/apestextnotes.html
These will be very helpful in your preparation for the AP exam, although their content is directly from your textbook, which is much more inclusive on some topics than the exam will be.

For class Wednesday:
Go here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/apes_free_reponse/
and complete the four Free Response questions from 2004 (answers and scoring guidelines are on the same site)
Please do the questions, then review the scoring guidelines for each question to see how you might improve

Turn these in before class.

Wednesday:
90 minute multiple choice practice exam. This will start exactly at 8 AM and end exactly at 930 AM.

For class Friday:
Go here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/apes_free_reponse/
and complete the four Free Response questions from 2005 (again, scoring guidelines are on the same site)
Turn these in before class.

Friday:
90 minute free response practice exam. This will start exactly at 120 PM and end exactly at 250 PM. If you have a conflict and need to end at 245, see me Monday.

Weekend:
Free response practice 2006 and 2007
Lab:http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/labs/labs_ap/lab33_climate_change.pdf
Due Monday, before class
This will give you 20 more lab points, which should help some of you with your grade.


Following week:
We'll go over the answers for the practice exam, discuss process of elimination strategies, and review any weak spots you think you'd like to work on.
You can assume that the Free Response questions for 2008 will be due Wednesday, May 6 before class.
Remember, your score on the AP will depend largely on your effort in preparation. I'm available most X periods for any questions, and if you are too busy, email me with your questions. I'm eager to help, and see you do well on the exam.
Sense of higher purpose: Some of you may go into this, the fastest growing field in many universities. Some of you are from nations where the issues we have discussed over this year are just now becoming problems. It is my hope that more than just getting a good grade on the AP exam, you take the lessons we've learned and make something of them. You are in a unique place, at a unique time. As you may have seen in the Frontline video, it is you who will be questioned by your children on how you reacted to this challenge.
Good luck this week, and in two weeks, when you take your exam.
Please see the notes and addenda from last class below.
b

Posted by:

Please open these pdf files
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/apes_apexam1.PDF
pages 14 and 15

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/apes_apexam2.PDF
pages 14, 15 and 16

Bring in your completed free response questions Monday.
I'll also have a video for you to watch and take notes on from Frontline on PBS Thursday:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/poisonedwaters/

This is very timely, since your test today.
Watch particularly the guy lying about 36 minutes in...he blames chicken waste on deer.

Try to watch this video from their site, as soon as I can download it, I'll put it on the server.

Check here for a link, as soon as it is on the server.
b

--ADDENDA--
Please make every effort to see the video linked above. I've just previewed your next practice exam, and at least 6 questions can be answered from topics covered in the video.
b

Posted by:

Congratulations to both sides for a noble tie today.
Friday, be prepared for a quiz on the second section of the wikipedia homework assignment on global warming.
Please also read the articles in the past entry on the laws we may see on the AP exam:
Superfund:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superfund
RCRA:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RCRA
Clean Air Act:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clean_air_act
Federal Water Pollution Control Act:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Water_Pollution_Control_Act
National Environmental policy act:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Environmental_Policy_Act

And answer the following questions:

1. CERCLA stands for what?
2. What happened at Love canal?
3. How was CERCLA expanded in 1986?
4. How is the SuperFund funded now?
5. What two kinds of response actions are outlined in the CERCLA?
6. Who are the "potential responsible parties" under CERCLA?
7. What is the NCP revision, and how does it impact polluters?
8. What is the NPL and what is it's role?
9. What does RCRA stand for?
10. Why is it an improvement on the 1965 law on solid waste?
11. Explain "cradle to grave" requirements and give an example.
12. What is a TSDF, and how does it manage hazardous waste?
13. What is a "whistleblower" and how are they provided for in the RCRA?
14. What are the corporate arguments against the clean air act?
15. Describe the 1955, 1963, 1967, 1970, 1977 and 1990 acts and cite a common theme and opponent.
16. What was new in the 1990 law that may affect third world nations?
17. Last week the EPA made news regarding CO2 emissions and the clean air act. What happened?
18. What is the CWA, and how is it enforced?
19. What are navigable waters, and how are they defined?
20. How does the CWA treat point sources? Give at least two examples.
21. How is this different for non-point sources?
22. What is different with the WQA of 1987?
23. Explain the NEPA act of 1970, and its impact.
24. What happened off the coast of Santa Barbara in 1969 (also the year of Woodstock, and several assassinations)?
25. What is an EIS, and are they required today?
26. How does an EIS differ from an EA?


Please turn these in before class on Friday.


Check here for updates/changes as needed.
The physics server seems to be working now, so there is no need to use the alternate for now.

We will resume our AP jeopardy after the quiz.
Please see the note below from our AP staff:
AP PREADMINISTRATION SESSION (Mandatory for all AP students)
Date: Tuesday, April 28, 2009
Time: 12:30 p.m. - 1:15 p.m. (during X-block)
Place: Taylor Commons Dining Room
What to bring: No. 2 pencil and eraser

Students will also receive important information regarding exam locations, times, what to bring, what not to bring, etc. during this session.

Please also ask students to come and see me before Tuesday, April 28, if they believe they will need to test late, due to sport conflicts. So far we will potentially have students testing late during May 20-22 for AP Calculus AB, AP English Literature and Composition, AP European History, AP United States History and possibly AP Japanese Language and Composition.
b

Posted by:

0 comments

APES archive 2010-2011

Please check out the new location at
http://elabweb.hpa.edu

My weblog is at:
http://elabweb.hpa.edu/users/bill/

Our resources can be found at
http://elabweb.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/

Grades can be found here:
http://elabweb.hpa.edu/~admin/grades/apes/
or here for greentech folk:
http://elabweb.hpa.edu/~admin/grades/greentech/

Our online exams can be found here:
https://www.eztestonline.com/207829/index1.tpx

I'll be creating a resource page (thanks Ian) Thursday

Please review your notes for tomorrow.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Nice work on the last exam. Here is a link to some background on the coal/nuclear video you are working on now:
http://www.pbs.org/e2/teachers/pdfs/206_coal_and_nuclear_edu.pdf
Please remember to email your answers to me before class Tuesday.

Chapter 9:Energy

From the lab:
kWh is a unit of energy, bc Watts are a unit of power (work/time), so need to multiply kW by time (hours) to get energy

we found: you can measure current (i) with a clamp on meter
most applicances are either 120 Vac or 220 Vac, 60 Hz (cycles per second)

ohms law: V=iR volts = current(amps) x resistance (ohms)
Using ohmmeters, we can measure resistance, and calculate current.

Also useful: Power = V2/R

Joule's law: P = iV (also known as "pie" formula: P=iE)

Again, power is in watts, i is in amperes (amps) and voltage is in volts.

we calculated power of the hot water heater/coffee maker, about 900 watts
we could calculate the power of a 220 Vac air conditioner to be 8.8 amps at 220 volts, or 2000 watts. Units like these are found all over the campus. Note where you see a fatter than usual cord plugged into a special looking outlet, these are 220 volt outlets.

biggest expenses in homes are "vampire loads", on 24/7
not large, but the time factor makes them costly

cost: electrical energy in Hawaii is about $0.35/kWh, highest in the nation
CA is about 7, Oregon is about 5.

To calculate cost, multiply amount of kW by number of hours (recall that 720 hours are in a month)
so, kWh x $0.35/kWh gives you dollars

We can measure light output at 50 cm (0.5m) for a 45 watt incandescent light bulb and a compact fluorescent bulb (CFL)
The incand. bulb emitted 220 lux at 50 cm, and consumes 45 watts
the cfl emitted 450 lux at 50 cm and consumes 13 watts

recall the lux per watt of power numbers, the cfl comes out about 6x more efficient.

This demonstration needs to be done in a dark room, such as the electrical room.

--------
Textbook chapter 9 notes:

Between 1900-2007:
world energy changed 16x, economy 70x, population only 4x
why?
80% fossil fuels: all ultimately stored solar energy
fossil: nonrenewable
renewable: in this lifetime, perpetual
resources: all that is out there
reserves: all that can be extracted economically
resources-stay constant
reserves-increase as technology enables access, decreases with use.
Q infinity
Pennsylvania in 1859: oil discovered in PA
Coal: from freshwater swamps 300 my ago, covered with water, so anaerobic decay (e.g. peat bogs)
sediment wt. compressed to peat, then to lignite, then sub-bituminous coal, bituminous and anthracite (lowest water content).
n.b. relative carbon content increases as organics decompose, lose H and O molecules (plants were CHO, coal is just C)
US and china have lots of coal reserves...
global warming issues, railroads as transport,
question: what did Warren Buffet buy on Friday, 11.6.2009? Why?

Oil/natural gas:
marine organisms, ocean bottom, decay released oils into muddy sediments->shale (see oil shales in Canada)
IFF sandstone on top of shale, (oil sands, see Colorado), oil will pass through sands.
IFF cap rock, it will trap oil in domes:
gas-oil-water
"gushers" are not the real way, usually gas first-very dangerous, some emit H2S gas-very toxic (indonesia)
middle east has 60% of oil reserves, but they have reached "peak oil"
We need to discuss this-it is very important-----

80% world energy is non-renewable-heading for a crash
80% = coal 25%, oil 36%, gas 21%
n.b. could trains transport natural gas? what method is used in the US to move most of our coal? why? notice any connections?

Coal: more
lignite-brown coal, all that is left in UK, lots of water, low energy content, usually burned near the mine for energy
Sub-Bituminous coal-used for power plants
Bituminous coal-used for power, cement, steel
Anthracite-bldg heating (cleanest)

surface mining-strip mining, leaves tailings (see mine disaster of 2008 in US)
IFF overburden too thick (>100m) then mining needed
drift or vertical shaft mines
silicosis-black lung disease: external cost of mining (we pay the health care of miners)

Issues: land damage, toxic runoff (see butte, MT), dust, acid deposition, CO2 (coal is worst of oil/gas/coal for CO2 per kWh gained)

Oil: benefits: easier to extract, more concentrated energy, burns cleaner, can be moved through pipes (no trucks or trains needed).
found: land or ocean floor, harder to find today
primary recovery vs. secondary recovery (water injection), tertiary (steam)-see tar sands and oil shale issues
Processing: see 9.14

transport issues: exxon valdez, others (France:amoco cadiz, santa barbara)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_spills

p.195: ANWR-which option is sustainable?

Natural Gas:
21% of global energy
Usually extracted like oil, uses air for secondary extraction.
transported as LNG (liquified natural gas)
cleanest burning, least env impact, safest, cleanest burning, most kWh per CO2
Also: CH4 used to form NH4 fertilizers (thanks again, Dr. Haber and Dr. Bosch)

Renewable energy---------
fossil fuels: 80% global use
nuclear: 6%
energy use: 2% per year, present doubling time is 20 years, as supplies are constant or decrease as demand increases, renewables become more profitable
(n.b. if you use the rule of 70 on this 2% you get 35 years. Why do I then say 20 years?)

12% of global energy:
biomass, hydro, wind, solar, geothermal, tidal
biomass (e.g. wood) mostly in Under Developed countries
biomass: fuel wood, solid waste (Hpower plant)
bagasse (Maui land and sugar), and ethanol (e.g. corn, or sugar cane-Brazil)

energy from biomass:
burning; wood stoves, co-gen (combined heat and electricity generation system)
biofuels: ethanol, biodiesel
E85 is 85% ethanol

biodiesel: palm, rapeseed, soy, jetropha, 36% of global BD produced in DDR

biogas: anaerobic bacterial digestion-methane and CO2
see also landfills (e.g. kailua, oahu)

pyrolysis: fischer-tropsch process-syngas process

issues: competition with food crops, habitat loss,biodiversity loss, global warming, air pollution (leading cause of lung cancers in LD countries)

hydropower:
high "head" means deep dam, with thermoclines, habitat disruption (cool water pollution), sedimentation, limited dam lifespan. See logarithmic backflow curve.

low "head" systems like Aswan dam in Egypt, three gorges dam in China (look this up) 22,500 mW !
minihydro: less than 10 mW
microhydro: less than 1 mW
can be diverse, lower impact, decrease transit losses

issues: flooding of back lands (see china)
The construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China inundated 153 towns and 4500 villages and caused the displacement of over a million people. In addition, numerous archeological sites were submerged and the nature of the scenic canyons of the Three Gorges was changed.

fish ladders, silt fertilization, inorganic mercury -> organic mercury, bioaccumulation.

Solar energy--------
ultimate answer-
issues: only available in daytime-so must store energy
intermittent and diffuse (e.g. oceans)
ocean thermal energy conversion: OTEC Keahole
1. passive solar/solar thermal
2. active solar-pumped solar thermal
3. PV

passive: trombe walls: energy lab is essentially a liquid trombe wall in reverse
sunspaces are like the spaces in the ladakh school (see e2 video on this)

design of windows and floors to absorb heat from day to warm in night is another
see "daylighting" or smart skylights...
n.b. passive systems require no external energy to collect
another example: solahart passive convective solar thermal energy collector systems

Active solar: contrast this with solahart-need a pump (can be PV powered) to run solar thermal system
can be simple or complex (varied pump speeds with radiation, optimized ∆t, etc.)

coolant can be the substance used (e.g. hot water) or something else (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol)-these are also used for geothermal well cooling heating systems.

some systems are testing hot oil to 300°C, stored for later use, e.g. spain project, Keahole project, mojave desert project.

Solar Electric plants
two types: PV (direct) and solar thermal to steam (STS)

PV systems: crystalline silicon is expensive (see solar film video), but direct kWh from sunlight, no moving parts, 30 year lifespan, no maintenance (cleaning only)

Solar furnace: heats oil or other storage medium to 390°C (e.g. SEGS and Segovia plant in Spain)

see also solar stills for water desalinization and purification in LD countries

PV now at $0.20 per kWh (more than US, less than Hawaii-we are past the profit point on this)
efficiency: now at 14%, soon to be 40% (sanyo bifacials are 22% at elab)

18x increase in 20 years

Wind-----essentially solar energy working through convection
Hadley, Ferrel, and polar cells-see the weather this week
cell circulation allows for the transfer of heat from hot earth to cool space
Issues: variable, site specific, usually far from urban centers (high demand)-if there were a means to transfer the energy without loss...
Hydrogen power?
Europe leads wind power
concerns: birds (myth, except at Altamont pass), unsightly (true) latest plan: site them offshore cape cod in Mass.
people are NOT happy about it
map 9.29 is bogus, we are class 7 in Waimea
two types of turbines, VAWT and HAWT-why is each suited for specific uses?
noise, pressure waves also...


Geothermal---
What is it? heat close to the surface: hot rocks, or steam from water percolating down into hot rocks. MAG-MA (important: say in voice of Doctor Evil)
CA leads in geothermal, HI also (here on BI, puna geothermal ventures)
see also NZ (Rotorua) and iceland (everywhere) 50% for heating, 50% for electricity-also being seen as hydrogen fuel site-see car talk video:

Who else do you know who has "vast energy resources and a very small population"?
Ring any bells?

see also closed loop systems: uses a coolant solution, very hot pipes, but no toxic gases released (an issue in Puna)
Hydrogen sulfide gas is very nasty-turns to sulfuric acid in the lungs, toxic to fish, etc. etc.
See also pyrolysis of water at high temperatures, perhaps even on your roof (one future elab project)

Tidal/current---
Solar energy of another sort: the sun's gravity allows us to orbit, with the momentum from our initial explosion that formed the solar system ca. 5 by ago. Moon is also orbiting-us. As the moon passes overhead, its gravity attracts everything (very small rocks, cider, mud, churches, a duck) including MAG-MA, continental plates, you, and the oceans.
As these bulges in water recede, they form currents and tides (not the same: tides ebb and flow, currents are relatively constant-see the Alenuihaha channel between Maui and Hawai'i)
One can harness these currents and tides for power, as they are essentially very small head (∆h) hydroelectric projects, except current energy, which has less to do with relative height than with global movement of water.
5 meters of ∆h needed to make tidal worthwhile. About 5 mph (2 m/s) needed to make current profitable, Hawaii has 12-20 mph current in the channel (google the UH ship Holo Holo, lost at sea, about 1977. issues: technical-biofouling, damage, corrosion.

Conservation---
Not sexy, but dollar for dollar, 4x more efficient than installing new wind or PV.
Like filling a bathtub while leaving the drain open.
idea: find out what energy-star means on an appliance
CFL bulbs-issues: mercury
see also small scale cogen plants (lichtblick)
http://www.reuters.com/article/GCA-GreenBusiness/idUSTRE5883E520090909

Storage methods:
Fuel cells-just like in Apollo 13
+ no pollution
- 40% efficient, 90% if you capture the waste heat for heating water, buildings, etc. Recall your first weeks here, and the idea of entropy-see how it fits now?
Can one make hydrogen non-flammable? No, but we can make it less explosive (lithium hydride canisters)

PSH pumped storage hydro (one reason the energy lab is sited where it is)

ASSIGNMENTS:
View these videos, questions follow:
About the School in Ladakh:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/e2_videos/e2%20design%202/1%20druk%20white%20lotus%20school-ladakh.m4v

Hydrogen Power:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/car/program.html
or here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/media/e2/nova_new_cars/nova_cars.mov
or Here if you are on the HPA network:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/media/e2/web_movies/nova.mp4

Read chapter 9, short quizzes this section instead of larger ones, be prepared each day.

Next assignment: Read this weblog on biofuels:
http://xserve.hpa.edu:80/groups/apes/wiki/2d15f/biofuel_articles.html

Mr. Emmons' moonshine page:
http://www.ehow.com/how_6042008_make-biofuel-potatoes.html

Let us know how we can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please watch this video, questions are below.

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/E2/e2%20energy/E2_ENERGY-12.mp4


Friday:
We will review 20 questions before the exam on chapter 8. Choose your questions wisely, perhaps ones that you may not be certain of.
Test to follow the review session, homework due at the beginning of class, so make a note of the questions you want to review before you turn in your work.

Below is a summary of notes from chapter 8 that might help you review.

Let us know if you have questions.
aloha
b

Video questions:
Please complete these over the weekend, and email your answers as well as the questions to me at bill@hpa.edu:

What is the "perfect storm" referred to in the video?

Trace the evolution of coal from a 19th century fuel to a 21st century fuel

What are the two biggest fuels for electrical power in the US? Compare this to the audio about the two energy systems in the US. What is the connection?

China starts a coal fired power plant every 6 days. How long will each plant be emitting CO2?

What are the big issues with coal?

"Clean coal" is now (2010) thought to be a myth. The video was done five years ago. Discuss both sides of this issue, including research on recent data (wikipedia might help).

How many years could coal provide energy is the issues were resolved?

Why would a politician from Montana want a carbon sequestration plant there? Where is the powder river basin? What comes from there?

The Coal Lady describes sequestration like a sponge-a better analogy might be CO2 into carbonated water, like we did in class. Why would they be concerned about faults? Why has no one tested CO2 sequestration, even the progressive test plant in Florida?

Su-bituminous coal is one type. What are the others, and why are they different?

Why does Dan Kammen think CO2 sequestration is a bad idea, or bad science? Is he wrong? What do you think? Why is he against the IGCC plant?

Coal power costs about $2 per kWh. Solar is about $5 per kWh, but may soon be as cheap as $0.50 per kWh. What would this do to the coal industry?

Coal lady says that we now release 100% of the CO2. How is she manipulating you?

IGCC stands for what, and why is it different from traditional plants? Why is the government helping fund this test? What do they do with the CO2?

Are you starting to see why to understand global climate change you first have to grasp the coal issue? Why?

We studied the cyclic nature of renewable energy development. Why is the fossil fuel cycle making this problematic?

Why is nuclear desirable over coal? Nuclear guy compares wind to nuclear, but he fudges the numbers-how is he lying?

What are the challenges to using nuclear power? Are these social or scientific?

Explain what happened at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl.

What is a pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR), and how is it different from traditional nuclear plants?

The Germans keep coming up in our discussions of energy. Why? In Victorian England of 1850, a gentleman was taught Latin instead of Chemistry, which was thought of a subject for menials. How did this differ from the German system?

Explain the Lego model for a PBMR, and why it changes the return on investment (ROI) and the net present value (NPV) for a nuclear plant.

The video does not mention it, but we are now (2010) reaching peak cheap uranium as well as peak cheap oil. How would this change the tone of the solutions presented?

Vijay is optimistic-why?


Notes from Chapter 8 in the textbook
ch 8 notes-energy patterns of consumption

sun->photosynthesis is main course of terrestrial energy
civilization: agriculture, domesticated animals, wood for cooking/shelter
industrial revolution: coal (was for heating, hard to mine)
Ind. rev: more coal (mining devices), steam heat/power-began in UK
good points: portable, can be industrially concentrated (e.g. mined), used for many purposes (heat, steam-> kWh, syngas, plastics)

n.b. fig 8.4-note trends from renewable (wood) to limited (fossil fuels)
natural gas-easy to gather (surface wells), easy to process, store
nat gas 23% of US energy
n.b. T. Boone Pickens' energy plan (look up on wikipedia)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T_boone_pickens#The_Pickens_Plan

biomass: renewable, but low energy density
How to concentrate? See BTL, Fischer-Tropsch process:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomass_to_liquid
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fischer_Tropsch
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel
Portals:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Energy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Ecology
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Sustainable_development
http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Category:Renewable_energy

See fig 8.6-why is Canada so high? Why is Bengaladesh so low?
n.b. heating water-greatest energy use for lowest quality energy-crazy!
See fig 8.8-why are we so high? why again is B so low?

Electricity: both a means for consumption and a means of transport (e.g. wires)
Primary electircal sources: burning fossil fuels, nuclear, hydro, geothermal, wind, tidal, solar
n.b. Norway and Canada hydro-why?
n.b. Iceland all geothermal-why?
n.b. France-nuclear-why? recall Mururoa atoll
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_nuclear_testing#Atmospheric_tests_at_Mururoa_.26_Fangataufa

50% of power in Korea for industry!

Governmental influence on energy use: OPEC 1973, CAFE standards, coal subsidies, interstate system vs. rail and bus systems
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Oil_Embargo
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CAFE_standards

electrical energy pricing-we will soon see a film on Enron-yikes!

OPEC-July 2008: $149/bbl

n.b. fig 8.14-what is the fastest growing region? why should this worry us?

see fig 8.15-notice OPEC countries, and regions of political instability
Is renewable energy our best means of national defense?




Posted by:

Team,
Remember in the beginning of our time together we discussed the four critical issues that you will have to navigate, cope with and/or solve: water, energy, food and culture.
This chapter is about energy, but not in the way usually covered in science textbooks, yet more in depth than you may have covered in any social studies textbook. This is such an important issue, yet it goes unmentioned in most of your classes.
It is vital that you understand not only the chain of energy use in our society and that of others, but the changes and vulnerabilities in these chains.

Some basic concepts:
1. All energy ultimately comes from the sun, either long ago as fossil fuels or biomass, as precipitation turning into hydroelectric power, convection driving wind, uranium deep in the core from the formation of the earth for geothermal, or the motion of the moon for tidal energy. It all comes from the sun in one way or another, renewably or stored from events long ago.

2. Before plants evolved on this planet, it looked a lot like Mars: red atmosphere, very hot, very high carbon dioxide levels. You saw this in the video. Plants converted this atmospheric carbon into plant structures like wood, which then either decomposed back into atmospheric carbon, or if it were covered, into fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas, depending on what covered it up (swamps, oceans or land).

3. When we dig up this stored carbon and combine it with oxygen in the atmosphere, a process we call "burning", it releases that stored carbon back into the atmosphere. Why should we care about this? Remember Mars? Radiation from the sun passes through our atmosphere. Some of it is trapped by layers in the atmosphere on the way down, this is necessary for life. I'm talking about the ozone layer and ultraviolet light. Visible light passes relatively easily to the ground, where it heats the ground, turning visible light into heat (longer wavelength, lower energy). This heat radiates back to space, but is trapped by several gases: among these are water vapor (one reason IR telescopes are located on the top of Mauna Kea, above the water vapor in the atmosphere), and carbon dioxide, which is dispersed through the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide does not allow infrared (heat) radiation to pass very well, effectively bouncing it back to the surface. Think of the black dashboard of your car in the sun: visible light passes through the windshield, hits the black plastic, then re-radiates back as heat, which cannot pass through the glass. Result: your car gets very hot. This is called the greenhouse effect, because since Roman times, it has been used to grow warm plants in cold environments, using glass houses called greenhouses. Clever, eh?
So, here's your question: if we continue digging up and burning fossil fuels stored eons ago when the atmosphere was full of carbon dioxide, and use this stored energy to run our civilization, what will happen to the temperature of the atmosphere?
This is one reason this chapter is much more important than you might sense at first reading.

4. Fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal have other elements stored with them that are released when burned. One example is the heavy metals and sulfur stored in coal: when it burns, it releases these elements into either the air (sulfur dioxide which then becomes acid rain) or in the toxic ash left behind (fly ash). So, beyond the greenhouse effect, fossil fuels make our life harder in other ways.

5. The control of fossil fuels begins with the industrial revolution, when coal was the big fuel, because it could be mined from the ground at rates higher and cheaper than one could harvest and transport wood. It is all about "intensity". Wood is a great, renewable biomass, but if you are lazy, or you run out of forest, you can dig up coal, which has much more energy stored in it per kg. Until about 1870, all oil came from whales (the reason that Lahaina developed over on Maui back then). After 1870, oil was discovered in Pennsylvania (you may have seen cans of oil labeled Pennzoil, this is why), which at first replaced whale oil for lamps and lubrication for machines, then was distilled or "cracked" into it's constituents: kerosene, diesel, gasoline, tar, asphalt, and others. Natural gas usually came along with oil, and the methods for collecting and compressing this into a usable fuel came along as well (you may have heard of gaslight in older literature-this was usually methane from these wells, captured and stored in large urban areas, then piped into houses and streets for lighting, heating and cooking).
The big concept again is intensity: wood is renewable, but coal, oil and gas are more concentrated, can be stored without rotting, and can be more easily transported and concentrated for industrial use. If we were still an agrarian (farming) society alone, we would not find fossil fuels so critical-unless…

6. Fertilizers are made up of three elements: N-P-K, which stand oddly for nitrogen, phosphorus and potash or potassium (kalium). The more critical of these for agriculture are the N and P parts. Through history, P was so critical that they actually dug up the bones of dead soldiers after major battles (such as Waterloo) to use as fertilizer, since bones are where we store phosphorus in our bodies. Nations sent ships all over the world looking for islands populated by birds and caves of bats because the bat guano (poop) was so high in phosphorous as well as nitrogen. Sailing ships would fill their holds with bird and bat poop and sail back to England to maintain their agricultural economy. Gunpowder (potassium nitrate, sulfur and charcoal) is made from nitrogen as well, in the form of nitrates. Most of this came from Chile, or from these poop ships.
Until…
Late in the 1800's, a German chemist named Haber found a way to extract the nitrogen in the air to form three chemicals: aniline, used to dye wool and cotton (recall the term "dyed in the wool"), make nitrogen based fertilizers, and to make gunpowder. You may know that a big thing happened in Germany around this time, with a dude named Bismarck (later to have a battleship and a town in the Dakotas named after him). Bismarck united the various city-states of Germany into one country. Ok, now put these together:
a. large country, lots of land
b. fertilizer, to make lots of crops on that land
c. food from these crops to increase the health and number of the population
d. new permanent chemical dyes that break the British monopoly on dying wool and cotton from their plantation countries of India and Egypt, among others. Think: loads of money.
e. gunpowder so you can go to war to get more land for (a) above using the soldiers from c above, fed by crops from (b) above, with weapons bought with money from (d) above.
The Germans invaded France, among other places. This was called World War I.

7. Later on, in 1932 King Ibn Saud formed the country of Saudi Arabia (see the word Saud in there?). Shortly thereafter, while drilling wells for water, they discovered oil. They then worked with an American company (Standard Oil) to collect and refine this oil, called ARAMCO, the Arab American Oil Company in 1933. All was just dandy until 1973, when the Arabs in Egypt, Syria and other places tried to attack Israel, our ally in the Yom Kippur War, to whom we gave weapons, and more importantly, satellite photos of the attacking Arabs, who were then defeated by the Israelis. Do you imagine the Arabs were happy about this? They were not. As major players in OPEC (the organization of petroleum exporting countries, controlling 78% of the world oil supply) they embargoed oil from any country friendly to Israel, including the US.
Check it out:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_oil_embargo

The result? All oil products increased in price, our economy faltered (we were just then finishing up a nasty, long war in Asia), and our country realized that energy was a critical issue. Conservation became important, our approach to cars, buildings and electricity changed, and it seemed like we were moving towards renewable energy sources.

Then, in 1978, Russia invaded Afghanistan. We pulled out of the olympics in 1980, Reagan came to power, devoted to crushing the Soviets by outspending them on the military. The Soviets needed cash, so they sold as much oil and natural gas as they could. The result? The price of oil dropped, renewable energy went to sleep, and Reagan took off the solar panels President Carter had installed on the white house. So it goes.

But wait! There's more! In 1990, Iraq, a major oil country, invaded Kuwait, our pal and an even more major oil country. Though small, these guys were loaded with cash, so we offered to help them kick Saddam Hussein out of Kuwait, which we did in the first gulf war. Oil, politics and the economy are never far from each other through history. Fast forward to 2008, when oil went from around $20 per barrel to $149 per barrel. This was like the 1973 Arab Oil Embargo, renewable energy once again became popular, conservation and smaller cars were in vogue, you get the picture. Do you notice a cycle here? Can you see a solution to this problem that will only get worse as you get older?

Well you need to know something else: the supply is running out. This is called "Peak oil" and it is even scarier than the last few oil shocks, because it is not so much political as it is a physical reality:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peak_oil

The point is, we are running out of what is known as "cheap oil". Think of this: why was BP drilling in water 5 thousand feet deep off the coast of Louisiana? There will always be oil in some places, but the cost of recovering it (either money or environmental or political) will exceed the market value. Notice I say market value here, if a country goes to war, this is no longer market driven.

Does this mean all we have to do is conserve energy, develop alternate renewable energy sources and we are all set?
Not quite.
Remember the Haber process? Sometime after oil became cheap, folks found a way to create fertilizers economically using petrochemicals. These replaced the less intense fertilizers (like bat and bird poop) that one had to gather, and enabled farmers to have access to cheap, effective fertilizers, raising yields and lowering the cost of food. Now think of peak oil. What will this mean for farmers, food supplies and political stability?
Throw into this mix a relatively recent development: using petrochemicals to grow corn in a monoculture that is then used not for food but for ethanol. The carbon balance on this is not only ugly, it is not sustainable. More than 1 liter of petroleum is used to create 1 liter of ethanol, while also diverting food crops to fuel.
There is another recent development related to crops and energy: Back in the 1930's, Germany (again) had limited access to petroleum, but ready access to coal. They needed petroleum for their economy, and two German scientists Fischer and Tropsh devised a process for turning coal into liquid fuel, called CTL (coal to liquid).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fischer-Tropsch_process
Recently, this process has been updated to enable biomass to liquid (BTL) to be economically viable. This is key, because it (a) does not use food crops, instead focusing on grasses and fast growing trees, (b) is sustainable, as the biomass grows naturally, captures carbon from the atmosphere, then carries this carbon as an energy vehicle where needed, then releases the carbon as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and c) enables countries with low intensity energy (e.g. agrarian or farming nations) to be energy self sufficient, or even energy exporters, enabling them to trade for other things, or to fend off predatory investment that might otherwise threaten their people, their environment, or their future.

So, we come full circle: Forests were sustainable, yet not concentrated enough for the wasteful industrial revolution of the 1850's. It was replaced by coal, then by oil, which has now reached peak production. We are now at a place in history where we can once again harvest sustainable biomass, use it wisely, and reach a sustainable energy future, while not threatening food supplies, political boundaries or cultures. Biomass is a part of the solution, that fits our current energy use, storage and distribution system. One reason we are studying electricity in class is that you may have heard of the "smart grid". One key to the adoption of renewable energy will be the storage and distribution of this energy from places where it is harvested (sunny, windy, geothermal or hydroelectric areas) to the places where the users are (urban areas formed in the fossil fuel era). Will these areas shift to be closer to the sources of the power? Perhaps. Some very wise, very wealthy folks are on to this: T. Boone Pickens made his billions on oil. He has now sold all of that, and is installing wind farms all over Texas.
Warren Buffet, another billionaire just bought the Southern Pacific Railroad, on which most of the coal in our country is delivered, usually from the Powder River Basin in Utah and nearby to power what? The coal fired electric plants around the country. Notice where these guys, who are experts at looking around the next corner are positioning themselves.
LIsten:
Two energy Systems in the US
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=128127191

T.Boone Pickens: "we don't get on our own resource when we have the opportunity to do it, this generation could go down as probably the dumbest crowd that ever came down the street."
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125533464&sc=emaf

Electricity in America:
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=103417561

Framing climate change
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=123950399


Please review these questions, and turn in for credit Wednesday:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/Chap008-blind.pdf

Our first energy exam will be on Friday, 10.29.

Let us know how we can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
First of all, each and every one of you did better than you think on this test. It was our first example of what Mr. Emmons and I have been describing in the AP exam: some questions are easy, some are so so, and some are really brutal. You all did surprisingly well in the toughest parts of this, and I've created a review sheet of the most commonly missed questions here:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/chapter7_pmr.pdf

What might be a nice idea would be for us to re-test you on these questions soon, so you can get some of those precious points. Let us know how you think about this idea.

Second point: the question on parallel growth was poorly worded, so I threw it out. You will all notice that your grade on the gradebook for the test is 2 points higher than that listed on the test site. It's because we are such nice guys.

Speaking of nice guys, Mr. Emmons and I care deeply about your experience here, and how we can both prepare you for a tough exam in May, while also engaging you as creative, whole, contributing beings with a great deal to share.

We are working on finding the best ways to do this, and each class is different, just as each of you learns in your own unique way. We are trying to find that way for each of you, and support you. You may have noticed we tried multiple choice, true false and short answer questions on this last test. You all rocked on the multi-part matching question, which should have been one of the toughest-great work folks.
As for the short answer questions, many of you had great answers, others had just enough to get the point across, and others tried valiantly to snow us. We have seen more snow than Antarctica, so don't go that route next time. The best answers came from those who took notes in class, reviewed the notes, and read the text before class. This is not magic, but you may find it makes the difference in college between those who survive and those who thrive.

Next class: Wednesday we'll go over the exam, then prepare for chapter 8 on energy. We will have a hands-on workshop for you, so make sure you bring your calculator to class.

As always, please let us know how we can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Monday we will begin with an exam. We'll be including both true/false and short answer questions this time, to help prepare you for the AP exam.
Make sure you read the following topics on wikipedia:
BOD
Dissolved Oxygen
Water quality index
capillary action
biodiversity

Please also listen to this short clip on population:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/media/20101017_wesun_15.mp3

We appreciate that you need to plan out your week, so please read chapter 8 for class this week, which will prepare you for our discussion of energy. Please make sure you bring your calculator to class on Wednesday.

Let us know if there is any way we can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Let's move the test for chapter 7 to Monday, and go over population some more on Thursday. There was a great deal of material, and we went over it very, very fast.
Here's what you are responsible for:
Thursday: turn in your chapter outline to Mr. Emmons
Weekend: Finish your questions, and do the online practice quiz (see previous post)
Monday: HW and online practice quiz due, test on chapter 7, finish up soils lab.
Wednesday: Begin chapter 8 on energy, lab on energy audits
Thursday: Show your parents how smart you are with the energy meters

We hope this is better and more humane, let us know if we can help further. Please view these videos for class Thursday:
http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/hans_rosling_on_global_population_growth.html
http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/hans_rosling_the_good_news_of_the_decade.html
http://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_reveals_new_insights_on_poverty.html

If you have time, this is another very cool one where Ted Rosling predicts what day, month and year that Asia will overtake the world:

http://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_asia_s_rise_how_and_when.html

aloha
b

Posted by:

Chapter 7 population questions Due Thursday 10.14.10

What factors impact a population?

What are the three survivorship curves for sheep, birds and plants?

Describe the population curves for + growth, neutral growth and - growth

Explain "biotic potential"

What are the 4 parts of a population curve, including overshoot

In the Denali wolf/moose example, explain the overshoot and phase shift

Explain the K and r tragegies, including the formula for growth rate

What is the extinction rate?

Explain the rule of 70, and give three examples

What was Malthus' proposal, and why has it not come true (so far)

Explain the IPAT formula, and give an example (be creative)

TFR means what?

What TFR is belived to be stable equilibrium?

What was the TFR for women in China in the 1980's? Why?

Explain why the literacy of women is related to fertility and sustainability?

Explain the trophic level pyramids, and why vegetarians are more sustainable than carnivores (e.g. humans)

Explain and graph the four stages in the demographic transition model

If you look at the population curves for the US (figure 7.18), you will see the WW I baby boom and the WW II baby boom. Explain the "boom echo".

Chapter 7 population notes

n.b. c/c means cunningham text, see the AP env sci folder on this server, here:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/cunningham_text/



population: same species, same location

Factors: birthrate (natality), death rate (mortality), sex ratio, age distribution, growth rate (r), density, spatial distribution

birthrate is per 1000 people, so 20/2000 is 10/k per year

mortality is same

survivorship curves (see fig 7.2) sheep-long life, birds-predators, non specific, plants-lots of offspring don't survive

population growth rate = Brate - Drate

See Fig 7.1, see also 6.6 in c/c page 123

Sex ratio: women always on the right

age distribution curves: pyramid is + growth, parallel is stable growth, inverted pyramid is - growth

repro years = 15-40 for female humans

see figure 7.3

spatial distribution: flowers

emigration: out, immigration:in

biotic potential: inherent repro capacity: geese=10/year, elephants=0.5/year

population curves: see figure 7.5
lag section: lots of food, takes time to reproduce
exponential section: grows according to At = A0 e kt
deceleration: food supply outstripped by population
stable: balance
overshoot: too many for food supply

see figure 6.3 and 6.4 in c/c chapter 6, page 119
see also figure 6.8 in c/c on overshoot

limiting factors: environmental resistance
extrinsic: predators, food source
intrinsic: self controlled, mice fertility drops in overpopulation (negative feedback)

see figure 6.10 in c/c, extinction rate

density dependent: predators, food
density independent: frost, flood, fire

limiting factors: energy, waste, raw materials

CARRYING CAPACITY-always on the AP exam: stable population, renewable resources, sustainable

"stable" is really negative feedback, equilibrium

Strategies:
K: mammals, take care of young, reach stable population at carrying capacity, few offspring, density dependent, low infant mortality

r: bacteria, lots of offspring, high infant mortality, limited by density independent factors (fire, flood, etc.)

see the growth formula: N is population, t is time, r is growth rate, K is carrying capacity:

∆N/∆t = rN(1-N/K)

n.b. as N/k -> 1, ∆N/∆t -> 0

negative feedback is the key here

r: less crowded, so N/K is close to 0, so rate is rN

K: follows carrying capacity, so N/K close to 1, so rate is close to 0

Malthus: population grows exponentially, food linearly, tf crash

see fig 7.12

Impact: IPAT
Impact = population * affluence * technology (we are high on all three)

imagine a village...

Demography: birthrate vs. deathrate

TFR: total fertility rate: number of offpring in female lifetime
2.1 is stable (why not 2.0?)

first child age: 14 in LDC, 21 in DC

see population bomb, ca. 1970

see c/c 7.17

see fig 7.14

Africa vs. US (5.0 TFR vs. 1.6 TFR)

female literacy prop. to TFR, tf GFO focus, also Grameen bank

china 1980, one child policy (some of these kids go to HPA)
tf no concept of sister or brother...the term disappeared...

ChengDu earthquake-China govt. allowed parents to have another child

GNI = gross national income
PPP = purchase power parity (e.g."fair trade")
see Mexico workers

see fig. 7.15, p. 159 Grameen bank

Trophic pyramid: n = 1% for carnivore, 10% for herbivore

see fig. 7.17 Demographic transition model

1. premodern: high BR, high DR, low, stable population
2. urbanization: high BR, low DR, growing pop.
3. mature: low BR (literacy of females), low DR, slowly increasing pop.
4. post-industrial: low BR, low DR, stable pop.

see fig 7.18, pop curves
WW I baby boom, ca. 1918
WW II baby boom, 1945-65 (parents were 20-40 yrs. old)
where is the "boom echo"?

What happened to the pop curves of Iran and Iraq following 1980-1990 period?
To what gender?
Why?

See c/c 7.11 and 7.14

Posted by:

Team,
Nice work on the last quarter, our next section will begin with population, then spend a few chapters on Energy.
Let's begin this week with Chapter 7 in the text, which you should read before class. We'll go over notes on chapter 7 Monday in class, then test on it when we meet on Thursday. Since this is being posted on Sunday afternoon, instead of Friday afternoon, let's make the chapter outline due to Mr. Emmons on Thursday, unless we have any schedule changes.
Here's an outline of the next two weeks:

Monday, 10.11: Chapter 7-Population notes in class (check here for video updates as well)
Thursday, 10.14: Chapter 7 test: population

Monday, 10.18: Begin Chapter 8 on energy, begin our first energy lab
Wednesday, 10.20: Chapter 8 on energy, more hands-on labs
Thursday, 10.21 (parent's day): short class on energy audits, you get to show your parents how smart you are...

Please complete the practice quiz for chapter 7 by Thursday, here is the link:

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/chapter7/practice_quiz_.html

One last thing: Here is a question from the AP exam last year. Make sure you know the answer before class tomorrow:

If you were to look at a map of the world biomes, what five-step pattern would you generally see as your eyes move from the regions at the equator to the regions at the poles (put these in correct order):

deciduous forest, tropical forest, ice and snow, taiga, tundra



As always, let us know how can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
This week (Tuesday and Thursday), we'll be going over chapter 6 (see notes below), reviewing your answers to the Earth video, and wrapping up our soils lab. As you may already know, Friday is the end of the quarter, so all work must be turned in for credit before then.
We'll plan on a chapter 6 test Thursday, along with all of the other test in every other class you are taking.

Here are some helpful links from past entries:

Study questions online:
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/

Remember to select the chapter on the left, then look for practice quiz below that:

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/chapter6/practice_quiz_.html

Test link:
https://www.eztestonline.com/207829/index1.tpx

Online grades:
http://physics.hpa.edu/~admin/grades/apes/

Let us know if you have any questions.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please check out the notes below, and the earth videos assignment:

Addition: here are Mr. Emmons' notes from last class:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/Presentationch5.pdf

apes reading notes ch 5
apes reading notes
ch 5 environments and organisms
codes:
n.b. means nota bene, in latin, "note well"
esp. = especially
w/o = without
bc = because
wrt= with respect to
iff=if and only if
e.g.=for example
Op cit= Opus Citera, cited in the work
btw=by the way
ttfn=ta ta for now
pos=parent over shoulder


Notes
energy and matter flow is critical
everything that affects an organism=environment
abiotic=not living, biotic=living
limiting factor-see also rate limiting factor-recall cafeteria line, create your own image
range of tolerance-critical to adaptability (not mentioned in the book)
habitat-place, niche-role
adaptation-change in organism to meet surroundings and survive/thrive
genes-DNA determining characteristics
you=25% mom, 25% dad
population=same kind, same place
species=population concept: all organisms capable of reproduction with that gene set
natural selection: process, close fit between demands of environment and organism
NS over time=evolution
Natural Selection:
1. genetic variation (if none, then there is no outstanding survivor possible)
2. plenty of offspring, leading to…
3. stress on the system resources (food, water, land etc.)
4. outstanding survivors reproduce
5. incremental changes over generations improve adaptation (could be fast, like bacteria or fruit flies)

Speciation=like specialization in medicine: general doctors become radiologists
Often caused by splits in populations (sub populations) like the bunnies and the river…
diploid=you, 2 sets of chromosomes (colored bodies)
ployploidy=many chromosomes (e.g. plants)
Extinction=not enough of a species to effectively reproduce. Effective is the key word, genetic variation diminishes way before extinction occurs.
background rate: 10 species per year
present rate: many times this
co-evolution: two species change together, often in symbiosis

Interactions:
Predator-prey
Competition: interspecies (hawks, owls, foxes hunting the same mice), intraspecies (fastest wins in similar plants)
Symbiosis (see below)

Competitive Exclusion Principle (CEP): no 2 species can occupy the same niche in the same place (habitat) at the same time.

Symbiotic relationships:
Parasitism: B (parasite) feeds on A (host), A suffers for this
Vectors may be involved that carry the parasite (e.g. mosquitoes)
ectoparasites-outside endoparasites-inside

Commensalism: B benefits from A, A does not suffer
"opportunistic"

Mutualism: A benefits, B benefits
e.g. nitrogen fixing bacteria: mycorrhizae

Others: nest parasitism (cow bird), blood parasites

Community: different species in same area (ecosystem)
Ecosystems:
Producers: turn inorganic sources into organic sources, e.g. plants (sun energy) or sulfur plants (Sulfur oxidation and heat from deep sea volcanic vents)
consumers: Primary (eat the plants, e.g. herbivores) or secondary (carnivores, they eat the herbivores)
Omnivores: eat everything
Decomposers: decay everything back to organic and inorganic materials

Keystone species: critical role in balance of the ecosystem: remove them and the ecosystem cannot function
e.g. bison, sea otter
n.b. energy flow through the ecosystem

Trophic levels (very important)
producers: level 1
primary consumers: level 2
secondary consumers: level 3
meat eating carnivores: level 4

90% energy is lost in every transition (recall our talk on energy tax)
Low trophic level is sustainable
Can also be demonstrated by comparing biomass pyramid

Food chains, food webs (both were on the AP exam last year btw)
Food chain: series of organisms at ascending trophic levels, energy flows up
see also bio-accumulation of Hg (mercury)
detritus-decaying matter from living things
good web-intersection of several food chains, mutual interdependence, biodiversity, all good things...

Biochemical cycles (n.b. chemical)
Many chemical cycles, three are critical: carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus
Carbon-stored in atmosphere as CO2, then in bones and organic matter (e.g. wood)
Nitrogen-stored in atmosphere as N2 (gas), used as NO3 and NH4 by primary producers, basis for protein (CHON)
Phosphorus-from rocks, stored in bones-see Waterloo diggers…yuk

photosynthesis-50% occurs in the oceans
light converted to sugar (recall Maui onions)
can track carbon as C14/6 through atmosphere, to CHO (plant) to CHON(protein) to CO2 or oil
All Americans over 50 have traces of C14 from atomic bomb testing in our bones…radioactive phosphorus as well…more yuk
green manure-sacrificial bean crops
crop rotation-n.b.
Question: why was Nauru so high in PO4? Hint: it is an island
fossil fuels burned-how does this change the Carbon cycle balance?

n.b. erg runoff: recall the video on Chesapeake R. eutrophication, algal blooms and red tides (we did not cover these, look them up on wikipedia)

Chapter 6 notes
Chapter 6 notes: Ecosystems and communities
Succession-communites proceed through series of recognizable, predicatable changes in structure over time
long lasting and stable
factors: climate, food, invasion etc.
climax comm. stable, long lasting result of succession
determined by climate, water, substrate and org. type

primary succession-no existing organisms
secondary succession-destruction of existing ecosystem

Primary succession-terrestrial-
factors: substrate (e.g. soil), climate, repro structures, rate of growth, organic matter, water
pioneer comm.- first to colonize bare rock (e.g. lichen)
later comm.-soil available, holds water (life)
1 pioneer stage
lichen: mutualistic: algae/bacteria(photosynthesis) + fungi to hold on
2 secondary stage: soil: retains water, structural support
(succession: plants shade lichens)
3 climax community-stable, diverse, interconnected, interdependent, many niches, recycle biomass (constant)

process of succession is called a sere, stages are seral stages
see fig 6.3-imagine driving from puako to waimea

Primary succession-aquatic
oceanic-stable
limnotic/riparian-transitional, fills with sediment
stages:
1. aquatic vegetation-e.g. aquarium, leads to wet soil and terrestrial networks (roots, wet meadow)
2. transitional: biomass of trees creates top layers of soil, transition to terrestrial climax comm.

imagine trip from middle of lake to shore-see all transitions
bogs=transitional stage from shore to dry land (Ireland, Scotland)

Secondary Succession-terrestrial
recall: existing comm. is replaced
e.g. pond fills to become a meadow, then climax forest
can reverse: beaver dams: land to aquatic
see also human dams, exponential decay curve

Biomes-------
determined by climate, altitude, water (precipitation), temperature
similar niches and habitats in each biome

Earth Questions
earth questions

How old is the earth? How old did early church leaders think it was?

Hutton found what rock formation in Scotland was the clue to the real age of the earth?

Kelvin used thermal cooling calculations to determine the age for the earth-how long was this?
Why was he wrong?

What is "deep time"?

What is so special about "pillow lavas"? What is the Hawaiian name for these?

What does Zircon have to do with aging the planet? What do they tell us about the source of water?

Water is neat stuff. Why would the temperature of the earth 4 bY ago accelerate changes?

3.4 bY ago a new type of rock was formed-what is this rock, and how does it fit into the asthenosphere picture of plate tectonics?

South Africa hosts the CapeVal Cretins: what are these? Why are these important? What did these have to do with the beginning of life? Where was life limited to before these?

What are stromatolites, and what did they produce? From what?

Playford found what? What is the impact of what he found?

What caused the change in the color of the oceans? What then happened to the atmosphere? What color was the planet after this?

What is a trilobite, and where are they found? Why are they significant? What did they prove?

What did Wegener believe? How easy was this to prove? When and how was it finally proven?

What does convection have to do with plate tectonics?

Why is Iceland such an ideal place to study plate tectonics?

What was Rodinia? Why did it cause climate change about 700 mY ago? Why is this so critical to understand today?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rodinia

What was the Cambrian Explosion? Why is it important? What did Walcott discover? Where? What is the Burgess Shale Quarry? Why is shale so special in this process?

When did carnivores show up? Why? How did their presence change the evolution of creatures?

What did the ozone shield enable the growth of? Where did the ozone come from?

What formed the carbon in the carboniferous era? What did life look like 60 mY ago? What does this carbon look like today?

What does the freshwater in a swamp enable? Why is this important?

What did dead marine organisms transform into? Why is this important to us?

What caused the first mass extinction? What is a mantle flume eruption?

What was the name of the next supercontinent?

What were the predominant survivors of the first mass extinction?

Why would Utah be a good place to find these survivors?

What would be the advantage of being "luke-warm" blooded?

How did the first global warming trend change the dinosaurs? Why did this eventually become their downfall?

The Kimberly "stove pipe" means what? How are diamonds formed?

Who discovered the CT (KT) boundary, and what does it signify? When was this? When was it discovered, and how?

How big was the Yucutan meteor? How was it found (look this up on wikipedia)

50 mY ago, the mammals evolved. How did the demise of the dinosaurs make this possible? Science fiction movies often show cavemen fighting dinosaurs-why is this totally bogus?

What is similar about the Alps and the Himalayas, apart from them being mountains? What limits their ultimate altitude?

Mauna Loa is the largest landmass in the world. From the base of Mauna Loa on the 20,000 ft. deep ocean floor to it's top 13,500 ft. above sea level is much higher than Everest (29,000 ft.). How is this possible?

2 mY ago, an ice age again struck. What triggered this? How long did it last?

What makes glaciers flow? Do they flow faster or slower when they are thicker? Why?

Explain the balance between temperature and the progress of glaciers.

Glaciers often leave "unsorted" rocks, called glacial "till". What does this mean? Why would this differ from normal sedimentary sorting?

It is said that our civilization has been a brief, stable warm period. What does this predict for global warming/cooling?

What two oceans/seas will disappear when pangea ultima forms?


Where are the videos?
Here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/media/earth/

We'd like you to view this video (broken into pieces for downloading) this week, so we can discuss it in class. The earth questions above will be due Tuesday, 10.5.10.
Please prepare for a quiz on chapter 5 Thursday, 9.30.10. We'll be going over notes on chapter 6 Tuesday and Thursday, as we have time, and you can plan for a chapter 6 test 10.5.10.

Let us know if we can help, we hope chapter 6 articulates well with chapter 5. Chapter 7 will be on Populations, which is extremely interesting for you, we hope.
aloha
b

Posted by:

e2 questions
Gray to Green
1. What is the gray in gray to green?
2. What were the challenges for the architects in the story?
3. What is the Bauhaus, and why was it key in the success of the story?
4. Can you imagine a similar recycling solution in your home town? How?
5. What is the final message of this story?

Green Machine
1. Why is the title of this piece ironic (hint: it has to do with Chicago politics)
2. What is the "heat island effect" and why is it so key in this case?
3. How did they address this heat island effect?
4. As a botanist, why would you think this is important?
5. There is a proposal floating around to restore the prairie to native prairie grasses, which could then be used as biofuels. From an ecological perspective, why would this be a good step? Why from an energy standpoint? How would this compare to planting the same areas with corn for bio-ethanol?
6. Sadhu Johnston mentions that Chicago is in a unique position to effect change. Why?
7. What were the main industries in Chicago, and how could these moves change that direction?
8. Sustainability is seen as finding new solutions to age old problems. Is this a social, education or technical issue?
9. The lady mentions that quality of life does not need to diminish, why?
10. What is the impact of LEED on green building? Short term and long term. 11. Describe the Factor 10 house.
12. Describe the McDonald's green roof, and why it is bogus
13. Looking around the energy lab, what ideas are shared in this story?

Posted by:

Team,
We hope you have a great weekend, full of glee and bliss, while Mr. Emmons and I are shackled to our desks Monday.
That said, to even out the burden of pain, we'd like you to read chapter 5, which is full of all sorts of goodies, including but not limited to:
"Help! I've lost my niche!
Who is that predator predating me and why?
Keystone species exposed in building fraud!
I'm a prisoner of a food web chain gang!
My boyfriend and I have a symbiotic relationship..."

As our resident biologist, Mr. Emmons will be leading the charge on these scintillating (good SAT word) goings-on, so make sure you bring lots of paper for notes, and kleenex for the weepy bits.

We'll also be going into our soils lab, so you would be wise little grasshoppers if you read chapter 13 as preparation. Make sure you bring along your lab handouts. And your shovels. And your tractors. And any earth moving equipment you might own. We'd like to take you to the flume to see the double-secret ash deposits.

Our next unit will be on biomes and ecosystems, which we will follow with chapter 7, on populations, which will be a real barn burner, particularly if your name is Malthus.

For this weekend, please view the two videos, and check here for questions on them. I should have them up by Saturday.
UPDATE--Team, let's move the e2 video assignment to Friday, ok?
Notes and questions will be up tonight.
b


Let us know how we can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please remember to bring in your chapter 4 outlines for HW. We'll have a test on chapter 4 in class, then begin our soils lab (weather permitting). Let us know if you have any questions. Please bring in a flash drive so we can give you the movies for the weekend:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/e2_videos/web/3%20green%20machine/
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/e2_videos/web/4%20gray%20to%20green/

Check here for questions on these videos, due next week.

Test link:
https://www.eztestonline.com/207829/index1.tpx


aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Wednesday we'll begin with a quick quiz on atoms, elements and pH, then we'll begin our soils lab. It would be a good idea to review thermodynamics as we'll have a piece on this in our Friday quiz, and we want you to be prepared.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please bring in a flash drive of your choice so we can pass on videos for questions this week.
aloha
b

Posted by:

APES cycle 3
3.1:
Monday 9.13
W 9.15
F 9.17
-
W 9.22
F 9.24

This weekend, chapter 4 is the reading assignment. Here are some notes:
Please look these up on wikipedia for our discussion in class Monday:
Cold fusion
Cargo cult science

Monday, we'll continue our discussion on the scientific method, then get into some basic notes on matter and chemistry. These are all in chapter 4.
We'll be meeting in the whiteboard rooms so make sure you bring your notebooks.

Wednesday, we'll begin our soils lab, which will use some of the concepts we discuss on Monday, such as pH, compounds and elements

Friday, we'll have a test on chapter 4, then begin a discussion of chapter 5: the predator chapter…

Wednesday 9.22 we'll continue the soil lab and chapter 5 notes, with the soil lab completed by Friday 9.24.

Please let me know by email if you are still having issues viewing the e2 video.

Jhernie found this cool 4 minute video on graphs:
http://www.gapminder.org/videos/gapcasts/gapcast-10-energy/
Check it out

Check here for notes and updates

Posted by:

Folks,
After viewing the two TED videos on sustainability, we'd like you to move on to the first in a series of videos from a program called "e2: the economies of being environmentally conscious"

The first series is on Design I, and the first episodes are "The Green Apple" and "Green for All". Please watch these so we can discuss in class Friday.
We'll have three more in this series, then we'll move on to the others:

Design I
Design II
Design III
Energy
Transport

Each season has 5 episodes, with each episode focusing on an aspect of what we are studying together. We hope you find these as compelling as we do, and that they might inspire you to be change agents...

"Green Apple"
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/e2_videos/web/1%20green%20apple/1%20green%20apple.mov
"Green for all"
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/e2_videos/web/2%20green%20for%20all/2%20green%20for%20all.mov

Questions Due Friday:

design: e2 The Green Apple
1. Why is Manhattan considered greener than most cities?
2. Newer cities like LA have created automobile accessible designs. How does this directly tie to health and energy consumption for those working in that city compared to NYC?
3. Describe 4TimesSquare in NYC as a green skyscraper. Discuss “frit” (sunlight) and “slag” (CO2).
4. Describe how the “cost of people” living in a large city building affects the sustainability of that building.
5. The Solaire is located in Downtown Manhattan's most desirable waterfront neighborhood - Battery Park City. Describe why it has become a marketing trend for culture change and eventually sustainability.

design: e2 Green for All
1. One in seven homes in the world are deemed inadequate. What is predicted in 30 years?
2. Describe the Mexican government’s attempt to provide “modern” housing for the Yaqui Indians.
3. The University of Texas graduate students devised a different design. Describe it.
4. Step one of the Guadalupe Project in Austin Texas was The Alley Project? Describe the Alley project and what it was intended to do.
5. New homes create a level of ownership in a community fueling sustainability that in turn develops political and social rights in the world. How can homes essentially reflect how a person lives?

Let us know how we can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Folks,
Just released in Germany, this article in Der Spiegel is perfect timing for our discussion of peak oil and of supply and demand. Be sure to read the points in the middle:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/'Peak_Oil'_and_the_German_Government.pdf


ALSO:
Please have a look at this cool link that Mr. DK found for you:

http://www.uwgb.edu/watershed/data/monitoring/

way cool...
aloha
b

Posted by:

APES cycle 2 plan
8.30 Monday
9.1 Wednesday
9.3 Friday
----
9.8 Wednesday
9.10 Friday

UPDATE: study questions online:
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/

In your readings for chapter 3, you may notice that the chart in figure 3.3 is whacky beyond belief.
Here is a link to a much more clear explanation of supply and demand, pay attention to the graphs in blue and red:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply_and_demand

If you've already had Economics, then you probably know this...

Lab folder:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/wqi_lab/
----

--updated link to Poisoned Waters Video:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/poisoned_waters/POISONED_WATERS.mp4

Weekend: view Poisoned waters on water quality issues, questions due Monday at beginning of class
If you want to get ahead: read chapter 3 (see links below for chapter locations)
8.30 Monday
Poisoned Waters questions due at beginning of class
Review chapters 1 and 2, quiz on chapters 1 and 2
Water Quality Lab discussion
Chapter 3 introduction

9.1 Wednesday
Chapter 3 discussion, more shorter videos online
Water Quality Lab beginning
Reminder: X period open for questions
Please watch this video online:

http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/william_mcdonough_on_cradle_to_cradle_design.html

and this one on sustainability:

http://www.ted.com/talks/alex_steffen_sees_a_sustainable_future.html

These are the first of many TED talks I'll be passing on to you. I hope these are enlightening for you. I'd like to move from economics and environmental science to design, in other words, how you would use the wisdom you are now developing to change the design of our buildings, our cities and our world.
You will find some things in the readings that would be very helpful to look up on wikipedia. I trust all of you have seen wikipedia athttp://www.wikipedia.org

The list from Chapter 3:
risk assessment
ASTM

ISO

LD50
IPCC

clean air act
safe drinking water act

BPA
Eutrophication

cradle to cradle
RfD
DfE
dioxin
seventh son of the seventh son

indoor air pollution
dead zones in gulf of Mexico

supply and demand (study the three curves)
contingent valuation method
deferred costs
external costs
pollution

biodegradable
pollution-prevention costs

cost benefit analysis
Environmental impact statement
NEPA act of 1969

tragedy of the commons
1968
command and control approach
cap and trade

brownfields

SBLRBRA
CERCLA/Superfund

RoHS
sustainable development

debt for nature swap
methyl mercury
Responsible Care

9.3 Friday
Water Quality Lab
Check here for more details
Weekend:
Lab work
Videos (check here for update)
Read chapter 4
9.8 Wednesday
Chapter 3 wrap-up, quiz
Begin work on chapter 4
9.10 Friday Chapter 4 notes, class discussion

UPDATE----
Test link for Monday's class, chapter one test:
https://www.eztestonline.com/207829/index1.tpx

Questions for Water Quality Index, due Wednesday:

Water Quality Index questions

Look up WQI in wikipedia and answer the following:

What is the WQI

What metrics are part of the WQI

Why is it called an index instead of something else?

Why are each category weighted differently?

After viewing the Polluted Waters video, how effective is the WQI in measuring water quality in each of the cases presented? Why? What is missing? How would you detect these?

What would be the impact financially, socially, and environmentally, and in what time frame?

In your opinion, do you think water quality is getting better, worse or staying the same:
In Hawaii
In the Mainland US
In your home town (if you live in Waimea, then in Honolulu)

Posted by:

Hi folks,
I hope this helps you now and in the future:
Here is the folder with all of the chapters from the text:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/enger/

You might find some interesting things hidden in there.

Likewise, there is a folder for all of our videos here:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos

The main folder for all of our resources is here:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/

Here is a link to the phone version of the video:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/poisoned_waters/poisoned_waters/poisoned_waters%20-%20iPhone%20(Cellular).3gp

I hope this helps.
aloha
b

Posted by:

---UPDATE---
Text link:

http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/enger/ch02/enger_ch2.PDF

Please see me Wednesday if you are having issues with the video.
------------------
Meeting dates this week:
Tuesday 8.24
Thursday 8.26

Readings:
Text chapter two: Environmental Ethics
Outline for homework, due Thursday
Review Questions, due Thursday

Video: Frontline: Poisoned Waters
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/poisonedwaters/view/
Or here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/videos/poisoned_waters/
Watch online, answer questions here:

1 When was the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) formed? What events prompted its formation?

2 How did deregulation of industry during the Reagan years affect water quality and the overall power of the Environmental Protection Agency?
◦ What does “voluntary compliance” mean?

◦ Why do businesses favor voluntary compliance?

3 The Clean Water Act of 1972 allows citizens to sue alleged offenders if government agencies do not act. Why is that provision of the law important?

4 The expression “canary in the coal mine” means an early warning of danger. (Coal miners would carry canaries or small animals with them into mines to detect deadly but odorless and tasteless methane gas.)
◦ To what does the expression “canary in the coal mine” apply in Poisoned Waters?

5 Twenty million Americans took to the streets for the first Earth Day in 1970 as a result of pollution they could see and smell: The Cuyahoga River in Cleveland burned, with flames that towered eight stories high; the1969 oil spill in Santa Barbara closed virtually all the beaches in Southern California; people had declared Lake Erie dead.
◦ How, according to the film, have both pollution and people's reaction to Earth Day changed since 1970?

6 What do “endocrine disruptors” do? Why do genetic mutations in fish disturb scientists so much?

7 How do the products that average people use each day end up polluting the nation's and world's waterways?

8 How should we pay for environmental cleanup? Should it be the responsibility of industry? Government? Individuals? Explain your reasoning.

Please turn in our answers at the beginning of class Thursday.

In class:
Lab format:
See this link:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/lab_format_notes.pdf

Grading template:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/_pdf/lab%20grading%20template.pdf

Data analysis:
Check out this page online:
http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/
Keeling curve and CO2 trends at Mauna Loa

Check this out if you have time:
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073383201/student_view0/

Let us know how we can help.
aloha
b


Posted by:

Here is a link to our online class calendar:

http://ical.mac.com/WebObjects/iCal.woa/wa/default?u=wiecking&n=Upper_School%20local.ics

I hope this helps.

Friday in class:
Vernier Probeware
Sample lab:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/vernier/01%20Seasons%20S.pdf
Chapter one outline due
Discussion of videos

aloha
b

Posted by:

Welcome folks, to AP Environmental Science.
The link to the first chapter of the text is here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/enger/ch01/enger_ch1.PDF
and the contents page is here:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/enger/chapter%20index.pdf
If you have time, please watch this 22 minute video on wind:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/media/e2/web_movies/e2_1_harvesting_wind.mp4
and this one on the Grameen Bank
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/media/e2/web_movies/e2_2_energy_for_a_developing_world.mp4

Here are some thoughts:
The wind video demonstrates how many decisions can be made that are harmonious with both business, consumers and the environment.
The second video is very compelling about the impact of even small changes in society.

We will spend more time on these in the future, this should serve as a teaser to give you a sense of the media we will be covering.

As we mentioned in class, we recommend getting a textbook as soon as possible. If the bookstore is out, you can look on Amazon (used for about $96) or some of the other online textbook sources. Be careful to get the 12th edition, ISBN 0073383201

We'll have a chance to discuss more in class Wednesday.
Let us know if we can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

0 comments

Greentech Archive 2009-2010

Team,
Here is the way to contact your TED unit installations from off-campus:

http://elabgateway.kamuela.org:8005

this would be cottage 5.
For other cottages, just change the last number to the number of your cottage.

For this week, make sure you understand all of the configuration screens and wizards, as we'll have a quiz at the beginning of class on Wednesday, 10.20.10.

Monday Plan:
Team Ross: Cottage 3
Team Reed: Cottage 1
Team Cook: Cottage 6
Team Monahan: Cottages 7 and 8

We have to get these done in one class, so let's work efficiently folks.

aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please go to this link:

https://www.eztestonline.com/207829/index3.tpx


enter your student number for login and password, answer the questions then hit submit. If this works smoothly, we'll use it as the format for your quiz on Thursday.

Let me know if you have any questions.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Ok my little piggies,
From now on, before ANYONE leaves class, we are going to have a workspace cleanup check. Today I spent way too much time cleaning up after the soldering gang (low participation points for you guys today), and the router guys.
Let's do better in the future, shall we?
Reminder: Next week Wednesday, your network test corrections are due. As I explained, you are eligible for 1/2 the difference between your score and 100%, so if you had a 60, you could get 20 more points.
Next week:
Meter team moves on to testing with the meters, solar, motors and generators
Soldering team moves on to meters
Router team moves on to soldering.
My plan is for everyone to catch up by next Friday, when we'll have an exam on all three skills: routers, soldering and meters. This test will be open notebooks (not open weblog), so make sure you
1. take notes in your notebook
2. bring your notebook Friday
You should also be copying notes from your notebook into your blog every night, which is what I will grade, along with your class participation.
I hope you are having fun, let's chat next week on our next projects.
Please check here over the weekend for a web assignment.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Wednesday we'll have a short quiz on gateways, proxy servers, and caching. We'll then break into teams and work on routers and soldering, which should be a blast.
I'll have notes for your teams Wednesday night for the router work.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Greentech quiz
9.13.2010

1 You are working on a client computer that has the wrong DNS entry. Explain how this would appear to the user, and how you would fix it.

The user would not be able to resolve internet addresses, web browsing would be impossible/difficult

2 Another computer has the wrong gateway address. Explain how this would impact the user, including both local and internet traffic.

Only local traffic would function properly

3 A third computer is running very slowly, particularly at login. You restart the mac and do a file system check. Explain how, and what you might see.

fsck -yf, you may see repair notices on the screens

4 After the repair, the machine is faster for apps, but the internet is still sluggish. What network setting do you check, and how do you set it?

order of services, in the system prefs settings under network

5 You are setting up a router/gateway for a friend. She has a cable modem that has the address 66.91.70.75. What address will her laptop inside the network probably have?

192.168.1.x


6 Explain how "fake" networks work, and give an example of several.

192.168.1.x and others allow many machines to share one public IP address. You would do well to look up "public IP address", it is important. Have a look on wikipedia.

7 Is there a method to point incoming traffic for your friend so she can run a web server inside her house? Explain how.

inbound port mapping

8 There was a dramatic attack on the worldwide DNS servers, which almost succeeded. How would this have impacted the internet, and who could still function? Explain.

only folks with cached DNS entries would function, or those with numeric entries.

9 If you had the ability to snoop on a private network, what network settings would you probably use?

192.168.1.x

10 Draw a diagram of a simple network with the internet listed as well as an internal network, with a sample machine on that network

Posted by:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE plist SYSTEM "file://localhost/System/Library/DTDs/PropertyList.dtd">
<plist version="0.9">
<dict>
<key>IPNetMonitorX_key</key>
<string>2f12c691 ef2c1a46 ed36d1c2 1ad56cfd 27f87fcb 605a3d56</string>
<key>date</key>
<date>2009-04-02T00:00:00Z</date>
<key>licensedCopies</key>
<string>1</string>
<key>name</key>
<string>Bill Wiecking</string>
<key>notice</key>
<string>This file contains a licensed registration code and is Copyright 2002 by Sustainable Softworks Inc. †Unauthorized copying and distribution is expressly prohibited.</string>
<key>organization</key>
<string></string>
</dict>
</plist>

Posted by:

Greentech Homework, Due at the beginning of class Thursday

Please answer in complete sentences, and email me your responses:

1. You restart one of the elab macs holding command-s. What shows up?

2. You then type fsck -yf
What have you done, and why?

3. Arne has IP address 10.3.254.106. What must you type to ssh into his computer?

4. If you want to restart his computer, how do you do this?

5. Explain why a ping to 10.12.5.2 would be faster than a ping to www.apple.com

Posted by:

System stuff:
ls -la
pwd
top
who
last
kill -9
ssh
shutdown -r now
cd ..
rm
mkdir
touch
rmdir
rm -frd *.*
tail
grep
less
cat
ps -aux
ctrl-c
ctrl-z

Network stuff:
ping
ping -f
traceroute
netstat
ifconfig

Posted by:

Team,
In your teams this week, we'll continue with computer work, moving into networks, and how to test and repair them.
I've also purchased materials for you to learn how to create patch cables, which you can use on your own.
Next, I'd like to introduce soldering, and the use of meters.
Following this, we'll move to plumbing, then welding, then carpentry.
Please complete the three tutorials on unix commands from the previous blog by Thursday
Class this week:
Tuesday 8.24
Thursday 8.26

Let me know if you have questions, I'll be reading your weblogs at 8 PM Tuesday and Thursday. We'll have a quiz both days on your preparation from the tutorials.
Let me know how I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Here are two more tutorials on Unix command lines, should you wish to take your skills to the next level:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/greentech/Take%20Control%20of%20the%20Mac%20Command%20Line%20with%20Terminal%20(1-1.0.1).pdf
and this is a texbook on using command line:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/greentech/eBook.pdf
Next time, let's make time for a tour of the elab, if you are up for it.
Nice work today.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Here is a link to our class calendar online:
http://ical.mac.com/WebObjects/iCal.woa/wa/default?u=wiecking&n=Upper_School%20local.ics

Friday:
Let's continue with the command line commands we've done so far:
ping
ssh
sudo
shutdown
traceroute
fsck -yf

I'd like each of you to look up the man pages for these (using either terminal, the web, or bwana) so we can share cool things you find. Look for interesting flags. Please also check out the entry before this one for links to three tutorials we'll begin following at your own pace in class tomorrow (Friday).
I have tentative teams formed, more on this Friday.

Let me know how I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Welcome folks,
Here's what we covered in our first day:
ping
ssh
ping -f
man pages
shutdown -r now

tomorrow, we'll begin with startup repairs, like apple-S
Here's something to play around with if you have time:

If you have a mac, startup the mac (or restart if already on)
When you hear the bong sound, hold apple and s keys
You should see a bunch of white letters on a black background
When the letters stop moving, you should see some sort of name and possibly a # mark
Type
fsck -yf
then return
You should see an online diagnostic begin
When the repairs are complete, type
exit

Give this a try, we'll do this in class Wednesday.

Some articles to read online about command line:
http://db.tidbits.com/article/7003
http://db.tidbits.com/article/7068
http://db.tidbits.com/article/7313

these are also listed on one page here:
http://db.tidbits.com/series/1238

This is a link to the text we'll use as soon as you are ready:
http://www.mcelhearn.com/2006/03/07/the-mac-os-x-command-line-unix-under-the-hood/

Greentech Ninja list:
Third segment to mauka tower, including turbine
La'e La'e wind/solar installation
Fence removal (pending approval)
Clone laptops
Shop: rack and bench
Lean-to and water catchment for farm
Slats for windows
Batteries to mauka tower(s)

Let me know how I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Robert: IR camera how-to, possible VR using IR (first IR VR ever) Hybrid?

Carson: Davis Vantage Pro 2 weather station: configuration, mounting, wireless test, power and data setups

Ammar: Bullets, linksys DD-wrt setups and airport extremes. Goals include wireless link to farm, link to La'e La'e

Kai: possible green irrigation system, details forthcoming

Christian: pumped storage hydro demonstration

Danny: Axis camera server, link to lights, expansion to campus security demonstration

Nick: possible methane production system

Michael: HOBO deployment for farm and La'e La'e

Jordan: picnic benches, workshop bench, VOG detector

Grayson: prototype non-profit for sustainable projects

Let's discuss in class Tuesday, 4.27.2010
aloha
b

Posted by:

http://www.yourserver.com/weblog/username/?flavor=admin

10.4 Server: Enable the Blojsom Admin Console
Thu, Apr 13 2006 at 5:40AM PDT • Contributed by: cheekygeek
OS X Server's Weblog/Podcasting Server (based on Blojsom) is pretty darn cool, but it seems like one should be able to do a lot more from the Admin perspective with one's blog. (For example, deleting a blog category that you previously created). Currently, it appears there is no way to do this -- but there is. It is called the Blojsom Administration Console, and Apple disables it by default, but you can enable it for any blog (on a blog-by-blog basis). Here's how...

To turn on (enable) the Blojsom Administration Console, you just need to uncomment a line in a configuration text file, and then restart Blojsom. First navigate into the proper directory (all of the following is in Terminal):
$ cd /Library/Tomcat/blojsom_root/webapps/ROOT/WEB-INF/username
Replace username with the user's short username. Then open flavor.properties (as root) with your favorite Terminal editor:
$ sudo vi flavor.properties
Once you have it open, remove the hash mark (#) from the front of this line:
#admin=org/blojsom/plugin/admin/templates/admin.vm, text/html;charset=UTF-8
Save changes to the flavor.properties document, and quit the editor.

Restart Blojsom in one of the following ways:
Using Server Admin, under the Web service (Settings), uncheck the Weblogs box and Save. Then re-check the Weblogs box and Save.

From the command line enter:
$ sudo service com.apple.blojsom stop
$ sudo service com.apple.blojsom start
Now if you go to this URL...
http://www.yourserver.com/weblog/username/?flavor=admin
...you will see the Blojsom Admin Console. You will not need to login if you have previously logged into your Weblog (for example, to Add Item). If you see the login screen, then log in!

Under the CATEGORIES tab you will see "Delete an existing blog category." I found one menu item that generated a Tomcat error, but it looks like there are other useful things that you can do here, such as add other users as authors for a blog, etc. Note that the Blojsom Admin Console would have to be enabled on a blog-by-blog basis.

I asked a Blojsom developer at Apple about any negative aspects to enabling the Administration Console and he replied:
There's no particular reason not to enable the Blojsom admin console, although you'll probably find that some functionality doesn't work. We disabled it by default because we don't want to support it.
It may also be worth noting that OS X Server 10.4.6 upgrades Blojsom to version 2.25.

Posted by:

Ok, so what do Mayflowers bring?
-Pilgrims

I'd like to update our class plan for the next six weeks.
Here are some ideas:
1. Each day when you come in, that's worth a point in my gradebook. I'll explain more in class, but it boils down to presence. If you are here, you get a point, if you are not, you are not able to contribute to your team.
2. Progress reports:I'll expect you to present your progress to the group on a weekly basis, at the beginning of each class. I'll also expect this to be online before you give your update, so others can see your progress as well, and build on it.
3. Project work: I'll be working with each of you on your projects, which need to have clearly defined goals and outcomes. This is important, as our evaluation process will be based on this.

Let's discuss in class Wednesday morning, I'm eager to hear your suggestions.

Let me know if you have any questions.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Please include your daily activity logs in your weblog page so I can evaluate these for your q3 grade.
See you all Friday...
aloha
b

Posted by:

Energy Safari:
Please work with Ms. Lay to label every electrical device in the energy lab with energy consumption in watts. If the device is something that gets hot (like a coffee maker) please make sure the label is somewhere that it won't melt.
How do you measure the power consumed? I've left a stack of power meters in the top drawer on the east side of the main hall.
Some challenges: How do you measure the energy used by the hidden refrigerator? Is it using this power all the time? Perhaps there should be two labels on this one, or even three-think about this.
Another thing: please check the stereos, TVs and all units/tools you use.
Exceptions:
In the monitoring room, you can check all of the machines except the two weather machines and the two servers (brain and network). These are dodgy to get restarted.
Please record your energy safari using the green nano cameras or your laptops, I've left two of the greenies for you, the AP env sci guys should drop off the rest before you have class Tuesday.
I'll be checking in with you guys all week, please update your weblogs each day with videos and email me that you have, so I can give you the points you deserve.
Let me know if I can help in any way, please be nice to Ms. Lay.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Energy Safari:
Please work with Ms. Lay to label every electrical device in the energy lab with energy consumption in watts. If the device is something that gets hot (like a coffee maker) please make sure the label is somewhere that it won't melt.
How do you measure the power consumed? I've left a stack of power meters in the top drawer on the east side of the main hall.
Some challenges: How do you measure the energy used by the hidden refrigerator? Is it using this power all the time? Perhaps there should be two labels on this one, or even three-think about this.
Another thing: please check the stereos, TVs and all units/tools you use.
Exceptions:
In the monitoring room, you can check all of the machines except the two weather machines and the two servers (brain and network). These are dodgy to get restarted.
Please record your energy safari using the green nano cameras or your laptops, I've left two of the greenies for you, the AP env sci guys should drop off the rest before you have class Tuesday.
I'll be checking in with you guys all week, please update your weblogs each day with videos and email me that you have, so I can give you the points you deserve.
Let me know if I can help in any way, please be nice to Ms. Lay.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
Several of you were gone last week when we covered surveying, so we may spend some time this week on this.
Here are the skills we worked on:

Theodolite/sextant: calculating height with a known baseline
Sample problem: how high is the flagpole, how high is Hualalai, how wide is the football field.

Compass/transit: true north vs. magnetic north, how to adjust for this, using the compass as a triangulation tool
Sample problem: locate yourself on a map, using two visible landmarks, use the compass to determine the width of the football field using two sights from the same point (reverse triangulation).

Surveyor's transit: triangulation to determine distances, using the standard to determine land profiles, 3D graphing using deltagraph.
Sample problem: triangulate to determine the width of the football field, determine a 3D model on deltagraph of the area in front (south) of the flagpole, and west of the flagpole.

Your final will be two-fold: part will be an evaluation of your iWeb portfolio, part will be a written exam with certain skill-set questions. More on this in class. Your iWeb portfolios must contain the following to get a passing project grade:

1. information on the author (you), including your team mates for each project you worked on this semester
2. a semester plan, outlining what you did over the semester, what goals you accomplished, and any tests you think were important
3. a detailed weblog, including background on each video or still photo you include
4. video and still documentation of your projects, including purpose of each video, and your evaluation criteria for each skill-set you were the expert on.
5. a year plan, with the first and second semester outlined, including goals, milestones, deliverables, and evaluation schemes.

See me if you have questions on this.
I'll do my best this week to sit with each of you and complete your evaluations, I think Jordan is next...
See you all in class.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
As you know, your mid quarter grades are due at the end of school tomorrow (Friday 11.6.09).
We'll spend the first part of class going over your mid quarter summation and review.
Here's what I'd like to see in this email, due by the end of the day:

1. What have you done so far this quarter, including your work on the cottages,
2. Your team project, and your qualification tests for your classmates.
3. Links (that I can follow) to your pre lesson videos (these should be different from your how to video), as well as your videos of each person you have instructed.

If you check your online grades (go to physics.hpa.edu) you'll see I've checked out all of your instructional videos-nice work.
You'll also notice that many of you did not turn in your homework assignment on the cottages, or did so late, it's a small thing, but these small things add up.
The biggest hole in everyone's grades are the qualification tests, and it looks like the wood folks have been very busy.
I don't want to get you all into day hall, so let's agree to have at least two of these done by Monday. I'll submit grades based on that.
Your mid quarter report will count as a test as well, which should push most of the posted scores up a bit.

Mid quarter progress reports give you a chance to iron out any missing work before it is too late.

At 11 AM tomorrow, we get to show several board members from the school around the energy lab. I'll discuss this more when we meet, so show up on time, early if you can.

Let me know if you have any questions.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Team,
We meet this week Tuesday, Wednesday (short class) and Friday. Here's the plan:
Tuesday: you should have your pre-teaching video on the server. Here are the steps:
1. take the video, using either the iPods or the laptops
2. open the video in quicktime, select save for web, which will create a folder including an html file. If you are working on a web page for your projects (which I suggest for higher grade), you can copy the text from the windows as indicated. If you want to just leave it as it, email me a link to the html file, which should be inside the folder just created, which will be located inside your Sites folder on the server
3. test your video
4. test your video on a crash test dummy
5. test your video on one of your classmates
Email me a link to your movie before you test it out on helpless victims.

Each of you are capable of making a clear, concise video explaining what your particular skill involves, what you are going to expect from them to qualify, and a set of questions (emailed to you and me before they take the test) as well as a set of questions (emailed as above) after they are schooled by you.

Some notes on your videos:
Christian and Ammar: I know you have been working on GeoCaching. Be sure to include in your how-to video how to use the GPS unit, from turning it on to finding stuff outside. Both of you must work on this. Email me a link to your movie before you test it out on helpless victims.

Michael and Carson: I have a Pelican case filled with HOBO and vernier test units, which I'd like you to include in your video. More on this in class.

Lucas and Grayson: You have so many things to choose from, I'd like you to concentrate on the Phidgets module, how it is used, why it is useful, and a lesson on how to use it.

Nick and Danny: concentrate on your axis camera, including the camera server on the iBoat. I'd like to use your video to send to the folks who supplied the camera server, so they can see how you plan on using it on the iBoat II project. Include screenshots.

Olina, Robbie and Jordan: to keep things safe, I'd suggest doing a video on two things: using the chop saw to create a bench (each "student" can add a piece to the bench) and how to use the router on the edges (which I'll show you Tuesday). I'd stay away from the table saw, as it is the most dangerous piece of student equipment on the campus, by far. Please also make sure you reverse the "groovy table", we'll need smooth tops for our benches. The router is optional, let me know what you think. It makes a hell of a noise, lots of dust, and is dangerous in its own right.

I'd like to begin our qualifications this week, so you can move into your independent projects. Here is a short list of some possible projects you might enjoy:

HEAT team
Infrared camera
wireless networks
surveillance cameras software
control by web interfaces
elab brain
iBoat II: control, video, instrumentation, wireless
network mapping and monitoring
parabolic mirrors
energy monitors
wind turbines
solar thermal project
GIS mapping
GIS integration using JetPhoto
Pumped storage hydro test project
student demos for the lab
netbooks
databases
global footprint project

While you are thinking, check this out:

http://www.thethinkingblog.com/2007/12/diy-wind-generator-for-super-cheap.html

Please also go to this site:
http://physics.hpa.edu/physics/apenvsci/e2_videos/
and look up the design season one, green apple and green for all episodes. Watch these for class discussion. I'll ask you some questions on this in class Wednesday.


Let me know your thoughts. See you Tuesday.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Today, let's meet as small groups after our team summary time.
I'd like to wrap up a set of goals and tasks each of you will have for the others to be qualified in your skillset, then by Friday, I'd like each of your teams to create an online reference, including videos and sample questions for your "students". I'd also like you to setup pre and post questions for each skill.
Finally, about 15 minutes before break, I'd like you to wander up to the cottages to get a reading on the electrical use for your clients. Please email this to me tonight before 9PM for hw credit.
thanks
b

Posted by:

Team,
We meet twice this week: Tuesday and Thursday for a short visit with your parents.
We have several options on our Thursday session: either show them your videos, or take them up to the cottages to give them a tour. Think about your choice on these.
Here is a problem for you I'd like turned in before class on Thursday:
Go to your cottage and look up the model of the Grundfos pump
Look on the website for the pump, and determine the flow rate for the pump
Measure the tank bottom (cool) temperature to the array, and the array return temperature.
If you know the amount of liters per second of water moved through the panel, and the temperature difference, you can determine the amount of watts (joules per second) collected by the array, as well as how many $ you are saving for each panel.
I'd like to do this before we upgrade the systems, to see a nice before/after report.
Let me know if I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Greentech quarter one assessment
10.6.09

This is a large assessment, so take your time and do a good job:

Email the following to me at bill@hpa.edu by Friday morning, so I can include it in your grade for the first quarter:

Describe your goals with the cottage energy project, including a link to your videos describing the issues and how you plan on addressing them. Please be specfic.


You are each part of a special project team. Describe your goals in the team, whom you are working with, what you have accomplished, any links to resources (including your own), and a link to a how-to section in your weblog. This can be a combination of video and written description, but not all of either one. Describe where you would like to take your project concept, beyond teaching your classmates.



List three things you wish you could accomplish in the second quarter of the class, as we move from skills to independent projects.

Q1 assessment grading rubric:

Goals on the cottage project
Link to your videos
Video completion: describe issues, how you will address them

Special Project team:
Describe goals for the team
Team members
What you have done
Links to resources
How to section of your weblog
Where you want to take this concept

Second Quarter:
3 things you'd like to accomplish in second quarter

Posted by:

Please make sure you write an email to your adopted family, copying me. Tuesday, we'll visit your cottages with our computers, to get a basic video of your site, how to operate the greybox (that is actually the name of these devices), and what tips you should include in your video to help your family with their maintenance.
Thursday, we'll look at your videos, and compare tips.
We'll also get back to your team projects, with videos of your progress due Friday at 1500 (that is 3 PM).
Let me know if I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=113135818

Posted by:

Beta group:
Nick, Danny, Olina, Grayson, Mike, Ammar:
computer skills test:
Do the following, and email copies from the terminal to bill@hpa.edu for grade:
1. ping victim machine (10.2.250.107), copy window, explain results
2. traceroute to external host (www.apple.com), same info
3. use top to find a process, kill it, show results
4. sudo and ssh to victim machine, shutdown -r now
5. find test.rtf in shared folder, copy contents to email
6. explain who
7. explain last

alpha group: Rob, Carson, Lucas, Christian, Jordan
Please email answers to these questions to bill@hpa.edu for grading. You may include links to external sites, your videos or weblogs, but please answer in complete sentences as best you can:

CAT5 cables:
What is the color code we have been using, 1-8?
Explain the steps, including a video if you can
How do you test such cables?
What is the maximum length allowed for CAT5 cables?
What sort of cable is used for distances greater than this? Give an example at HPA if you can.

Soldering copper wire:
Explain the steps, including what to do and what not to do to complete a copper wire soldering joint, including videos if you can.
Look up a "cold" solder joint, and explain how to detect and avoid this.
Explain why you always do this work in a well ventilated area.

Wire Welding (including MIG):
Explain the process, including videos if you can.
What safety steps did we take? Explain each and why we did them.
Explain why MIG welding is better, and why it is more expensive.
If we wanted to weld aluminum with our gear, what would we need and why?

Copper Pipe sweating:
Explain the process, including cleaning and prep, and why each step is important. You should include videos.
How can you tell if a joint is good or poor quality?
Why do we use MAPP gas instead of just propane?

Posted by:

Green folks,
This week, I'd like to take it up a notch with the following:
Welding:
Lets test out MIG welding (metal, inert gas) on clean steel, using the gas tank attached to the welder. The metal will have to be clean, but you might be surprised at how it works.
Copper pipe:
Each of you should be checked out on copper pipes, including cutting, cleaning, flux and soldering.
Copper wires:
Each of you should be able to cut wire, strip the wire, twist, apply flux and solder
Computer skills:
A practical test is in order later this week, probably Friday on computer skills and the other things in your cert book.
Check out the list of leet skills in the entry before this one.
Cat5 cable:
This is important, as we will be creating patch cables and connecting RJ-45 jacks in class. More on this in class.

Posted by:

Absolutely nasty:

sudo kill [program id learned from top]
Note: using 'sudo open' over ssh does not give the user super-user privileges for the opened application.
sudo halt
sudo reboot
sudo osascript -e 'tell app "[name of an open program]" to quit'
Power:
sudo osascript -e 'tell app "Finder" to sleep'
sudo osascript -e 'tell app "Finder" to shut down'
General:
sudo open /Applications/iChat.app
sudo osascript -e "set volume 0"
sudo osascript -e "beep"
sudo osascript -e 'display dialog "Did you know that you are annoying?"
buttons "Yes" with icon note'
sudo osascript -e 'tell app "Finder" to quit'
sudo open [path to an application]
Speech:
sudo osascript -e 'say "[whatever]" using "Zarvox"'
sudo osascript -e 'say "Dum dum dum dum dum dum dum he he he ho ho ho fa
lah lah lah lah lah lah fa lah full hoo hoo hoo" using "Cellos"'
iTunes Control:
sudo open /Applications/iTunes.app; sudo osascript -e 'say "Play some music.
Go on. I dare you." using "Zarvox"'
sudo osascript -e 'tell app "iTunes" to stop' -e 'say "Please stop playing
your annoying music" using "Zarvox"'
sudo osascript -e 'tell app "iTunes" to next track' -e 'say "I did not like
that song very much" using "Zarvox"'
sudo osascript -e 'tell app "iTunes" to fast forward' -e 'say "This song is
boring" using "Zarvox"'
sudo osascript -e 'tell app "iTunes" to quit'
Have fun, but not too much fun!

Posted by:

Green folk,
Please bring a new composition book to class on Friday. We'll glue in your cert cards to the front cover, and I'll collect these for grading after each class.
I'll go over what I expect to be in the book each day on Friday.
Please also make sure your weblog is working, you will be responsible for transcribing what is in your notebook to the weblog each class.
Friday, we'll have an evaluation of your weblogs, so make sure they are up to date, as this will be your second graded work.
Let me know if I can help.
aloha
b

Posted by:

Greentech folk:
This is an outline of skills I hope to help you with by the end of next week. Please see me if you have questions.

Computer work:
Repair work: fsck -yf and appleseed
ssh and remote login to shutdown -r now
startup modes, and what each means:
-S single user mode (what it does, how you can use it)
-C cd mode (when is this handy?)
-T target mode (why?)
-N network mode (why?)
-V verbose mode (why?)

terminal commands:
top
last
kill -9
who
pwd
cd
cd ..
mkdir
cat
more
less
ctrl-z
ctrl-c

network commands:
ping
ping -f
traceroute

Here's what I expect from the first quiz. We may repeat this often to make sure you have what it takes:
1. ping victim machine, copy window, explain results
2. traceroute to external host, same info
3. use top to find process, kill it, show results
4. sudo and ssh to victim machine, shutdown -r now
5. find test.rtf in shared folder, copy contents to email
6. explain who
7. explain last

Here are our teams so far, with their mastery field. They will sign you off for each task. See them for the details of each task.
Robbie/Olina-welding: line, join, cut
Carson/Christian-computer repair skills, network and terminal commands
Jordan/Ammar-soldering copper pipe-clean, solder join, test
Lucas/Nick-cat5 cables-make and test a patch cable
Grayson/Mike-soldering copper wire-strip, join, solder, test

Let me know if you have any questions, these skills should be completed and signed in your cert sheet by the end of next week.
aloha
b

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