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    Frog book notes: ch.6 Biomes

    Frog book: biomes
    elephants and biodiversity
    carrying capacity-new term
    biome: climate and plant/animal life
    errors in ch.6-where?
    Fig 6.3

    NPP: biomass after respiration
    (rate which primary producers convert energy to biomass)
    tropical rain forest-canopy (layers)--------
    poor soil nutrient levels (all in trees)

    shallow roots, big leaves, lots of rain
    pitcher plants-eat animals
    epiphytes-grow on other plants (e.g. orchids)
    air roots
    specialized animals
    tropical dry forest——
    deciduous forest: warm, but variable rain (e.g. monsoon)
    autumn leaves-loss to protect plant, changes in photosynthesis
    waxy leaves (e.g. pine needles) if over winter plants
    estivation: hibernation
    migration: birds (why birds and not other animals?)
    savanna——
    very dry, few trees, seasonal grasses, fires
    porous soils (like Kona), often coffee locations (s. america)
    waxy leaves, deep roots
    desert——
    under 25 cm (250 mm) of water per year (10 inches)
    dry dry dry, so dramatic temp variations (opposite of ocean biomes)
    few plants, low nutrient levels in soil
    nocturnal animals (e.g. rats, snakes)
    succulents: store water (e.g. cacti)
    large, shallow roots, also taproots (160 ft. deep)
    temperate rain forest——
    not too warm, not too cold, just right
    rainy, warm, mossy, foresty (e.g. washington, oregon, BC)
    coniferous-have pine cones, conifers: oily needles (don’t freeze)
    lumber
    temperate forest——
    eastern US: oak etc. seasonal loss of leaves
    hibernating animals
    temperate (mild) grassland——
    prairie, steppe (russia)
    moderate rain, but not enough for trees. grass only.
    grass grows from below, so can be eaten by cattle and still live
    roots capture moisture, hold soil together (kikuyu grass)
    chaparral——
    California, mediterranean (middle of the earth, contrast with chinese translation of the word “china”: middle earth kingdom)
    dry, seasonal rain, drought (like now)
    Boreal (north) forest———
    taiga
    acidic soils (from conifers/pine needles as competition)
    very cold
    conifer shape sheds snow, preserves branches (christmas trees)
    when ground freezes, no water for roots, all water stored as sap in trees (oily compound, very sticky, makes retsina in Greece)
    tundra——
    russia, alaska, canada
    very cold-study the climatograph (-220 °C!) right….
    permafrost-permanently frozen ground, so only shallow roots
    polar ice—
    not really a biome, but stuff lives there (aquatic mammals, fish, very small rocks, churches, mud, but no ducks)
    Notothenioids-antifreeze fish
    blubbery mammals
    mountains—
    another non-biome, but look at this!

    how cool is that?

    aquatic ecosystems—
    salinity, depth, standing or flowing water
    salt water = 30-50 ppt (parts per thousand)
    ppt, ppm, ppb
    fresh water = 0.5 ppt
    in between 0.5-30 ppt = brackish (anchialine ponds in Kona)
    study the fishies in the pictures
    DEPTH!!!!
    determines amount of light, tf. photosynthesis
    photic zone=light
    aphotic=no light
    benthic=really no light, never, ever ever. don’t even think about it.
    aquatic mammals must surface for air
    fishies don’t-gills
    DO dissolved oxygen (very important) depends on plants (so depth) and temp (cooler water can hold more O2)
    warm water has low O2 generally.
    best place to fish: cool water after a waterfall (why?)
    flowing water: rivers
    standing water: ponds
    lakes can become inland seas
    littoral=shore, limentic=away from shore benthic=botttom
    wetlands:
    marshes, swamps, bogs and fens
    marshes marshes marshes!-tall grasses
    swamps-some trees
    bogs-acidic, poor decomposition, floating stuff
    fens-spring underneath, less acidic, better nutrients
    bogs decay slowly-ancient cheese story, peat moss
    rivers-oxbow lake and meander
    source, tributary (continuity concept), mouth (delta)
    slope exponential as distance from source
    deposition rates (rapids vs. plains)
    silt carrying capacity, turbidity
    estuaries-like deltas
    tidal estuary: hudson river: deeper than the body it serves
    oceans——
    200 ft. of salt if all oceans evaporated
    oceans were red (iron) then ppt out (iron range in WI, MI)
    salinity, wind and temperature determine flow
    upwelling (recall Peruvian fisherpersons)
    also downwelling
    photic zones-
    intertidal zone-makes sense, between tides
    neritic zone-close to shore, less than 200 ft. deep (not in Hawaii, we have no continental shelf-boo hoo)
    open ocean (pelagic) zone
    kelp forests-e.g. california coast
    coral reefs-away from fresh water, coastal, photic
    open ocean-scary stuff









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GCC AP questions FRQ: 2006.2 2005.3 2005.4 2007.3 ...Falseadmin2013-02-05T02:23:20+00:00adminadmin2012-03-07 05:53:55+00:002012-03-07 05:53:55updated14adminadmin2012-03-07 05:43:38+00:002012-03-07 05:43:38updated13adminadmin2012-03-07 05:41:35+00:002012-03-07 05:41:35updated12adminadmin2012-03-07 05:38:57+00:002012-03-07 05:38:57updated11Added tag - hotadminadmin2012-03-07 05:38:55+00:002012-03-07 05:38:55addTag10adminadmin2012-03-07 05:36:47+00:002012-03-07 05:36:47updated9adminadmin2012-03-07 05:22:26+00:002012-03-07 05:22:26updated8adminadmin2012-03-07 05:20:01+00:002012-03-07 05:20:01updated7adminadmin2012-03-07 05:18:58+00:002012-03-07 05:18:58updated6adminadmin2012-03-07 04:58:55+00:002012-03-07 04:58:55updated5adminadmin2012-03-07 04:57:33+00:002012-03-07 04:57:33updated4adminadmin2012-03-07 04:56:53+00:002012-03-07 04:56:53updated3adminadmin2012-03-07 04:54:20+00:002012-03-07 04:54:20updated2First createdadminadmin2012-03-07 04:53:33+00:002012-03-07 04:53:33created1weblog2012-03-07T05:53:55+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/de030FalseGreen Apple/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/de030/Green_Apple.htmladmin14 updatesGreen Apple Team, Please watch this video about NYC: Trailer: http://www.pbs.org/e2/episodes/101_the_green_apple_trailer.html On the server: http://physics.hpa...Falseadmin2012-03-07T05:53:55+00:00adminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:24+00:002011-09-13 19:08:24updated4Added tag - hotadminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:22+00:002011-09-13 19:08:22addTag3adminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:10+00:002011-09-13 19:08:10updated2First createdadminadmin2011-09-13 19:04:30+00:002011-09-13 19:04:30created1weblog2011-09-13T19:08:24+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/4ecddFalseQuestions for Wednesday, wiki adds/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/4ecdd/Questions_for_Wednesday_wiki_adds.htmladmin4 updatesQuestions for Wednesday, wiki adds Team, I'd like to try something for class tomorrow: each of you to create a question from chapter 3, and email it to me by this evening (Tuesday). 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